ORGANIZTNL BEHAVIOR MAN 3240
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kade Labadie on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MAN 3240 at Florida State University taught by Pamela Perrewe in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/205685/man-3240-florida-state-university in Business, management at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Chagter 10 demon rnatrng quot actvon a bane rnodet tep1defme the prootern problemgap between where we are today and where we woutd trte to be tornorrow broad probtern de mtvon reutt m rnore otutron optvoh tep z vdentvfy cntena decmon quot mformatvon h e and help exptam the uttrrnate chovc tep 3 gather and evatuate data emng of mformatvon to better undentand the decmon cottectron and proc context and to ducover p m tutron atternatwe t wt and evatuateatterna we devetoornen of a co ote trt oratternatwe otutron and aernent of each atternatwe uwvgeach crvtervon tep Z teo 5 etect bet atternatwe 39 etectvon of the otutvon that bet atvfve the crvtena teo o nnoternent and foHovtrup 39 t he choen X tutvon mto effect and momtor the rewtt to emure that the otutron na owed the rootern can reutt m a n worootern teo 1 ootnnat demon becaue1we ar em and feed a peoote often rnate atv cmg demon ratner tnan unaote to ootteet and proce att of the mformatvon retevant for a partvcutar d on zwe often drotaya tendency to chooe the nrt atvfactory atternatwe dreovered due and remurce needed to contmue the demon proce the maxvmat demon yvetd the abmtute bet reutt atv cmg decvvonatvfactoryrather tnan optnnat demon a mdvvvduat demon rnatrn decmonrmakmgnyte an mdvvvduat predvpovtvon to decmonrmakmgcan affect the demon proce at z crrtrcat tag degree of acceptable risk the perceiving of information sensingfocused on gathering concrete information directly through the senses with an emphasis on practical and realistic ideas intuitionfocused on developing abstractions and figurative examples for use in decision making with an emphasis on imagination and possibilities intuition is more suited for situations in which a high level of ambiguity exists few or no precedents exist facts are limited facts don39t clearly indicate which way to go time is limited and there is pressure to make the right decision several plausible alternative solutions exist with good arguments for each the judgment of alternatives thinkingfocused on objective evaluation and systematic analysis feelingfocused on subjective evaluation and the emotional reactions of others NOTE both styles have positive effects in order to take advantage of all of these effects those with a thinking style should consult with those with a feeling style and vice versa NOTE an individual39s style for perceiving information does not effect his style for judgment of alternatives and vice versa NOTE an individual can adjust their decisionmaking style according to the situation but usually only to a certain degree risktaking propensitywillingness to take chances individuals with lower risktaking propensities may collect and evaluate more information reference pointa possible level of performance used to evaluate one39s current standing individuals who view their current standing as below their reference point are more likely to take risks cognitive biasesmental shortcuts involving simplified ways of thinking can be harmless and timesaving but often create problems in the decisionmaking process confirmation biasinformation confirming early beliefs and ideas is sought while potentially disconfirming information is not sought easeofrecall biasinformation that is easy to recall from memory is relied upon too much in making a decision anchoring biasthe first piece of information that is encountered about a situation is emphasized too much in making a decision sunkcost biaspast investments of time effort andor money are not treated as sunk costs in deciding on continued investments 0 group decision making individuals can have differing problem definitions expectations predetermined solutions andor views of what needs to be accomplished pitfalls groupthinka situation in which group members maintain or seek consensus at the expense of identifying and debating honest disagreements associated symptoms selfcensorshipmembers who recognize flaws or errors in the group position remain quiet to avoid conflict pressuremembers apply pressure to any members who expresses opinions that threaten group consensus unanimitymembers who remain quiet are thought to be in agreement with the group further discouraging the consideration of other decisions wisdom ignores dangers and takes unwarranted risks mindguardsmembers who attempt to shield the group from any facts that may alter the illusion of unanimity and invulnerability ll tgquot 139 stereotypesmembers develop stereotypes of other people and groups that protect their own position common information biasa bias in which group members overemphasize information held by a majority or the entire group while failing to be mindful of information held by one or a few group members diversitybased infightinga situation in which group members engage in unproductive negative conflict over differing views risky shifta process by which group members collectively make a more risky choice than most or all of the individuals would have made working alone techniques brainstorminga process in which a large number of ideas are generated while evaluation of the ideas is suspended basic features imagination is encouraged using or building on others39 ideas is encouraged no criticism of any idea is permitted evaluation of ideas is postponed until the group can39t think of any more ideas techniques to overcome pitfalls brainwritingmembers stop at various points in a group meeting and write down all of their ideas which are then divulged by a chosen individual introduces anonymity so individuals are less inhibited electronic brainstorming EBSmembers enter their ideas into a private computer and the ideas are then shown on a group screen also introduces anonymity but allows individuals to build off of the ideas of others nominal group techniquea process for group decision making in which discussion is structured and the final solution is decided by silent vote at the outset individuals seated around a table write down their ideas silently and without discussion each member presents one idea to the group then a second etc until all ideas are presented no discussion is permitted after the ideas have been recorded for group viewing they are discussed a silent and independent vote or ranking is conducted to determine the best solution Delphi techniquea highly structured decisionmaking process in which participants are surveyed regarding their opinions or best judgments does not require participants to be physically present members are asked to fill out a questionnaire and then receive feedback about the group39s questionnaire results then are asked to fill out the questionnaire again etc dialectical inquirya technique that relies on a critique of assumptions and recommended action in order to encourage debate two subgroups develop two different assumptions and recommendations in order to encourage full discussion of ideas devil39s advocacya technique that relies on a critique of assumptions and recommended action in order to encourage debate requires the development of only one set of assumptions and recommendations which are then disputed by the advocates 0 individual v group decision making associate involvement in managerial decisions VroomYetton method the manager diagnoses the problem situation then determines the extent to which associates will be involved based on the quality of the decision the acceptance or commitment subordinates exhibit when implementing the decision the amount of time needed to make the decision range of involvement Amanager solves the problem alone using the information to which he has current access Amanager requests information but may not explain the problem to associates the associates39 role in the process is to provide specific information not to generate or evaluate alternatives Cmanager explains the problem to the relevant associates one by one requesting their input without discussing the problem as a group then makes the decision alone it is unclear whether the decision reflect the associates39 inputs Cmanager explains the problem to associates as a group and obtains their ideas and suggestions then makes the decision alone the associates39 inputs may or may not be reflected in the manager39s decision Gmanager explains the problem to the associates in a group setting they work together to generate and evaluate alternatives and agree on a solution the manager acts as a facilitator guiding the discussion focusing on the problem and ensuring that the important issues are examined the manager does not force the group to accept her solution and will accept and implement a solution supported by the group 7 diagnostic questions Is there a quality requirement such that one solution is likely to be more rational than another Is it worth working hard to find the best possible solution or will any number of solutions work reasonably well Do I have sufficient information to make a highquality decision Is the problem structured Do know the duetron to ak andmhere to look for reteyant rnrormatron7 t acceptance of the decmon by aocrate cntrcat to effecLue L n7 make the decmon by myetr rt 1 reaonabty certam that rtwoutd be accepted by myaocrate7 e the orgamzauon goal to be attamed m otymg tnr probtem7 t con ch amongaocrate Ukelym preferred otutron7 A mean a Decision poinls Recommended strategies orrndryrduat y group decmon makmg Lyme group Lake tonger to reach a decmon many ocrat need are met by the group Le greetrng etc value becaue39 more vdea and opmvon are netd by the group arrangement for the group meetmg ptace format and aembty ade vf trme I an rmportant conrderatron manager may etect to make the decmon at ne of mvmvze arrangement Ume ue a majorvty ecmon rule rather than requrrrngunanrrnrty ue the nomrnat group techmdue to reduce tengthy drcuron Lyme 39 COXL group decmon makmg cot more than rndryrduat decmon makmg ey NOTE due motty to the ears trme redurred trmcxmon nature of the probtem t requvre many drfferent type of rnput tend to be om lt robtem tna otyed more errectryety m group 5 a 8 3 0 rnyotyement tead to greater mdmduat aufacuon and commvtment to the nnat otutron peronat growt pamcvpauon m group decmon I an rdeat opportumty for rndryrduat to acquvre decmonrmakmg wt and therefore advan Lhevr c reer Chapter 11 groups and teams 0 O grouptwo or more interdependent individuals who influence one another through social interactions informal groupspontaneously formed by people who share interests values or identities identity groupbased on the social identities of members can be formed amongst teams teamtwo or more people with roles that require them to be interdependent who operate within a larger social system the organization performing tasks relevant to the organization39s mission with consequences that affect others inside and outside the organization and who have membership that is identifiable to those on the team and those not on the team formal groupmembers are formally assigned virtual teamsmembers work together but are separated by time distance or organizational structure can be less effective than actual teams because trust is slower to develop members rely on communication channels that are less rich than faceto face communication it is more difficult behavioral norms it is easier for some members to become free riders managing virtual teams develop a team charter that describes everyone39s roles the decision making process and the goals of the team project provide reports on how the whole project is progressing set up communication rules such as blackout times when everyone is not available and acceptable time periods for responding to other inquiries and requests humanize everyone on the team by sharing pictures and personal information handle all serious conflicts facetoface call for as much facetoface communication as possible reward positive team behavior and celebrate team successes functional teams production teamsgroups of associates who product tangible products service teamsgroups of associates who engage in repeated transactions with customers management teamsgroups of seniorlevel managers who coordinate the activities of their respective units project teamsgroups of associates often from different functional areas or organizational units who temporarily serve as teams to complete a specific project advisory teamsgroups of associates formed to advise the organization on certain issues selfmanaging teamshave considerable autonomy and control over their work are usually responsible for completing a whole piece of work or an entire project benefits more satisfaction on the part of the workers lower turnover and absenteeism increased productivity team effective based on O ness higherquality work knowledge criteriathe degree to which the team continually increases in performance capabilities mental modelthe shared knowledge and understanding among members team lea rningthe ability of the team as a whole to learn over time affective criteriathe degree to which the team members have a fulfilling and satisfying team experience the t O O affective tonethe general emotional state of the team outcome criteriathe quantity and quality of the team39s output the extent to which eam39s output is acceptable to clients synergy an effect wherein the total output of a team is greater than the combined outputs of individual members working alone viability ability to Does the if in Do team if so rath the ability of the team to remain functioning as long as needed adapt is the team needed diagnostic checklist Katzenbach project really require collective work tegration is unnecessary it will only add additional burdens members lead various aspects of the project then it may be more efficient to assign specific duties to individuals er than make the team responsible for all the duties Do people on the team hold one another accountable mut ual accountability signals greater commitment to the team factors affecting team effectiveness process losstime and energy that team members spend on maintaining the team as opposed to working on the task team compositionaddresses who ae members of the team and what human resources they bring to the team demographic and value diversity effe personali I emo I I cts depend on type of taskdiversity has the best effects when the team39s tasks require innovation and creativity outcomediversity may have a positive effect on performance but a negative effect on members39 reactions to the team and subsequent behaviors such as turnover timediversity can have negative effects in the short run but positive effects in the long run type of diversityif members are diverse on factors that lead them to have different performance goals or levels of commitment to the team or to form subgroups diversity can have a negative effect on performance ty agreeableness tional stability conscientiousness teamlevel extraversion openness to experience team orientationthe extent to which an individual works well with others wants to contribute to team performance and enjoys being on a team size 2 theories the relationship between team size and team performance is shaped like an inverted U as teams become larger the diversity is greater leading to improved performance as the number of members increases the greater the need for cooperation and coordination leading to decreased performance team size and team performance have a linear relationship results when a team avoids the problems associated with too many members team structurerefers to the usual means of coordinating formal team efforts team member roles roleseXpectations shared by group members about who is to perform what types of tasks and under what conditions leadership roles task rolesroles that require behaviors aimed at achieving the team39s performance goals and tasks socioemotional rolesroles that require behaviors that support the social aspects of the organization normsrules or standards that regulate the team39s behavior task structure divisible taskstasks that can be separated into subcomponents unitary taskstasks that cannot be divided and must be performed by an individual maximization taskstasks with a quantity goal optimization taskstasks with a quality goal additive taskstasks in which individual inputs are simply added together compensatory taskstasks in which members39 individual performances are averaged together to arrive at the team39s overall performance disjunctive taskstasks in which teams must work together to develop a single agreeupon solution conjunctive taskstasks in which all members must perform their individual tasks to arrive at the team39s overall performance team processesthe behaviors that influence the effectiveness of teams cohesion interpersonal cohesionteam members39 liking or attraction to other team members task cohesionteam members39 attraction and commitment to the tasks and goals of the team conflict personal conflictresults when team members simply do not like each leads to higher group performance other substantive conflictresults when a team member disagrees with another39s taskrelated ideas or analysis of the team39s problem or plans procedural conflictresults when team members disagree about policies and procedures NOTE conflict can have positive consequences for teams by creating greater cohesion and increasing creativity and innovation social facilitation effectimprovement in individual performance when others are present social loafinga phenomenon wherein people put forth less effort when they work in teams than when they work alone occurs because associates can get away with poor performance because their individual outputs are not identifiable associates expect their team members to load and therefore reduce their own efforts to establish an equitable division of labor associates may feel dispensable and that their own contributions will not matter management methods make individual contributions visible use smaller teams use an evaluation system appoint someone to monitor and oversee everyone39s contributions foster team cohesiveness provide teamlevel rewards train members in teamwork select quotteam playersquot to be on the team communication formal informal team development stage model Tuckman formingassociates come to teams with expectations about what they want in and from the team focus is on getting to know each other defining what they want to accomplish and determining how they are going to accomplish it stormingmarked by conflict among team members focus is on resolving conflicts and reaching agreements on performance outcomes and processes 3 normingestablishment of rules procedures and norms for team behavior and roles team members cooperate with each other and become more cohesive 4 performingmembers are committed to the team and generally more satisfied with the team experience focus is on task performance 5 adjourningwhen individuals begin to leave the team and terminate their regular contact with other team members team can become less cohesive and less structured until is no longer exists unless new members replace the members who have left in which case the group development process is likely to begin again NOTE teams do not have to go through all 5 stages 0 punctuated equilibrium model PEMsuggests that group formation depends on the task at hand and the deadlines for that task first stagenorming activities focus on socioemotional roles punctuationthe deadline for the team39s work approaches causing a dramatic change in functioning second stageperforming activities focus on task roles managing for effective teams 0 top management support explicit vision and strategic plan that serves the basis for determining desirable team outcomes use resultoriented measurement of outcomes and expect all leaders in the organization to do the same actively include associates at all levels in the decisionmaking process make an explicit decision about using teams and tie the decision to business objectives actively manage and review support systems for teams support systems technologyteams must have access to the technology needs to do their work information systemsteams must have the necessary information to act too little will result in poor outcomes too much can result in overload selection of team members tailor the staffing process to the type of team conduct a teamwork analysis consider political issues carefully consider who is to do the assessment of potential team members39 knowledge skills and abilities and who will decide whom to select training goalsetting skills interpersonal skillscommunication supportiveness trust problemsolving skillsidentification of problems generation of solutions and evaluation of solutions roleclarification skillsarticulation of role requirements and responsibilities rewardsteam rewards leadership team liaisonconnecting the team to the outside world acting as a representative for the team direction settingdevelopment of shortterm action strategies based on the longterm organizational strategies developed by the top management team operational coordinatormanagement of the team39s work and processes Chapter 12 conflictthe process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party 0 type 0 CBUS dysfunctional conflictconflict that is detrimental to organizational goals and objectives functional conflictconflict that is beneficial to organizational goals and objectives s of conflict personal conflictconflict that arises out of personal differences between people such as differing goals values or personalities substantive conflictconflict that involves work content and goals procedural conflictconflict that arises over responsibilities and how work should be completed es of conflict structural factors increased specialization specialized units frequently view issues from different perspectives interdependency competition for limited resources ie each department receives a new computer but the company technician must hook each one up individually competition for the technician39s time ensues physical layout virtual teams are more likely to suffer from poor communication associates commonly work in small crowded cubicles that do not allow for privacy resulting in a stressful type of interdependency centralization v decentralization centralized authority lessens conflict between units because all units are more likely to have common goals set by a common a decisionmaker creates conflict between individual units and the decisionmaking unit because individuals have less control over their own work situations decentralized authority lessens conflict between supervisors and subordinates because individuals have more control over their work creates conflict between units because decisions made by one unit may conflict with decisions made by another specialization communication poor communication can lead to misunderstandings and allow barriers to be erected leading to conflict too little communication makes coordination difficult and misunderstandings more likely to occur too much communication can also result in misunderstandings cognitive factors differing expectations perceptions of the other party individual characteristics personality the Type A personality trait has been linked to increased conflict because Type A personalities are more competitive they are more likely to view others as having competing goals dispositional trust those low in trust are less likely to cooperate with others and less likely to try to find mutually beneficial solutions those high in trust are more likely to concede to another party during conflict differences in personality can facilitate conflict value differences cultural differences exist in how they view conflict Western cultures see conflict as inevitable and sometimes beneficial Asian cultures see conflict as bad and something that should be avoided these differences are most likely to get in the way of conflict resolution when one party has a higher need for closure than the other goals individuals with competing or contrary goals often engage in conflict differences in goals can result in structural characteristics specialization and interdependency history past performance individuals often perceive negative feedback as a threat and as a result become more rigid and communicate less creating task conflict and relationship conflict previous interactions individuals who have experiences conflict in the past are more likely to experiences it in the future parties often engage in the same conflict inducing behaviors parties likely distrust each other parties may expect conflict creating a selffulfilling prophecy this also applies to negotiators o conflict escalation and outcomes conflict escalationthe process whereby a conflict grows increasingly worse over time characterized by increasingly severe tactics growing number of issues deeper involvement in conflict by parties reasons for conflict escalation cultural differences parties have a history of antagonism parties have insecure selfimages status differences between the parties are uncertain parties have strong ties to each other parties do not identify with one another one or both parties have the goal of escalating the conflict in order to beat the other party 5 conflict outcomes loseloseneither party gets what was initially desired winloseone party39s concerns are satisfied whereas the other party39s concerns are not losewinone party39s concerns are satisfied whereas the other party39s concerns are not can be unavoidable when dealing with scarce resources 4 compromiseboth parties give up something in order to receive something else 5 winwinboth parties get what they want 5 responses to conflict assertivenessthe extent to which a party tries to satisfy his own concerns cooperativenessthe extent to which a party attempts to satisfy the other party39s concerns High Competing Cullabnrating w in a c a g compromising 339 vi v lt cnmmndating Law Cooperativeness Hi gh a competingwattemptmg tovnn at tne aperim of tne otner party uerui ninen quick deciive action i required ninen an unpopuiar coure of action rnut be taken ornnen tne otner party vnii take advantage of no competitive behavior a accommodatingwforgoingyour own concern o tnat tne concern of tne otner party can be met uerui ninen a arty beiieve ne cannot win ornnen tne iue i ie important to one party than t e other 3 avoidingr negiecting botn your own concern and tnoe of tne otner party u ui ninen emotion are nign or a a mean of deiaying deciion untii effective oiution can be oun 4 cornprorniingtrying to partiaiiy meet botn your own concern and tnoe of tne other part uerui ninen tne partie are of reiativeiy eduai povver ninen temporary ettiement to complex prob e preure and a a backup ninen co a 5 coiiaboratingwatternpting to quymeeL tne concern of botn part uerui ninen botn partie concern are too important to igno tne ODJSCUVe i to learn and to gain commitment r ie re and when p agree on a oiution arbitratorwa tnird partyvntn tne autnority to require an agreement mediatorwa tnird partvao facilitate a poitive oiution to the negotiation but vino na no autnority a trategie ditributive bargain anotn r party Win convince tne otner tnat breaking off negotiation vvouid be cotiy for tne rer otner or or you convince tne otner tnat you feet very committed to reacning your target ingwone party goai are in direct con ict vntn tne goai of ioe outcome prevent tne otner from makings nrrn commitment to an outcome cioe to the other tar et aiiovvtne otner to abandon ni poition vntnout io offace or otner cot convince tne otner tnatyour own target outcome i rair convince the other that their target outcome is unfair convince the other that important third parties favor your own target outcome use nonhostile humor to build positive affect distract the other to impair the other s ability to concentrate integrative bargainingthe nature of the problem permits a solution that is attractive to parties winwin tactics show the other that their concerns are important to you show the other that your target outcome is too important to compromise show the other that a winwin outcome is a possibility demonstrate that you are flexible with respect to various solutions insist on fair criteria for deciding among possible solutions make collaborative norms salient minimize use of behaviors or tactics that would cause negative emotions provide an emotionally supportive climate shield the other from emotional distractions NOTE sometimes what appears to be a distributive situation can be turned into an integrative strategy by broadening the issues under consideration attitudinal structuringactivities aimed at influencing the attitudes and relationships of the negotiating parties tactics use similar language disassociate oneself from others not liked by the opponent reward opponent s behavior express appreciation remind opponent of role obligations assist opponent in working through negative attitudes return favors fight the antagonism not the antagonist associate oneself with others the opponent likes O negotiation process 1 A preparationeach party outlines the specific goals he hopes to achieve BATNABest Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement the least that the negotiator is willing to accept self and opponent analysis What is the opponent39s position and power Does the opponent have to confer with others to make concessions What does the opponent consider a quotwinquot What is the history of the opponent39s negotiating style Does he or she tend to focus on distributive strategies or rely on integrative strategies determining the negotiation processdetermine the timeline place and structure of the negotiations agreements about confidentiality the sharing of information how agreements will be approved and who will be present negotiating the agreementthe actual negotiation takes place negotiation strategies and tactics are chosen and employed closing the dealboth parties articulate the conclusion of the negotiations and the particulars of the final agreement final agreements should be formalized and it should be made clear what each party39s responsibility is in implementing the agreement powerthe ability to achieve the desired outcomes the ability of one person to get another person to do something that he would not normally do persuasion is often the exercise of power 0 bases of individual power legitimate powerpower derived from position formal authority narrow in scope because it can be applied only to acts that are defined as legitimate by everyone involved reward powerpower resulting from the ability to provide others with desired outcomes limited by the person39s actual ability to supply desired outcomes can come from formal or informal sources coercive powerpower resulting from the ability to punish other usually considered a negative form of power and should therefore be limited can come from formal or informal sources expert powerpower resulting from special or technical knowledge limited by the degree to which this expertise is irreplaceable referent powerpower resulting from others39 desire to identify with the referent the most resilient type of power can be used to influence a wide range of behaviors NOTE power bases are NOT mutually exclusive 0 strategic contingencies model of powera model holding that people and organizational units gain power by being able to address the major problems and issues faced by the organization individuals or units may obtain power by identifying the strategic contingencies faced by an organization and gaining control over them strategic contingency power comes from dependencywhen someone has something that another person wants or needs and is in control of the desired resource uncertaintycreates threats for organizations anyone who can help reduce uncertainty will gain power being irreplaceable controlling the decision processsetting parameters on the types of solutions that are acceptable or controlling the range of alternatives to be considered organizational politicsbehavior that is directed toward furthering one39s own selfinterests without concern for the interests or wellbeing of others goal is to exert influence on others 0 levels individualan associate who uses politics to suit his best interests coalition groupa group whose members act together to actively pursue a common interest 0 political tactics upward political influenceinfluence aimed at those in a superior position lateral political influenceinfluence aimed at those in the same hierarchical level downward political influenceinfluence aimed at those is an inferior position rational persuasionusing logical arguments or factual information to persuade targets that the persuader39s request will result in beneficial outcomes consultationgetting the target to participate in the planning or execution of whatever the politician wants accomplished ie a CEO who wants to implement a specific strategy consults associates at every relevant organizational level to gain their support
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