HISTORY OF ASIA
HISTORY OF ASIA ASH 3100
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Loren Beier DVM on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASH 3100 at Florida State University taught by Whitney Bendeck in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/205670/ash-3100-florida-state-university in Asian American Studies at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
HISTORY OF ASIA 93010 Islam Arrives in India Three Phases of Muslim Encroachment Muslims equality and social mobility appealing to Indians Chola emp ire strong Navy strong trade relations with Arabs Indias bring Islam to SE Asia Umayyad Caliphate 7 h8 h CE ished a foothold in modernday Southern Pakistan NW India Minimal impact on India Turks from Ghazni 10 h11 h harsh climate Mahmud of Ghazni 9971030 dates of ruling unched two raids to try to determine the Indian strength 989 and 991 Indians can be defeated because they re not united 997 the beginning of 17 successive invasions The quotSword of Islam Devout Muslim One of the most hated Muslim men A Establ B Poor La M Di C Turks fo La ade Ghazni a rich city ed in 1130 Jihad Kanauj Somnath and Jauhar Launching a Jihad gave it legitimacy Kanauj at least 1000 Hindu temples destroyed year 1018 Somnath 1025 Mahmud crushed a staute of Shiva 3050000 killed people fought back Ghaznavid Empire 9971187 India only r Ghor Muhammad Ghori 11871206 unches raid against Ghazni and makes it his own capital Because of its wealth 1187 feII Rajputs go against him they are defeated by 1192 Moves toward Delhi in 1193 DEATH BLOW FOR BUDDHISM surviving Buddhists went North didn t return to India until the 1900s Le ft Delhi in 1200 Assassinated in 1206 by one of his generals QutbudDin Aibak 12061210 udDin of the faith left in charge of Delhi trusted by Ghori more than his own sons Names himself Sultan after Ghori is assassinated HISTORY OF ASIA Manchu China 16441912 Part The Fall of the Ming No more treasure fleet Last 100 years Plagues famines floods financial problems 9 rise of Banditry A Manchus amp Bandits Li Zicheng raided towns and cities took resources and food supplies to the people becomes popular with the people Number of bandits rise Kaifeng tried to enter they refused to let him in he cut the dykes of the Yellow River floods Kaifeng 900000 people died in 1642 1644 Makes it to Beijing Emperor hangs himself end of Ming Dynasty Li Zicheung tried to make himself the new emperor doesn t work elite didn t acknowledge him 9 Wu Sangui Manchus or Bandits Manchus take over Manchuria Manchus from Jurchens established Jin Dynasty cooked Barbarians Standoff at the Great Wall Manchus and Li Zicheung bandits Wu Sangui commander at the Great Wall liked Manchus more than Bandits because they weren t peasants and they had experience ruling Wealthy and land owners keep their things scholars keep status Confucian rule stays only change is that people wear the queue as a sign of submission queue halfshaven head Manchus were let in Early Qing Dynasty China s last dynasty very large Strong effective administration Confucian doctrine Set low taxes brought relief Kept Manchus separate 2 of population Kangxi First major ruler ruled for 60 years responsible for the workable government FIXED taxes on population Problem when population increases Subdued Mongols brings security to the borders China and the West China is the dominant power in the Asian world content with being on their own not interested in trade with Western countries but they do it anyway to expand the tributary system and wanted to help those countries become more civilized A Trade Macao Canton System Cohong 1513 Portuguese arrive in China in Macao Southernmost part of China an uninhabited island Until 1999 Only allowed to trade at Canton China makes the rules for trade with the West Dutch and British arrive to trade British arrive in 1635 become dominant trading partners through the British East India Company Silk porcelain and tea from Chinese British were forced to trade in silver Seen as quotHairy Barbarians 13 Factories Chinese allowed them to build 13 warehouses outside the walls of Canton not allowed to leave without permission not allowed to go INTO the city of Canton only allowed there in the 56 months of the trading season could not bring women arms not allowed to employ Chinese or learn the language Cohong merchant guild quotgobetween between the court and Westerners charges taxes to traders Balance of trade is going toward China because the British only had novelties Tried to sell Indian cotton but they really liked Opium Country Traders Opium initially used as medicine not a drug British start selling to the Chinese and the Chinese begin their drug problem Eventually declared illegal after the government realized its recreational uses British can no longer sell through BEIC so they go through Country Traders CT British merchants who go to Calcutta purchase Opium from BEIC then sell Opium to Chinese smugglers reverses trade 1833 BEIC loses monopoly in trade still exists Lord Napier Sent by British government superintendent of trade travels in 1834 Went directly to Canton told to leave China immediately because he a he didn t have any authority b showed up in a warship c went immediately to Canton didn t have permission to enter d sent letter without going through Cohong Chinese threaten to cut off trade because he broke all the rules quot Chinese society breaks down due to the addiction of Opium Commissioner Lin Zexu Loyal to the court incorruptible Targets the officials who allowed for the smuggling first Went after the foreign merchants surrounds 13 Factories in Canton the men are not allowed to leave and they are given an ultimatum to sign a document stating that they will not bring in Opium to China or they will be given the death penalty and to hand over Opium supplies Destroys 20000 chests of Opium In 1729 200 chests of Opium come in by 1839 40000 come in before being quotquot destroyed British did not agree with the dumping of the Opium because it was British property First Opium War 183942 Not a major war for the British only sent 20000 troops mainly Indians not trying to take over China Incentive is for rights and expansion of trade 1842 Peace terms 1 Treaty of Nanking 1st Unequal Treaty 15 ofannual income Cohong is abolished because British didn t like it Fixed tariff never exceeding 4 5 ports open for trade keeping Canton Hong Kong is in British possession until 1997 French and Americans wanted in French wanted to send missionaries 2 Treaty of the Bogue Result of French and Americans Granted Westerners a Extraterritoriality If a British sailor were to break a Chinese system they would be subject to the system of their own governments getting rid of quotunfairquot punishments b Most Favored Nation status quotWhatever you give them you give usquot British to Chinese later F and A joining B o Westerners weren t allowed into Canton Arrow Incident October 1856 FrenchCatholic missionary went outside of the allowed area was arrested and executed breaking extraterritoriality Arrow Incident Ship with a 12man Chinese crew and a British captain commissioned in Hong Kong ship stopped by Chinese officials arrested the crew claimed the ship should ve been protected by the Treaty of Nanking should ve been considered British incident used as a pretext Second Opium War Arrow War 185660 British and French forces against Chinese Americans and Russians provide non military support many cities are not offlimits Canton is taken in 1858 Chinese military not usually used during the Qing dynasty 1 Treaty of Tianjin 1858 2nd Unequal Treaty Supposed to end the war a 10 more ports open for trade 600 mi up Yangtzao river b Europeans have free travel throughout China with passport c Could travel waters in warships d Opium trade is legalized e Chinese had to allow European governments to f Chinese could no longer call the Europeans quotBarbariansquot Treaty doesn t end the war they were fired upon Convention of Beijing 1860 British and French forces make it to Beijing Convention is signed and brings an end to the war
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