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by: Dolly Nitzsche


Dolly Nitzsche
GPA 3.6

Nancy Rogers

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Nancy Rogers
Class Notes
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dolly Nitzsche on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUT 1111 at Florida State University taught by Nancy Rogers in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/205688/mut-1111-florida-state-university in Music Ed & Music Therapy at Florida State University.

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Date Created: 09/17/15
Mm mum Mm mo pm umynnm gsummniz hm n m upennmcmthe mnge dxatnmcpmdnmmam Ahnu dther nvepvngreiimmedme ytnvandnntmnv tnamakevpmdnmmam mohai anm hmcnmmnninnhemnxctn ead amwm mexupemmcjmheware m parawimh and mm mm um um chard hm nn he mm m e m u m m m greaumaumm dangevnunfmddenpavaHekandaknxmpmwxmexnund CnnlrarymmmnMhenmevvmcemheMu ahhnugh nn necexxaw Hacmgammevmedmechmd Wn nmah vv hetmemhetnmcanatheiupennmcawxdxthe m mmmn 3 Mm v L m he nWHhedummatheupennmcmxnwntnthednmmam very 232W nntmnnnnhvdemendxng hawuml eepvnduceavlrv mngxemer vvn 7233mm mm 2332 imcmmgthe memngwycnmmnn u 7w Mm mm m 7 ivy mammax mvtn avamach a cadence Mmhevwwcnmmnn1Wnimmmnnnmxhvdexcendmgwm Becauxemadxmhnxemmxarea mm 3mm mm cummnmm Such pmgressmn are re ahvz vmmwe m M oquot Mvc mun warm 3 www luxmga mreev hemn mmmnnpmrdnmmamchnn m upennmcchnr nccmiavmnm r emnhmx mm m hammnmvnsmnn meammmmkevu mm m m mmmmnn mm a a genera pvmmphmm mm M nund m mntvnxmnn mmmma mad Theu chnniwankandamawmnnmmvhkem Vchnvd hmhhaw1mmhahmhcnmam man uppevwmeand hum pmgvesxm v m mm Mavens mm vnu are much 23 hke ywme parak imh mm mg u hecaue u hare a cnmmnmnne mm Vlmherea Ndne my Wmummmmpnsmnnmmmanumummm When mm ymwnnanuhhng9mm MAMethvdhsmNcnmmnn Dnuhhnghh hMmuchnrd egard exxninmn Sum cnmmnn pmmmmcnvpnmmm ufennmcmad are gm he nw mm m m mmnvkev vnu hnu davmdwmnganaugmenmdxecnnd nm H Akanmmuhanmwwmuam was gm hexnpvann mm wmng a u chard anu reanymm am We mexnamymnmze n m vmaa mmnnmm man 3 wwunuma Bmhemmp ehe nwcnmamevmuipanmmgemm Nancema heundewah eaugmentedxecnndmv en axxncmed m nmevmmzkei wayauex mam m mm g and athca dnuhhng mm mm m mm m Music Theory MUT 1111 Prof Nancy Rogers The Tonic Chord I or i The rootposition tonic triad serves as the most stable structure in tonal music Although it is important as a point of departure phrases often begin on the tonic which can progress to any other chord the tonic s most critical role is a point ofarrival compositions rarely end on any chord other than a rootposition tonic The tonic is like a kind of home base and its gravitylike pull can be felt long before the tonic is actually heard lnverting the tonic weakens it considerably Although a l6 chord is still able to resolve harmonic tension for instance a sense that a leadingtone in the soprano needed to proceed to it is unlikely to sound like a stable resting point Thus I6 chords are unlikely to appear at the ends ofphrases but they are common within phrases where a sense of forward motion is desirable When the tonic is in root position it is unusual to double any chord member other than the root lfthe triad is incomplete missing a fifth then normally the root is tripled However when the chord is in rst inversion sometimes the fth is doubled especially if the fifth is in the soprano The third is rarely doubled in a functional tonic chord Poor doubling often leads to serious voiceleading errors such as parallel octaves so be careful to consider this as you partwrite In a minor key ofcourse the tonic is minor This does not undermine its stability in any way However there is a longstanding tradition ofending minor compositions with a major tonic triad This use ofthe major tonic in an otherwise minor key is known as the Picardy third It does not affect our overall sense of mode The Dominant Chord V Although the tonic is the most stable chord in tonal music the dominant is arguably the most important chord because it is the dominant that actually enables us to locate the tonic When we sense the tonic it is usually because we detect the presence of the leadingtone and we can hear the leadingtone pulling us toward the tonic Chords that lead back to the tonic are often described as having a dominant function The name dominant is used because V is the strongest and most important member ofthis harmonic category Given that the dominant function arises from the pull of to 1 it is clear that a functional dominant chord must contain a leadingtone rather than a subtonic Thus you can expect that V will be major in both major and minor keys Although minor v chords do occur in minor keys they are unusual and inherently non functional Don t forget to raise in minor keys Always resolve the leadingtone to the tonic when it occurs in an outervoice lfthe leadingtone appears in an inner voice you may decide not to resolve it if doing so would lead to an incomplete chord although there is nothing wrong with omitting the fifth ofa root position chord Paradoxically despite the fact that V gravitates so strongly towards it also serves well as a temporary resting point the half cadence discussed later A phrase whose harmonic goal is the dominant makes us expect to hear another phrase whose harmonic goal is the tonic A longer passage leading to a dominant may serve as an introduction leading us to expect an important musical beginning perhaps a new theme or the return of the main theme or the entrance ofa soloist etc Often such a dominant will be greatly expanded increasing the listener s sense ofanticipation lnverting the dominant weakens it considerably although it never loses its pull toward the tonic V6 works well in the middle ofa phrase but only rootposition V is suitable for a strong cadence When the dominant is in root position it is unusual to double any chord member other than the root However when the chord is in first inversion sometimes the fifth is doubled especially if the fifth is in the soprano Do not double the third because the third is the leadingtone and we neverwant to double unstable notes The Subdominant Chord IV or iv The subdominant is one of many chords that leads to the dominant and is therefore often described as having a predominant function Because the motion from a predominant to a dominant to a tonic forms the strongest possible progression in tonal music it is very likely to occur at a strong cadence In fact it is difficult to create a suitably conclusive feeling without using a predominant such as IV lfthe predominant to dominant to tonic motion is used in the middle of a phrase either the dominant or the tonic possibly both is likely to be inverted in order to avoid an unwanted cadential effect For this reason many phrases do not contain a predominant until the cadence The subdominant is most commonly found in root position although the first inversion also produces a pleasant effect In major keys IV6 sounds somewhat weak and is therefore unlikely to lead to a cadential dominant However in minor keys the motion from iv6 to V sounds much stronger because of the halfstep pull in the bass from 8 to g and may therefore occur even at strong cadences There are voiceleading hazards associated with any lVV progression regardless of the inversions used The greatest dangers are parallel fifths and parallel octaves Contrary motion in the outer voices will greatly reduce the risk of making such an error but careful proofreading is always appropriate One must exercise particular care in resolving the subdominant to the dominant in minor keys because an augmented second can be produced between 8 and 9 To avoid this error keep in mind that normally resolves down to 5 and 9 is approached by 1 instead This voiceleading pattern applies to major keys as well even though the augmented second is not a problem If for some reason it is very important for a single voice to move from E to in a minor key then it will be necessary to use a major subdominant IV rather than iv othenivise iv is much more typical in minor keys When the subdominant is in root position it is unusual to double any chord member other than the root However when the chord is in rst inversion any doubling is possible The best choice of doubling depends on where the chord is leading lf IV6 progresses to a rootposition V then doubling the fth of IV6 is probably best On the other hand if IV6 progresses to V5 then doubling the third of IV6 may be better Notice that rootposition IV is very unlikely to progress to V6 because this would necessitate a tritone leap in the bass If N6 simply changes inversion to IV before progressing then doubling the root is probably a good idea Cadence Types involving I IV andor V The two most important cadences in tonal music are the authentic cadence and the halfcadence An authentic cadence is a dominanttonic motion at the end of a phrase When the cadence is especially strong involving rootposition V resolving to rootposition l with 1 in the soprano it is described as a perfect authentic cadence often abbreviated PAC If the chords involved are not rootposition V and l or more likely if the soprano ends on 3 or perhaps g it is described as an imperfect authentic cadence often abbreviated IAC Notice that when the soprano descends in an authentic cadence it will be necessary either to use an incomplete chord ie omit the fifth or to invoke the socalled leadingtone drop 9 in an inner voice The half cadence is simply a cadential motion to V As described earlier a halfcadence is only a temporary resting point and a phrase whose harmonic goal is the dominant makes us expect to hear another phrase whose harmonic goal is the tonic that is a phrase ending with an authentic cadence When the dominant of the halfcadence is approached by a halfstep descent in the bass to g in a minor key it is often described as a Phrygian cadence Although not required by de nition Phrygian cadences are almost always harmonized as MW and 235 is the most typical soprano line Don t forget to double the fifth ofthe iv6 chord or there will be voiceleading problems The plagal cadence sometimes informally described as an amen cadence is a motion from lVl Because this cadence is nonfunctional ie the IV chord does not fulfill its normal role as a predominant chord it almost always follows an authentic cadence Expect one voice very often the soprano to maintain 391 as a common tone while the two remaining upper voices resolve from 8 to g and 2 to 3 The bass leaps either up or down from 2 to 391 do not use inverted chords in a plagal cadence EXAMPLES All comm mm m Im u summmmmmmm dumb edvnnt anummgwmwawmxeap haxxandnpvannuevmceemhangeaxthunmcchangexmwmnn mnnvbapacmmth ha mexnecexxawhecauxednuhhngfmhm NVmuMcreatexmcer eadmgpmh emgax pmmxxedtn mm mm m nutevvmce cnmhmed Wm gm dnuhhng make NVeaivm mm andMhpe edamhemccadence au mmmmnn chnnkhav mm mm mm mm m amenmos henmen v and vi mnhmnui vpnwh e n m anumumma m N hum mm caMu ahn cnu d aka m mam an n We cnmrarvmmmn mm whenmo and m mpe edamhennccaden Maugham mm 2 2 make WWW and mm mm Mm mum Mm mo pm umynnm gsummniz hm n m upennmcmthe mnge dxatnmcpmdnmmam Ahnu dther nvepvngreiimmedme ytnvandnntmnv tnamakevpmdnmmam mohai anm hmcnmmnninnhemnxctn ead amwm mexupemmcjmheware m parawimh and mm mm um um chard hm nn he mm m e m u m m m greaumaumm dangevnunfmddenpavaHekandaknxmpmwxmexnund CnnlrarymmmnMhenmevvmcemheMu ahhnugh nn necexxaw Hacmgammevmedmechmd Wn nmah vv hetmemhetnmcanatheiupennmcawxdxthe m mmmn Becauxe n mn he am 3an ma mm he nw he dummam he upennmc mmmm mm 232W nmmnunnhyamn mmmgwuwugeepmaucesawry nngiemempvngnwnmnmn 232 imcmmgthe memngwycnmmnn M iv Hum mmam m 7H iv v awmca mvtn avamach a cadence Mmhevv cnmmnn mm mnnnmxhvdexcendmgthm anmmmmmmm a ma 3mm mm cummnmm Such pmgressmn are re ahvz vmmwe m M oquot MVcnmmnn warm 3 7 my nru b4an BMW M mmmmmnn pmdnmmam was We upennmcchnr nccmiavmnm r emnhmx mm m hammnmvnsmnn naeeammmmkevu mm m m mmmmnn mm a a genera pvmmpbym mm M nund m mntvnxmnn mmmma mad Theu chnninmmumandamawmnnmmvhkem Vchnvd hmhhav mehehaisjmhcnmam 2manunpevvmceandhmhpmmmnv The hwggeanncemhahnum much eke vMepavaHe MMwhenuxmgu becauxeuhaveacnmmnnmnewnhvlmhevea vdnexnm Wmummmmpnsmnnmmmanumummm When mmnymmnmnummgenmmmmmmhm MAMethvdhsmNcnmmnn Dnuhhng39 elmMmuchurni wan emninnmmnnxvlrvunuma snmecnmmnnpmgmn mcnvpnralmgtheufennmcmad are mmon Nvmcematmmmnvkw vnu hnu davmdwmnganaugmenmdxecnnd nm 5M Mnnnumhammvervunuxuaunpwace gmmexnpmnn mm wmng a u chard anu reanymm am We mexnamymnmze n m vmaa Bmhemmp ehe nwcnmamwnuipanmmgemm macawmmmmkemmweammnmmmhe anpmacmvmm shave Lamumme mmnmnmmmpwmn m appmacmvmm hm undewah eaugmentedecnndmn wvvnduced Nsnnhsemtha he augmentedecnndmnhnamncmed mm mm mm gm 33mm mum and pnnmnummw WWW m quotmm me Submeaiem Ehuld M In VI The uhmedxamchmdiunmnn 33 makpmdnmmam A mn vmca M x eadmgimmmunmc n a we Dyerdnmmam W a Menu The cnmmnn tune emeen me uhmedxam and 3H mmeie em aHman mnmhandeaivwm eamng LeapmgmatwmahndrepeatednnmxrevznM012anan immam auieahvm n nvdevm e veva 32m rManuani mmmn m pMeHn mavevmm makm m ma m pvngmx immthetnmcm me anmmam The mhmeman hem we pmgresse mu enhenn va mm H mm n due nntnrdman ylnHmMhem Cnmmnnharm e meymemaemmmmmnhyaeeeemmmmLegmeueven and m mum hvdexcendm mm Le g m 7 N4 aeeauee n ma pmdnmmamM ean pvngmx mama meme 3 much 23 cnmmnn We ImcHeadmg x unuxua vhazamnu upwan a mmmkew necemnaungcnmmwmw mm tenmes a Wednmma Be nware nme emmp exnignnd hamnmcpmgremnn mcnmnraungthe uhmedxamchnv Vnu hnu d m Mevhackm me new mmunm upennmc emu m mn vmca Lam mnmhei m 22nd Mn vhymv en a lmngevwerdnmmam at 3mm dxmdmnhnn m m pnmh e m Nance m m mn cwcum ance x hemn anumeme mm mm uhmedxam andthatm umumke advantage th2 cnmmnntnne me neeemiue ceaenee Becauxethe uhmedxamchnm 3mm tummyth mn mpnnan nne Girl 91 neamnunwa anmmam M churduh1nmmg mum er The e ednhm reinhmnn x 3 me m 2X02 emehm Mesa m heanhe uhmedxam The mnnnnimm vem we m m mmnn ememnye aeeenhea aweeem When 2an nccur 313 pm where We exp 1 an amhermc cadence n muea a decemwz cadence When 2mm mum and 3H mhevpvngmsmn mm mm mm Mew he a eanparaHeHmh and 3 ii Below are two good examples e and f and one bad example g ofa deceptive motion Notice that it is normal to double the third of the submediant when it follows V because it is important to resolve the leadingtone Parallel fths and octaves e D V Vi f d V VI 9 D V Vi After a deceptive cadence it is typical to progress to a strong predominant just as one might from any submediant and lead into an authentic cadence This is illustrated in example h All h D 1 WWW ii6 V Vi ii6 V3 3 1 Because the submediant is a relatively weak chord it is almost invariably used in root position When placed in rst inversion vie it sounds very much like a tonic triad with a wrong note and tends to lose its sense of function The Mediant Chord iii or III The mediant chord is the least used ofthe seven standard diatonic chords it is more common in minor keys than it is in major keys The mediant chord functions as a very weak predominant so weak that it almost always leads to stronger predominant chords rarely progressing directly to V One of its most important uses is to harmonize 9 as it descends in the melody If ascended to 391 of course we could simply harmonize it with some kind of dominant chord and resolve to the tonic There are two typical ways to progress from a mediant chord either by root motion of descending fifths eg iii vi ii V or by bass motion of ascending steps eg iii IV V or iii ii6 V The circleoffifths option is quite easy to partwrite and should cause no problems The rising bass option presents a risk of forbidden parallels but writing the outer voices in contrary motion usually prevents serious voiceleading errors In those relatively rare cases where the mediant progresses directly to V the dominant is almost always in a weak inversion Below are several examples of good harmonic progressions incorporating the mediant chord Notice that it is almost invariably best to double the root and that we usually take advantage ofthe common tones ll a D 1 iii IV V b d i 111 m6 V i c d i 111 VI m6 V i Because it is a relatively weak chord the mediant is almost invariably used in root position When placed in rst inversion iii5 it sounds very much like a dominant triad with a nonharmonic tone Indeed should you come across a chord that looks like in consider the possibility that it is really V especially if it resolves to the tonic It is under these circumstances that we are most likely to find the rare lll in minor keys except that again this chord is almost surely a dominant with a nonharmonic tone why else would it include a leadingtone m ludinwhn Ehuld1uii7 BMvavvnatuvemeadmwnnemademhnmnmeunuma chavadevmc mm mmmm numb mm becauxe n munmem weaammm ran mherem vumah mm mm m a mn ahEVS mm mmnummm ecauxe mmhenn vchnv mm 2 thamcnmnnamwmhmhnhhemhevchn member Secnndthe weaammmmaa 3 mayan m mm mm hecaueaa geneva m vm mm M nundr mnt mm Wman Hacmgme m mmmmhedmad Newth ma mn mvanah vuxed Mm mm mm regime an was dxmnnance becauxe each uppevvmce Wu he cnnmnam mm 3 a mum chard Wm mmmmnn mm mmnny m We mm m a pm huhnapvvnpnmeinva mg 3 mm mm mm wammmmm and IXdMev hynn ynne m hmhkemnlaH an a metncaHyvmak m1 and n mmvma mm quotname an Wm mange Be nware evua mm nlgnnd hamman pmmmmcnvpnmmm eadmg39mnemad 52mm 3 emnmratzxthechnni39xmn mausemmWmmmmmnmumnmmaa 5mm demnn mtzithe mam 33 makdnmmam memmng vmmnm mm ma cm mm mm m examp e mm can m ncmvhewmmvm dennca menuauymucan mama Thimbmnhndexcnhedaxa hexghhnnngshawhecauxethepa emmvn vuvnme 3 2p awavand new hack am mum examp e ddemnn mexa mu vmcr eadmg cnncem axxncmed m w 2 Winn theahna a g g a g E a re and cnmpnievi end n avmd m and Man cnmpnxer mm mm Jam m mm m a tame ad than me d rPS mums cwcum ance anuna39z v vnu dnn t haw tn make m chum hwan 3 mm Mm m eadJ e mm m avmded ean 1 m 39 quot39quotquotquotquotquot quot W im TL39JEFTJ quot The Subtonic Chord VII In minor keys the two distinct forms of in minor keys produce two distinct triads the leadingtone is the root ofa diminished triad vii whereas the subtonic is the root ofa major triad VII These two triads could not be more different because they exhibit exactly the same tendencies as their respective roots the leadingtone chord pulls toward the tonic while the subtonic chord pulls away from the tonic The most likely resolution ofVll is lll because in the key of III that is the relative major Vll would be the dominant For instance the Vll chord in A minor is a Gmajor triad and the III chord in A minor is a Cmajor triad The expected Vll lll motion in A minor is identical to the typical V l resolution in C major In fact this harmonic motion is so strong and so familiar that it is easy to modulate to the relative major sometimes even unintentionally simply by using a subtonic chord and resolving it correctly lfwe keep this fact in mind the doubling principle is easy to understand do not double the third ofthe Vll chord because it acts like a leading tone When Vll is in root position it is best to double the root when Vll is in first inversion doubling either the root or the fth is acceptable Notice that doubling the root ofVll is not doubling the leadingtone it is doubling the subtonic Vll6 will also resolve to lll just as V6 resolves to l Although partwriting the resolution ofVll is usually easy approaching Vll can be dif cult The chord that appears immediately before Vll is usually the tonic and stepwise root motion carries with it an inherent danger ofparallel fifths and octaves as we have seen before with l ii and IV V for instance Contrary motion in the outer voices makes the partwriting significantly easier when both chords are in root position but you should always proofread especially carefully around i Vll progressions The example below illustrates some problems to avoid Parallel octaves and parallel tune in lunc quot quot quotm 39 vuiw Jr r fths with bass uylallu quot and quot quot39 39 All 141 ll a b i VII 111 i VII 111 i VII 111 i VII6 III Examples bd illustrate good partwriting incorporating the subtonic triad Observe in example b that all chords containing the leadingtone Fll resolve to the tonic whereas all chords containing the subtonic Flt do not The subtonic marks our first serious departure from the tonic notice how the end of tonic expansion makes the III chord sound like an important harmonic event Contrary motion in the outervoices makes the i Vll progression in this example easy to partwrite iiilliliiili b g i j vii06 i6 V6 i VII 111 m6 V i iv 1 Enmp e c and a mam uhtnmcmad mmmnn HmMmmmn mm whenmm lmmch vmuM m been mmm a rVHpmgremmn mm mm mg vxr Vnu hnu d he espemauycmm mm WENmo dnuhhngthetnmc mmhecauem Wm ma mn xuvetnh a lhievhackm warm 3 n Wu damquot mmmmw 2 mm m amnrnmen mud p g xvu m w v64 a g 1 mm V m6 v mum AHWmaHVvexnhzxtn m mhevmwmnmam mm k mm m examp e e mmeume vu mm mmmmmmnvny M2pmgresxmmxmn hke vtnhe mm Bavnquemumc Ma mum immVHr Mm pmmmmmcea menemtn exams PM cadence mm mm m examp ehl 3 aka pmmumvum mm mm vi nv mhch Wu mum ead nthetnmc m mau Mach mmnmc mamnn becauxeme pmgmnn mvwvvmak


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