ORGANIZTNL BEHAVIOR MAN 3240
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kade Labadie on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MAN 3240 at Florida State University taught by Pamela Perrewe in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/205685/man-3240-florida-state-university in Business, management at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Chapter 6 motivationforces coming from within a person that account for the willful direction intensity and persistence of the person39s efforts toward achieving specific goals where achievement is not due solely to ability or to environmental factors 0 performance f motivation X performance environmental factors also affect performance motivation theory 0 content theories of motivation Maslow39s hierarchy of needs theorysuggests that people are motivated by their desire to satisfy specific needs and that needs are arranged in a hierarchy with lowerlevel needs needing to be met before higher needs 5 levels physiological needsbasis survival needs these needs must be substantially met before people are concerned with other needs safety needsindividuals39 needs to be safe and secure in their environment social and belongingness needsinteraction and acceptance by other people esteem needsfeelings of selfrespect and selfworth along with respect and esteem from peers selfactualization needsdesires to fulfill potential maximizing the use of skills and abilities each need is prepotent over all higherlevel needs until it has been satisfied therefore a satisfied need is no longer a motivator NOTE research tends to disagree with this theory and prepotency NOTE it is difficult to apply this theory in practice because of the congruency of levels ie someone who wants to be popular can be trying to achieve social or esteem needs Alderfer39s ERG theorysuggests people are motivated by three hierarchically ordered types of needs 3 needs existence needsphysiological and safety needs relatedness needssocial and belongingness needs growth needsesteem and selfactualization needs prepotency is not fixed a person may work on all three needs at the same time although satisfying lower order needs often takes place before a person is strongly motivated by higher level needs a need may never cease to be a motivator frustration regression process McClelland39s need theory 3 needs need for achievementthe need to perform well against a standard of excellence people with a high need for achievement prefer to set their own goals tend to set goals of moderate difficulty that are achievable like to solve problems rather than leave the results to chance prefer situations in which they receive regular concrete feedback are positive thinkers who find workable solutions to life39s hurdles and challenges assume strong personal responsibility for their work need for affiliationthe need to be liked and to stay on good terms with most other people people with a high need for affiliation tend to be poor managers are more concerned with initiating and maintaining personal relationships than with focusing on the task at hand 3 need for powerthe desire to influence people and events a institutional powerdirected toward the good of the organization people with a high need for institutional power want to influence others for altruistic reasons are concerned about the functioning of the organization and have a desire to serve others are more controlled in their exercise of power b personal powerdirected toward the self people with a high need for personal power desire to influence others for their own personal gains are more impulsive in exercising power show little concern for others are focused on obtaining symbols of prestige and status Herzberg39s twofactor theorysuggests job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposite ends of the same continuum but are independent states and that different factors affect satisfaction and dissatisfaction 2 sets of rewards or outcomes 1 motivatorsjob factors that can influence job satisfaction but not job dissatisfaction achievement recognition responsibility opportunity for advancement challenging work potential for personal growth hygienesjob factors that can influence job dissatisfaction but not job satisfaction 39 Pay technical supervision working conditions company policies administration and procedures interpersonal relationships with peers supervisors and subordinates status security NOTE the presence of motivators does not decrease job dissatisfaction as hygienes do not increase job satisfaction NOTE generally not supported by research but is still used by managers for its simplicity process theories of motivation expectancy theorysuggests motivation is a function of an individual39s expectancy instrumentality and the valences of outcomes MF E x X x V MF motivational force E expectancythe subjective probability that a given amount of effort will lead to a particular level of performance I instrumentalityperceived connections between performance and outcomes V valancevalue associated with an outcome under this theory in order to increase motivation heighten expectancy by increasing associates39 beliefs that strong effort will lead to higher levels of performance increase instrumentalities by clearly linking high performance to outcomes increase valence by providing outcomes that are highly valued equity theorysuggests motivation is based on a person39s assessment of the ratio of outcomes she receives for inputs on the job compared to the same ratio for a comparison other my outcomes vs other39s outcomes my inputs other39s inputs reactions to inequity senstitivesindividuals who pay a great deal of attentions to incomeoutcome ratios and are motivated to resolve any inequity benevolentsindividuals who are tolerant of unfavorable inequity but are uncomfortable with inequity that favors them entitledsindividuals who do not tolerate unfavorable inequity but are comfortable with favorable inequity goalsetting theory depe empl nding on the individual39s reaction to inequity an oyee may react to an equity by increasing or decreasing inputs ie effort changing outcomes ie ask for a raise distorting perceptions of inputs and outputs distorting perceptions of inputs and outputs of the referent other changing the referent other leaving the organization perceptions of inequity distri butive justicethe degree to which people think outcomes are fair procedural justicethe degree to which people think the procedures used to determine outcomes are fair usually based on voice in the decision process consistent application of procedures perceived bias in procedures accuracy of information grievance procedures ethical code respect reasons for decisions suggests challenging and specific goals increase human performance because they affect attention effort and persi stence goal diffic ultygoals should be as difficult as possible without being unattainable goal speci vague goa ficityspecific goals lead to better motivation than do ls goal commitmentgoals that are deemed 1 desirable and 2 attainable increase motivation facto facto rs influencing desirability the goal is set by an appropriate authority figure the goal fosters a sense of selfachievement and potential for development the goal is set by someone who is trustworthy the goal is set by someone who is supportive and promotes selfefficacy peers are committed to the goals the goal assigner provides a rationale for the goal the goal provides a challenge to prove oneself and meets ego needs the goal is public rs influencing perceived attainability there is high selfefficacy on the task there are successful role models the task is not impossibly difficult expectancy for success is high there is competition with others participation in setting goalsgenerally motivation is higher when there is participation is goal setting feedbackfeedback has a positive effect on performance and motivation motivation practices 0 find meaningful individual rewards by tailoring individual rewards to individual needs and desire companies can better motivate associates rewards can be tailored by position in the company ie senior manager middle manager associate relying too heavily on extrinsic rewards can cause people to lose any natural interest they have in performing their jobs 0 tie rewards to performance selfassessments and peer assessments help managers who cannot directly measure or evaluate the contributions of associates managers often have little flexibility in applying extrinsic rewards so use of intrinsic and creative rewards is crucial O redesign jobs to make them more intrinsically meaningful job enlargementadding tasks that are similar in complexity to increase variety and use of skills quothorizontal job loadingquot effects may be temporary because they do not offer more challenges or opportunities for growth job enrichmentincreasing responsibility quotvertical job loadingquot involves giving associates greater control of their work expanded job duties and greater decision power NOTE consistent with highinvolvement management motivating potential score MP5 3 psychological states feeling of work39s meaningfulness feeling of responsibility for the work done knowledge of results of personal performance on the job affected by important job characteristics skill varietythe degree to which associates utilize a broad array of skills in doing their jobs task identitythe extent to which job performance result an in identifiable piece of work task significancethe extent to which a job has an impact on the organization autonomythe associate has the independence to schedule his own work and influence the procedures with which it is carried out feedback MP5 skill variety task identity task significance X autonomy X feedback 3 0 provide feedback most effective when provided in conjunction with goals are repeated and provided at regular intervals contain information about how associates can improve come from a credible source focus on performance not the person 0 clarify expectations and goals serves as a motivation tool and align individual motives with organizational goals management by objectives MBOthroughout the organization individuals meet with their managers to agree on expectations for the upcoming time period Chapter 7 stressa feeling of tension that occurs when a person perceives that a situation is about to exceed his ability to cope and consequently could endanger his well being 0 types of stress job stressthe feeling that one39s capabilities resources or needs do not match the demands or requirements of the job job straina function of workplace demands and the control an individual has in meeting those demands acute stressa shortterm stress reaction to an immediate threat chronic stressa longterm stress reaction resulting from ongoing situations eustressa positive stress that results from facing challenges and difficulties with the expectation of achievement dystressnegative stress 0 stress responsean unconditioned mobilization of energy resources that occurs when the body encounters a stressor signs of stress irritability sleeping difficulties depression disturbed appetite relationship problems 0 workplace stress models demandcontrol modelsuggests experienced stress is a function of both job demands and job control workplace demandsaspects of the work environment that job holders must handle controlwthe ltLent towncn rndwrduat are aote to or percewe Lhevr abvhty to affect tne tate of Job dernand and to tne amount of oontrot tney have m rnakrng decmon about tnerrwork Hi h Aclive 9 EusmE 55 Job Control High Demands effortareward Imbalance modelugget that y tne ongomg motatron of tne pnncrpte of recrprocr nrgn effort tead to nrgn reward reutt m Lrong negatwe emotvon effortaarelated to the performance demand and ophgatvon of the Job rewardegtlttrmmc and rntrrnrc outcome ofwork people rna chooe to my m ucn vtuauon due to hmvted opportumue m tne taoor rnarket nope for cnange m tne vtuauon excewe workrrelated overcomrmtment drwen by achvevement mouvauon and approval mouvauon Ovemnm m um em m nemanas Obligations treorenvronmental condmon tnat caue rndwrduat to expervence tre rote con vctwa vtuauon m Mnrcn dvfferent rote lead to con vcung expectauon rote ambvguvtywa vtuauon m Mnrcn goat expectatron andor parc Job requvrement are unclear work overto d quanutauvewtoo rnucn work work I too cornptex quamauve occupauo n remurce madequacywnot havmg enough remurce to get a Job done working conditions physical surroundingsie lighting temperature noise etc psychological aspectsie peer relationships perceived awards etc management style has a significant aspect on psychological climate monitoring job insecurity 0 individual influences on experiencing stress personality type A personalitycharacterized by competiveness aggressiveness and impatience more susceptible to stressinduced illness because they create more stressors on their own are more likely to appraise any given event as a stressor type B personalitycharacterized by reasonableness and more laid back patient attitudes selfesteem people with high selfesteem experience greater wellbeing are more resistant to the effects of stressors are more likely to engage in active coping behaviors NOTE people with high selfesteem are more likely to gain control over stressful situations and decrease the amount of stress they experience hardinessa personality dimension corresponding to a strong internal commitment to activities an internal locus of control and challenge seeking people high in hardiness experience less severe negative stress reactions are more likely to develop active coping strategies are more likely to perceive that they have control gender women and men cope with stress differently women prefer social support and exhibit rumination thinking over the situation women experience a greater variety of workplace stressors women are more likely to be lowerpaid discriminated against and stereotyped working in service industries 0 consequences and management of stress individual consequences psychological anxiety physi depression low selfesteem sleeplessness frustration family problems burnouta condition of physical or emotional exhaustion generally brought about by stress lack of enthusiasm fatigue increased isolation behavioral excessive smoking substance abuse alcoholics and drug users are less productive use 3x as many sick days produce more safety hazards are more likely to file for worker39s compensation are more absent accident proneness appetite disorders violence ological high blood pressure muscle tension headaches ulcers skin diseases impaired immune systems musculoskeletal disorders ie back problems serious ailments ie heart disorder cancer obesity management finding jobs that provide a personally acceptable balance between demands and control and between efforts and rewards redefining dysfunctional jobs develop healthy ways of coping regular exercise endurance strength flexibility proper diet promotes energy alertness and overall wellbeing limit fat intake and consume a reasonable amount of fiber and calcium socialsupport networks organizational emotional social supporttalking about problems instrumental social supportbeing offered suggestions and provided resources relaxation techniques developing and using planning skills being realistic avoiding unnecessary competition consequences results from the cumulative effects of individual consequences of stress costs of job stress to the American industry can be estimated at 200 billion per year due to absenteeism diminished productivity compensation claims health insurance direct medical expenses management increase individuals39 autonomy and control ensure that individuals are compensated properly maintain job demandsrequirements at healthy levels ensure that associates have adequate skills and resources increase associate involvement in decision making improve physical working conditions provide for job security and career development provide healthy work schedules improve communication quottoxin handlersquotpeople who take it upon themselves to handle the pain and stressors that are part of everyday life in organizations read your own and others39 emotional cues and understand their impact ie when you show signs of anger the response is usually defensiveness or hostility keep people connected by encouraging intimacy and fun empathize with those who are in pain act to alleviate the suffering of others mobilize people to deal with their pain and get their lives back on track create an environment where compassionate behavior toward others is encouraged and rewarded wellness programsworkplace programs that are designed to developmaintain a healthy and productive workforce health screening health advice risk management programs Chapter 8 smoking cessation weight control exercise leadershipthe process of providing general direction and influencing individuals or groups to achieve goals leadership theories leaders can formal or informal effective leaders create and communicate a vision of what the organization should be communicate with and gain the support or multiple constituencies persist in the desired direction even under bad conditions create the appropriate culture and obtain the desired result 0 trait theory of leadershipsuggests that certain traits help make people effective leaders Early research describes physical characteristics personality characteristics and abilities that are associated with leadership However this research has been criticized due to the poor methodology used to identify the traits the meaningless long list of traits the inconsistent results and the fact that no leadership trait was found to relate consistently to unit or organizational performance and different situations seemed to require different traits New research has demonstrated that leaders usually are difference from other people but it is now believed that many leadership traits can be learnedpeople are not simply born with them Also to be a successful leader a person must take actions necessary for strong leadership important leadership traits drivethe amount of ambition persistence tenacity and initiative that people possess leadership motivationa person39s desire to lead influence others assume responsibility and gain power socialized power motivationthe use of power to achieve goals that are in the organization39s best interests personalized power motivationthe desire for power solely for the sake of having power over others integrityhonesty maintaining consistency between what is said and what is done selfconfidencelearn from mistakes react positively to stress and remain eventempered and display appropriate emotions cognitive abilitya high degree of intelligence aids in the processing of complex information and dealing with changing environments knowedge of the domamwaHovxX leader to make better decvvon anucvpate future promern and undemand the en need and vaxue follow Vmonary que and aennee Lhevr own permnal mterem for the good of the rmonal me Jobrcentered leadermvp Lylew Lhod ued to aeeornphn h doe upervmon of amocvate behave m a punmve manner toward amocvate employeercentered leadermvp Lyleemphavze employee penonal need and the development ofmterpermnal relauonmvp delegauon of decmonrmakmgpower and rewormbmty to CL er encouragement 0 came a behavvoral Lheorve of leadermvp onerdvm empnamze employee mk and the em fmterpermnal commumcatvon to prowde a uppomve envvronment Wordvmenmonal Lyle High G C JOIxCemarm Style Low H gh convderauonwdemonnrated by leader We expre frvendhvp develo ual run and repect and have Lrong mterpermnal relatvonmvp vmth Lhoe bemgl offerupportue employ rucvpauon m decmon rated by leader We etabhh Well denned pattern of orgamzatvon and commumcauon denne procedure and dehneate Lhevr relatvonmvp m Lhoe bemgled emphamze go and deadnne emure that employee are amvgned Lam and knowwhat performance 1 ltpected from ed ee vdea and anew employee L em a conungencytheorve of leadermvp conungency theory of teaderhrp effecuveneugget the effectyvenem of a teader depend on the rnteractron of y tyte of behawor vmth certam charactemuc of the VLUEUOH teader tyte tyle v deterrmned by the relatwe vrnportance of rnotwatvonal need vnLerpermnalrrelauomhvp need Lamrachvevement nee to meamre anch need 1 tronget the eteern for the teaxta preferred coworker LPC p aeed If leader demnbe Lhevr lea ppreferred corworker m negauve Lerm they obtam a ow LPC core kro d d ff teader demnbe therr teaatapreferred corworker m pomtwe terrn they obtam a hvgh LPC core relauonmvpronentedleader vtuauonalfavorablenem dvfferent vtuau on determme a teader teyet of controt and therefore therr aprhty to m uence event favorablenem v aee y leaderrmember relauonyrthe degree tomhr ch a teader v repected I accepted a a teader and ha fnendty 0 e o vrnportant charactemuc E o o ader can reward punvh prornote or dernote rndryrduat w the orgamzauon teaderahrp effecuvenem the corretatron between LPC core and group perforrnance m fayorapte and unfayorapte vtuauon p negauve performance r hlgh when LPC r low the correlation between LPC core and group performance in ltuatlon oflnterrnedlate favorablene r portrve performance r hlgh when LPC r rgh leader rnay react dlffererltly accordlng to the rtuatron pathrgoal leaderhrp theoryrrwggem that leader ettectrvene depend on the degree touhrch a leader enhance the performance expectancre and valence of hr ubordrnate baed on expectancy concept of motivation leader behavior dll ectlve leadermlprrcharacterlzed by rrnplernentrng guldellne provrdlnglnformatlon on at i expected ettlng dennrte performance tandard and enunng rndrvrdual follow rule upportrve leadermlprrcharacterlzed by rnendlrne and concern for lndlvldual wellrbelng welfare and need achrevern onen d leadermlprrcharacterlzed by ettlng challenging goal and eeklng to lmprove performance partlclpatlve leadermlprrcharacterlzed by arlng lnformatlon conultrngvnth thoe are led and ernpharzrng group decrron maklng ltuatlonal factor ubordrnate characterlmcyrle need locu of control ex e ence ab ty charactentrc of the work envlronmentrrle tax tructure rnterperonal relatron role con lct role clanty leaderhrp ettectrvene Effec ve Leader Behaviors Subofdinate Chalicten csofihe Characteristics Work Environment Participarive External locus or control Directive High need forariiliation Supportive High need for security Directive Structured task Supportive strengths Unstructured task Directi VB High gromh need Colquotpl ex task Participativel Achievement oriented Lowprowth need Compl ex task Directive High growth need Simplerask Supportive Lowgmwlh need Simplerask Supportive O NOTE effectiveness is enhanced in situations that allow leaders to affect expectancy and valance assigning individuals to tasks for which goal attainment is personally valuable valence supporting employees39 efforts to achieve task goals effortgt performance expectancy tying extrinsic rewards to accomplishment of task goals performancegtreward instrumentality transactionaltransformational leadership transactional leadershipa leadership approach that is based on the exchange relationship between followers and leaders the degree to which leaders provide what followers in response to good performance characteristics of transactional leaders understand what followers want from their work and attempt to deliver these rewards if deserved consistently monitor performance contingent reward behavior clarify the links between performance and rewards exchange rewards and promises of rewards for specified performance active managementbyexception only respond to interest of followers if performance is satisfactory punish when standards are not met transformational leadershipa leadership approach that involves motivating followers to do more than expected to continuously develop and grow to increase selfconfidence and to place the interests of the organization before their own characteristics of transformational leaders charismathe ability to inspire emotion and passion in his followers and to cause them to identify with the leader displays confidence goes beyond selfinterest communicates and lives up to organizational values draws attention to the purpose of the organization or mission speaks optimistically and enthusiastically intellectual stimulationthe ability to increase the followers39 focus on problems and to develop new ways of addressing them reexamine assumptions seek out different views try to be innovative individual considerationsupporting and developing followers so that they become selfconfident and desire to improve their performance provide individualized attention to followers focus on followers39 strengths act as teachers and coaches laissezfaire passiveavoidant leadershipand approach to leadership that is the opposite of transformational leadership not proactive react only to failures or chronic problems avoid making decisions absent or uninvolved in followers39 activities typically do not have positive outcomes NOTE leaders can be trained to exhibit transformational behaviors leaders can display both transformational and transactional qualities and both transformational and transactional leadership can be positive NOTE overall an integration for transformational and transactional leadership approaches seems to provide the most effective leadership strategy additional topics leadermember exchange LMXa model of leadership focused on leaders developing more positive relationships with some individuals and having more positive exchanges with these individuals 0 O O O ingroupindividuals who have positive relationships with the leader they experience LMX that is characterized by mutual trust mutual support and provision of substantial materials outgroupindividuals who have a less positive relationship with the leader they experience LMX that is characterized by more formality less respect lack of mutual support and fewer opportunities for growth authentic leadershipa leadership approach in which leaders quotownquot their thoughts emotions and beliefs and act according to their true selves characterized by genuineness trustworthiness and honesty servant leadershipa leadership approach that is focused on serving others gender effects on leadership structuralcultural modela model holding that because women often experience lack of power lack of respect and certain stereotypical expectations they develop leadership styles different from those of men socialization modela model proposing that all leaders in a particular organization will display similar leadership styles because all have been selected and socialized by the same organization regardless of gender global differences in leadership 4 clusters that call for different leadership styles Anglo cluster Australia Canada England Ireland New Zealand South Africa white sample and United States ideal characteristics chammatvc rnrtuence and vhpvratvoh encourage par vcvpatvoh d plomatvc detegatvoh of authorvty Arabvc duter E gypt Morocco Kuwavt Qatar and Turkey rdeat charactemtvc batance orparadoxrcat expectatvoh chammatvc powermt and dvrectvoh of decmoh and actvoh YET uhdvfferehtvated from other and modem 3 German ctUXter Amtrva Germany the Nethertahd and Svmtzertahd vdeat charactemtvc ch m c partvcvpatvve cohceptuahze retatvohhvp m a teamrhke fahvoh 4 Southern Ana ctUXter h dva hdohema h39ah Matayma thhppme and Thavtahd eat charactemtvc humh partvcvpatvve I chammatvc b enevotentmme mavhtavhvhg a trohg pomtvoh of autnonty Chagter 9 muhvcatvoh procem corn tworvvay commuhvcatvohwcommuhvcatvoh that vhdude feedback and the exchange of vhformatvoh between two o more partve communicationthe sharing of information between two or more people to achieve a common understanding about an object or situation encodingthe process whereby a sender translates the information he wishes to send in a message communication medium communication channelthe manner is which a message is conveyed decodingthe process whereby a receiver perceives a send message and interprets its meaning feedbackthe process whereby a receiver encodes the message received and send it back to the original sender O oneway communicationcommunication that does not include feedback organizational communication 0 communication networkspatterns of communication formal and informal centralized communication networkeach network member only communicates with a few other members promote efficiency speed and accuracy decentralized communication networkmany people can communicate with other people more effective for complex tasks 0 direction of organizational communication downward communicationflows from supervisor to subordinate ie job instructions information on organizational policies performance feedback information about organizational goals and changes upward communicationflows from subordinate to supervisor ie grievance procedures departmental meetings quotopendoorquot policies suggestion boxes attitude surveys participation in discussions exit interviews necessary to monitor the effectiveness of decisions provide information maintain associate morale ensure jobs are being done properly difficult to implement horizontal communicationtakes place between associates at the same level ie meetings written memos informal interpersonal communication quotboundaryspanning positionsquotintegrated positions used to facilitate horizontal communications between units 360degree feedbackperformance appraisals from peers subordinates and supervisors interpersonal communicationdirect verbal or nonverbal interaction between two or more active participants formal communicationfollows the formal structure of the organization and communicates organizationally sanctioned information information communicationinvolves spontaneous interactions between two or more people outside the formal organizational structure rumorsunsubstantiated information of universal interest gossipinformation that is presumed to be factual and communicated in private or intimate settings can reduce associates39 focus on work ruin reputations create stress or lead to legal problems 0 communication media richnessthe amount of information a medium can convey depends on the availability of feedback the use of multiple cues the use of effective language the extent to which the communication has a personal focus mediums from richest to least rich facetoface telephone electronic messaging personal written text formal written text formal numerical text factors influencing type of media equivocalnessthe degree to which a message can be interpreted in multiple ways if a message is more equivocal use a richer medium organizational norms communication technology allows organizations to communicate more quickly across any distance and to collaborate more effectively then ever before allows organizations to communicate to new and varied audiences blogs 0 nonverbal communicationcommunication that takes place without using language three categories body languageie facial expressions the use of hands arms and legs posture paralanguagehow something is said ie tone and pitch of voice silence gesturessigns used to convey specific meaning ie shrugging provides feedback and information about the person39s attitude and emotional or mental state nonverbal communication is a quotleaky behaviorquot people generally cannot control it can reveal is someone is lying communication barriers o organizational barriers information overloadthe burden of having more information than one can process
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