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GEOL 104, week 8 notes

by: Rhianna Heide

GEOL 104, week 8 notes GEOL 104-1

Rhianna Heide
GPA 4.0

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These notes cover the different weather interactions in the ocean
Intro Ocean Science
Mr. Scherer
Class Notes
Geology, ocean science
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rhianna Heide on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 104-1 at Northern Illinois University taught by Mr. Scherer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro Ocean Science in Oceanography at Northern Illinois University.

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Date Created: 03/09/16
Ocean- Atmosphere Interactions: Weather Patterns + Phenomena A.Gasses a. Huge volume of gas dissolved in ocean b.Readily exchanged w/ atmosphere c. Ocean dissolves gases, most notable CO 2 i. The atmosphere contains only 0.03% CO 2 ii. Makes up 83%of dissolved gases in ocean d.Biological activity influences dissolved gas concentrations i. Photosynthesis by plants produces O (2hotic zone) ii. Respiration by animals uses O 2nd produces CO 2 iii. Deep ocean water has high CO an2 low O 2 e. Ocean absorbs massive volumes of CO from atmos2here i. Real impact on global climate if excess CO were to be 2 “sequestered” ii. Happens by increasing plant plankton growth iii. “geoengineering” project possible, very expensive + not that effective B.CO an2 Ocean Acidity *pH- concentration of Hydrogen ions a. acidity/alkalinity scale of 1 (most acidic) to 14 (most alkaline) b.pH of 7 is neutral c. pH of seawater is slightly alkaline, ~7.8 d. adding CO cr2ates Carbonic acid, acidifying ocean e. lower pH makes it difficult for corals, forams, and other organisms to make skeletons C.Ocean- Atmosphere a. Clouds form as air rises, expands and cools i. Warm air holds more moisture than cool air b.Warmer in Tropics because: i. Sun rays are direct ii. Rays pass through less atmosphere c. Excess energy in Tropics gets transferred toward poles D.Effect of Heat Capacity on Weather a. Difference in heat capacity of land and sea leads to “pressure gradients” which causes winds i. Ex: onshore/offshore breezes b. Both wind + ocean currents driven by “pressure gradients” c. High pressure center i. Dry and sunny in mid-latitudes (~30⁰-40⁰ lat.) d. Low pressure center i. Wet and stormy in Tropics and high latitudes e. Strong winds where high + low pressure meet i. High pressure flows to low pressure ii. High pressure blows outward + falls from above; low pressure blows inward + rises f. Moist air rises over low- pressure areas i. Equator (0⁰) ii. High latitiudes (60⁰) iii. Both low surface winds g. Dry air sinks over high- pressure areas i. Mid- latitudes (30⁰) ii. Polar regions (90⁰) iii. Both low surface winds E. Winds a. High surface winds in between Trade Winds and Westerlies b. Once moving, winds and currents are influenced by the Coriolis Effect: deflection of objects in motion i. To right in N. hemisphere ii. To left in S. hemisphere iii. “effect” not “force” iv. Due to Earth’s rotation c. CO in2atmosphere is increasing by 0.5% per year (0.039%) i. Nitrogen- 78.1% ii. Oxygen- 20.9% iii. Argon- 0.9% d. Cool air sinks over high pressure centers e. Warm air rises over low pressure centers i. High pressure centers blow clockwise in N. hemisphere ii. Low pressure centers blow counterclockwise in N. hemisphere iii. Opposite in S. hemisphere f. Coriolis is very strong near equator; zero at poles i. Circumference of Earth is larger @ equator; so rotation speed is higher ii. Earth rotates eastward iii. At poles, motion is 0 (spinning in place) iv. At equator, speed= 1,674 km/hr (1,040 mi/hr) F. Weather Phenomena + Coriolis a. Tropical ocean-driven storms: i. Tropical depressions, hurricanes, typhoons, cyclones ii. Major low pressure centers iii. Form over warm seas iv. Winds “collapse inward”  Intensifies pressure gradients  Blow in counter-clockwise direction in N. hemisphere v. Updraft in center (eye) vi. Draws moisture from ocean vii. Greatest wind strength near “eyewall” viii. Start either north or south of (not at) the equator ix. Move toward higher latitudes x. Lose strength after making landfall, or after losing heat *Cyclones- large, low pressure weather events, including hurricanes and typhoons b. Tornadoes and Waterspouts: i. Highly localized, extreme low pressure centers ii. Counter- clockwise flow (N. hemisphere) G.NOAA a. National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration b. Federal agency that: i. Provides weather forecasts ii. Tracks major storms iii. Investigates climate change H.El Nino a. Episodic disruption of ocean-atmosphere system in Tropical Pacific b. Characterized by unusually warm ocean temperatures in Eastern Equatorial Pacific (off Peru) c. Significant consequences for weather and patterns around globe I. La Nina a. Opposite situation than El Nino b. Characterized by unusually cold ocean temps. in eastern Equatorial Pacific c. Cool at Peru (east), warm at Indonesia (west) d. Trade winds blow east to west e. Winds diverge at equator, bringing cold water to surface J. During El Nino a. Trade winds weaken b. Warm, nutrient poor water “backflushes” c. Low pressure center moves eastward K.During La Nina a. Trade winds strengthen b. High pressure center expands L. Causing El Nino a. Failure of trade winds leading to instability within climate/ocean system b. Irregular, ~ every 3-9 years c. Predictable by only a few months d. Poor fishing off Peru


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