SCI OF NUTR HONORS
SCI OF NUTR HONORS HUN 1201
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Guido Hauck on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HUN 1201 at Florida State University taught by Monica Figueroa in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/205672/hun-1201-florida-state-university in Nutritional Science at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Session 4 Study Guide Chapter 10 1 What are antioxidants and free radicals How to antioxidants battle N free radicals i Antioxidants compounds that protect cells from the damage caused by oxidation ii Free radicals unstable atoms iii Antioxidants stabilize free radicals or oppose oxidation b What are some examples of enzyme systems involved in this process i Antioxidant Vitamins donate their electrons or hydrogen molecules to free radicals to stabilize them and reduce oxidation damage ii Antioxidant minerals act as cofactors within enzyme systems that convert free radicals to less damaging substances that can be excreted What are the functions of vitamin E How do we measure vitamin E and why What are some good sources of vitamin E and how are these sources in uenced What are its toxicity and deficiency symptoms a Functions protects polyunsaturated fatty acids fatty cell components and LDLs from oxidation added to oilbased foods and skincare products to reduce rancidity and spoilage normal nerve and muscle development enhances immune system promotes Vitamin A absorption iflow b Food sources vegetable oils nuts seeds soybeans c Vitamin E is destroyed by oxygen metals UV light and heat d Toxicity nausea intestinal distress and diarrhea can lead to hemorrhagic stroke e Deficiency rare erythrocyte hemolysis rupturing of the red blood cells which leads to anemia loss of muscle coordination and re exes What are some major functions of Vitamin C How does vitamin C in uence Vitamin E What are toxicity and deficiency symptoms for vitamin C a Functions synthesis of collagen prevents scurvy DNA Bile NTs carnitine hormones antioxidant for protecting LDL cholesterol from oxidation lungs from ozone and cigarette damage white blood cells enhances immune function b Regenerates oxidized vitamin E c Toxicity only supplements can lead to toxic doses and megadoses nausea diarrhea nosebleeds and abdominal cramps Deficiency Scurvy bleeding gums loose teeth weakness wounds that fail to heal bone pain and fractures anemia can result high risk for deficiency among people with low fruit and vegetable intake amp alcohol and drug abuse P 4 Vitamins and minerals that act in synergyantagonistically in regards to absorption Chapter 105 1 What are the different classes and functions of phytochemicals and functional foods a Classes of phytochemicals Carotenoids Flavonoids Phenolic acids Phytoestrogens Organosulfur compounds b Functions ofphytochemicals reduce in ammation enhance enzyme activity protect against cancer protect against infections reduce cardiovascular disease c Functional Foods provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition Chapter 11 1 What are the major functions and types of bone N w 1 a Cortical bone compact bone outer surface ofbone b Trabecular bone 9 spongy bone supports cortical bone faster turnover rate c Structure amp support amp acts as a storage reservoir for many minerals Explain the different processes involved in bone development a Bone growth increase in bone size b Bone modeling shaping ofbone c Bone remodeling Recycling ofbone tissue Explain bone density what factors in uence peak bone density a Bone density compactness ofbone b Peak bone density when bones are strongest i In uences for lower peak bone late pubertal age in boys late onset of menstruation in girls inadequate calcium intake low body weight physical inactivity during the pubertal years Explain the functions regulation and sources of the nutrients involved in bone health i Calcium functions provides structure for bones and teeth assists with acidbase balance transmission ofnerve impulses assists in muscle contraction maintains healthy BP initiates blood clotting regulates hormones and enzymes 1 Sources skim milk low fat cheese and non fat yogurt 2 Toxicity hypercalcemia high blood calcium symptoms fatigue appetite loss constipation mental confusion and calcium deposits in the soft tissues Deficiency Osteoporosis or hypocalcemia low blood calcium symptoms muscle spasms and convulsions ii Vitamin D regulates blood calcium levels regulates calcium and phosphorus absorption from the small intestine stimulates osteoclasts when calcium is needed elsewhere in the body required for bone calcification ii iii Sources sunlight ergocalciferol plants amp supplements cholecalciferol animal foods and sun Toxicity hypercalcemia Deficiency rickets or osteomalacia Vitamin K blood coagulation bone metabolism Gla protein production osteocalcin secreted by osetoblasts matrix Gla protein in protein matrix ofbone cartilage blood vessel walls soft tissues 1 Sources synthesized bacteria in the large intestine green leafy veggies vegetable oils 2 Deficiency reduced blood clotting excessive bleeding Phosphorus critical in bone formation required for proper uid balance component of ATP DNA and membranes 1 Sources milk meats eggs 2 Toxicity supplementation causes muscle spasms and convulsions 3 Deficiencies rare in healthy adults can occur in alcohol abuse premature infants ad elderly people with poor diets Magnesium found in bone absorbed on the mineral part of bone cofactor for over 300 enzyme systems required for ATP DNA and proteins supports vitamin D metabolism muscle contraction and blood clotting 1 Sources green leafy veggies whole grains seeds nuts seafood beans 2 Toxicity hypermagnesemia occurs in individuals with impaired kidney function 3 Deficiency Hypomagnesemia results in hypocalcemia associated with osteoporosis heart disease high BP type 2 diabetes 5 Explain osteoporosis what are its characteristics risk factors and treatments a Disease characterized by low bone mass deterioration of bone tissue fragile bones leading to bonefracture risk decreased height shortening and hunching of the spine kyphosis i un un Chapter 12 Risk factors age gender smoking poor nutrition physical inactivity Treatment adequate calcium and vitamin D intake regular exercise medications 9 bisphosphonates parathyroid hormone 1 What are the components of blood 9 Erythrocytes RBC that transport oxygen through the body Leukocytes white BC that are the key to our immune system Platelets cell fragments that assist in blood clotting Plasma uid portion of the blood that maintains adequate blood volume so blood can ow easily throughout the body 2 What nutrients are involved in blood health Explain their sources functions digestion absorption transport storage and regulation of each a Iron un pI 1 ii39 lt v39 vi39 viii unun gtlt b Zinc un un ii39 Sources meat poultry fish clams Functions component of oxygencarrying hemoglobin and myoglobin musclecomponent of cytochromes electron carriers within the metabolic pathways for energy production from carbs fats and protein Digestion Absorption heme iron is most absorbable meat factor can promote iron absorption Transport transferrin is the inrotransport protein in blood ferrous form Storage Ferritin and hemosiderin help meet iron needs Regulation Toxicity accidental iron OD most common cause ofpoisoning deaths in children 9 nausea vomiting and diarrhea hemochromatosis excessive absorption of dietary iron and altered iron storage Deficiency poor dietary intakes iron losses in blood and sweat low stomach acid poor iron absorption Sources red meats some seafood whole grains Functions components of various enzymes maintain structural integrity and shape ofproteins assist in the regulation of gene expression Digestion
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