MONTE CARLO METHODS
MONTE CARLO METHODS CIS 5930
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This 42 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Rahul Wuckert on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CIS 5930 at Florida State University taught by Feifei Li in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see /class/205696/cis-5930-florida-state-university in Comm Sciences and Disorders at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Research Tools Slides Based on wwwcssemonasheduausoftwareIateXL aTeXtute2005ppt Agenda 9 LaTex o Representing Experimental Results in EPS Figures 9 Producing General EPS Figures for Concepts Illustration etc in xFig Preface o LaTeX is a typesetting system not a word processor o It is most suited to producing scientific and mathematical documents of high typographical quality 9 LaTeX uses TeX as its formatting engine 9 This short introduction describes LaTeX2e and should be sufficient for most applications of LaTeX LilLI IIIIGLLL LaTeX Outline 9 Things you need to know 9 Typesetting text 9 Typesetting mathematics 9 Including graphics 9 Bibliographies 9 Running LaTeX 9 Links to further resources Things you need to know 9 The Name of the Game 9 Basics 9 LaTeX Input Files 9 Input File Structure 9 The Layout of the Document The Name of the Game 1 OTEX 2 TeX was written by the legendary computer scientist Donald E Knuth httpwwwcsfacultystanfordeduknuth 2 It is intended primarily for typesetting text and mathematical formulae 2 The X stands for the Greek letter Chi TeX is pronounced Tech with a ch as in the German word Ach or in Scottish Loch 2 It is definitely is not pronounced ks 00 In an ASCII environmentTEX becomes TeX LilLI IIIIGLLL The Name of the Game 2 LATEX o LaTeX is a macro package which enables authors to typeset their work at the highest typographical quality using a predefined professional layout 9 LaTeX was originally written by Leslie Lamport It uses the TeX for typesetting 9 In 1995 the LaTeX package was updated by the LaTeX3 team This version is called LaTeX2e o This document treats LaTeX2e LilLI IIIIGLLL Basics 9 Author Book Designer and Typesetter 9 Layout Design 9 Advantages and Disadvantages Author Book Designer and Typesetter 1 o The traditional publishing process 2 author gives manuscript to a publishing company 2 a book designer from the publishing company decides the layout of the document column width fonts etc 2 the book designer writes his instructions into the manuscript and gives it to a typesetter 2 the typesetter typesets the book according to these instructions 9 A human book designer tries to find out what the author had in mind while writing 2 He decides on chapter headings citations examples formulae etc based on his professional knowledge and the contents of the manuscript LilLI IIIIGLLL Author Book Designer and Typesetter 2 o LaTeX takes the role of the book designer and uses TeX as its typesetter 9 But LaTeX is only a program and therefore needs more guidance 9 The author has to provide additional information which describes the logical structure of his work 9 This information is written into the text as LaTeX commands o This is quite different from the popular WYSIWYG eg without using styles properly and even then it s hard 02 Good HTML is another example of a system that focuses on logical markup rather than formatting eg ltH1gtHeadingltlH1gt i rather than J J ltFONT SIZE 3 FACE ARIAL gtltBgtHeadingltlBgtltIFONTgt 3 El I I I I I I I I I Layout Design 1 o Typographical design is a craft 02 Unskilled authors often commit serious formatting errors by assuming that book design is a question of aesthetics If a document looks good artistically it is well designed This is not true 02 A document has to be read not hung up in a picture gallery 02 The readability and understandability of a document are much more important than its beauty eg The font size and numbering of headings must be chosen to make the structure of chapters and sections clear to the reader The line length must be short enough so as not to strain the reader s eyes but long enough to fill the page beautifully LilLI IIIIGLLL Layout Design 2 9 With WYSIWYG systems authors often generate aesthetically pleasing documents with very little or inconsistent structure 9 LaTeX prevents such formatting errors by forcing the author to declare the logical structure of the document 2 LaTeX chooses the most suitable layout 9 Logical markup also improves the portability of documents Journals can use stylesheets to translate the logical markup into their inhouse layout style LilLI IIIIGLLL Advantages and Disadvantages 1 9 Advantages of LaTeX over WYSIWYG 2 professionally crafted layouts are available 2 the typesetting of mathematical formulae is supported in a convenient way 2 users need only to learn a few simple commands which specify the logical structure of a document They almost never need to tinker with the actual layout of the document 2 complex structures such as footnotes references table of contents and bibliographies can be generated easily 2 for many typographical tasks not directly supported by basic LaTeX there exist free addon packages 2 LaTeX encourages authors to write well structured texts 2 LaTeX is highly portable and free LilLI IIIIGLLL Advantages and Disadvantages 2 o LaTeX also has some disadvantages 2 What you see is not what you get Is this really a disadvantage Why are you thinking about layout instead of content 2 More resources memory diskspace computing power are required to run a LaTeX system than a simple word processor But Word for Windows 60 needs even more disk space than a normal LaTeX system When it comes to processor usage LaTeX beats any WYSIWYG system as it only needs a lot of CPU time when a document is actually processed 2 The design of a whole new layout is difficult and takes a lot of time LilLI IIIIGLLL LaTeX Input Files 9 The input for LaTeX is a plain ASCII text file 9 You can create it with any text editor 9 It contains 2 the text of the document 2 commands which tell LaTeX how to typeset the text Spaces Special Characters LaTeX Commands Comments Spaces 9 Whitespace characters eg blank tab single linebreak are treated uniformly as space by LaTeX 2 Several consecutive whitespace characters are treated as one space 9 An empty line between two lines of text defines the end of a paragraph 2 Several empty lines are treated in the same way as one empty line J J It does not matter Whether you enter It does not matter Whether You f 1 f d enter one Of several spaces J J oneo severa spaces a terawor after a word J J An empty lme starts a new paragraph 3 I An empty line starts a new I paragraph I I I I I I I I Special Characters 9 The following symbols are reserved characters that either 2 have a special meaning in LaTeX 2 are not available in all the fonts amp quot 9 Some of these characters can be used in your documents by adding a prefix backslash amp o The other symbols and many more can be printed with special commands in mathematical formulae or as accents amp LilLI IIIIGLLL LaTeX Commands 1 o LaTeX commands are case sensitive and take one of two formats 2 They start with a backslash and have a name consisting only of letters Command names are terminated by a space a number or any other nonletter 2 They consist of a backslash and exactly one special character 9 LaTeX ignores whitespace after commands 2 If you want to get a space after a command you have to put either and a blank or a special spacing command after the command name I read that Knuth divides people working with TeX into TeXnicians and TeXperts Today is March 25th 2004 I read that Knuth divides people working with TeX into is today TeXnicians and TeX perts Today IrJL I L IIIIGLLL LaTeX Commands 2 9 Some commands take a parameter which has to be given between curly braces after the command name 9 Some commands support optional parameters which are added after the command name in square brackets 1 o The next example uses some LaTeX commands Don39t worry about them they will be explained later This is emphemphasized text This is emphasized text Please start a new line right here Thankyou LilLI Please start a new line right herelinebreak3 Thank you IIIIGLLL Comments 9 When LaTeX encounters a character while processing an input file it ignores the rest of the present line 9 This is useful for adding notes to the input file which will not show up in the printed version Thistextisprocessed This text is processed A comment isn t LilLI IIIIGLLL Input File Structure 1 9 When LaTeX2e processes an input file it expects it to follow a certain structure Every input file starts with the command documentclass 2 This specifies what sort of document you intend to write article letter book cssethesis etc 9 After that you can include global style commands or you can load packages which add new features to the LaTeX system To load a package you use the command usepackage LilLI IIIIGLLL Input File Structure 2 9 When all the setup work is done you start the body of the text with the command begindocument 9 Now you enter the text mixed with some useful LaTeX commands 9 At the end of the document you use the enddocument 9 command which tells LaTeX to finish Anything which follows this command will be ignored by LaTeX LilLI IIIIGLLL Input File Structure 3 9 A minimal LaTeX file documentclassarticle begindocument Small is beautiful enddocument Input File Structure 4 o A more realistic LaTeX file documentclassa4paperllptarticle usepackagelatexsym authorHPartl titleminimalism begindocument maketitle tableofcontents sectionStart Here begins my lovely article ldots sectionEnd ldots and here it ends enddocument Page Styles 9 LaTeX supports three predefined headerfooter combinations These are known as page styles Q The style parameter Of the pagestylestyle command defines which one to use I plain prints the page numbers on the bottom of the page in the middle of the footer default page style I headings prints the current chapter heading and the page number on each page Footer is empty 2 empty both header and footer empty 9 More elaborate headers and footers can be created using the fancyheadings package LilLI IIIIGLLL Typesetting Mathematics 1 9 Type setting mathematics beautifully is perhaps the major strength of TeX and LaTeX and perhaps the main reason for which researchers use them 9 LaTeX can typeset just about any mathematical thing you can imagine and if you can t do it with standard LaTeX then you almost certainly can with the amstex package ams American Mathematical Society 9 Here we will just scratch the surface See reference books or the web for lists and tables of LaTeX maths commands LilLI IIIIGLLL Typesetting Mathematics 2 o LaTeX has a special mode for typesetting mathematics called math mode 9 Within a paragraph math mode is entered between s characters or by using the beginmath and endmath commands To find the square of the hypotenuse addasqumedtobsqumedto ndc squared eg a2 b2 c2 It s as easy as that To find the square of the hypotenuse add a squared to b squared to find 0 squared eg aA2 bA2 CA2 It s as easy as that LilLI IIIIGLLL Typesetting Mathematics 3 9 Here are some more examples TEXm1nonmnwedtgx Tex is pronounced tauepsilonchi 100m3 of water 100mA3 of water 9 Larger mathematical formulae are best displayed on a single line To findthe square ofthe hypotenuse To find the square Of the add a squared to b squared to find 0 squmed squared to find 0 squared 3 a2bzzcg begindisplaymath It saseasyasthat a 2 2 c 2 enddlsplaymath It s as easy as that hypotenuse add a squared to b LilLI IIIIGLLL Typesetting Mathematics 4 o In a scholarly article or thesis you will often want to number equations and refer to them in the text 9 This is done using the equation environment and the commands label and ref ldots it is clear that beginequation epsilon gt 0 labeleqeps endequation From Equationrefeqeps it follows that ldots it is clear that 8gt0 D From Equation 1 it follows that LilLI note that label and ref are used with figures and tables too IIIIGLLL Including Graphics 9 LaTeX2e includes a standard package for including PostScript graphics in your document Load it using usepackagegraphics o A figure can be included using for example beginfigureht begincenter includegraphicswidthl40mmmypicps endcenter captionAn example of a figure labelfigexample endfigure LilLI IIIIGLLL Bibliographies 1 9 Articles can be referred to in the text using the cite command By far the most commonly used feature is colour eg l23 usually computed in a colour space thought to be perceptually accurate eg HSV 3 or CIE 4 By far the most commonly used feature is colour eg citeNBE1993JaV1996SmC1996a usually computed in a colour space thought to be perceptually accuratequot eg HSV citeSmCl996a or CIE citeSTL1997 o The details of the cited articles are stored in BibTeX format in a bib file 9 BibTeX resolves the citations in the LaTeX file and generates the required bibliography IrJL I L IIIIGLLL Bibliographies 2 9 Example BibTeX entries from a bib file bookAth975 author N Ahmed and K Rao title Orthogonal transforms for digital signal processing publisher Springer Verlag year 1975 address New York inproceedingsAusl989 author James Austin and A Phantom and Also Phantom title High Speed Invariant Recognition Using Adaptive Neural Networks J J booktitle IEE 3rd International Conference on Image J J Processing and its Applications J J year 1989 33 pages 28 32 abstract I A method is described which I I I Running LaTeX 1 o The simplest way to run LaTeX on a source document is to do so at the UNIX command line gtlatex testtex o This will create several files If test tex is a simple document these will be testaux passes to resolve references to figures tables citations etc the auxiliary file that LaTeX will use in subsequent test log a log file that contains information about the J J LaTeX run J J test dvi the DeVice Independent output file This is the J a typeset document ready for conversion to postscript or other printable 3 El formats I IIIIII Running LaTeX 2 9 We can view the document we have created using a DVI viewer The most common one under UNIX is xdvi Type gtxdvi test to see the typeset document o It is important to realise that LaTeX sometimes needs to be run several times to resolve all references This is because 02 LaTeX reads such information from the aux file at the start of a run 02 If new information is written to the aux file during the run you will need to run LaTeX again LaTeX will let you know about this eg LaTeX Warning Label5 may have changed Rerun to get cross references right LilLI IIIIGLLL Running LaTeX 3 9 You also need to run laTeX multiple times when you are usmg Citations and bibtex 9 There are other ways of running LaTeX 2 The most common under UNIX is probably from with XEmacs using the AUCTeX package 2 There are also integrated environments like this under windows eg WinEdt o All this stuff is much easier to learn by trying It on a computer rather than hearing It In a lecture so 9 now we re going to do a demo LilLI IIIIGLLL Further reading 9 This tutorial is largely based on parts of The Not So Short Introduction to LaTeX2e by Tobias Oetiker et al You can find it on the web in many places including httpwwwctanorgtexarchivelinfollshortenglishl 9 There are links to this and many more resources at the page httpIlwwwcssemonasheduaulsoftwarellatexl EPS Figures VectorBased Graph 9 VectorBased means that it does not lose resolution when being enlarged or reduced 9 Extremely used in together with LaTex EPS in Matlab 9 We will learn by examples in class N CPU time secs 05 L 39eBRFN quQ 9an BRFN qu L 9 P x105 EPS in Matlab 9 We will learn by examples in class CPU time secs U1 0 U1 2 PFC BFS CHFC L UN Map RClusgr EPS in Matlab 9 We will learn by examples in class 9Brute Force 4 eRFN q eCQ 1 ltgtRFNqu 10 a gt gt 5 10 10 0 1000 3000 5000 7000 9000 AA EPS in Matlab 9 We will learn by examples in class M a O O N O 0 basic quot Vimproved memory usage in 8 O 0 40 EPS in XFig 9 We will learn by examples in class 197 193 a X p X 3 p6x 0 2 p1 Q1 q X195 198 X P4X x P 2 p1 psQ 611612613
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