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Text Study Questions for Exam 1 Chapters 1 2 5 pp326328 of Chapter 14 Chapter 1 l N E 4 What is the difference between an emotion and a drive A Emotions require a cognitive appraisal of the situation Emotions depend upon the evaluation of external events and their meaning whereas drives hunger thirst arise from the body s needs De ne the following autonomic nervous system sympathetic nervous system parasympathetic nervous system functional MRI Autonomic nervous system The organs the quotvisceraquot of our body such as the heart stomach and intestines are regulated by the ANS Sympathetic nervous system Activates the fight or ight mechanism 7 increased heart rate ow of bloodoxygen Parasympathetic nervous system Deactivates fight or ight mechanism Facilitates growth and increases maintenance of functions that conserve energy for later use Functional MRI procedure that measures brain activity based on changes in oxygen uptake Describe the study Kubota et al 2000 Vuilleumier et al 2001 that is given as evidence for the following statement made by the authors of the textbook They The results of the study reveal that before you have figured out what you are seeing in fact before you realize that you have seen anything at all your brain has already begun classified images as good or bad threatening or harmful This experiment found that a photo of a fearful face caused slight sweating and trembling even if the photo was presented so brie y that people did not report consciously seeing it at all Use the results of studies involving individuals with pure autonomic failure and locked in syndrome to answer the following question Are body sensations mediated by the autonomic nervous system necessary for emotional feelings Do these findings support the JamesLange theory of emotion Pure autonomic failure a medical condition in which the autonomic nervous system ceases to in uence the body Locked in syndrome a condition in which people lose almost all output from the brain to the muscles and the autonomic nervous system although they continue to receive sensation According to the JamesLange theory of emotion if you had no sensation from your organs you might appraise the situation cognitively but you should not feel an emotion Furthermore if physiological sensations are critical for emotional feelings then people with weak feedback from their organs would experience only weak emotions The ndings are inconclusive Studies do show that J amesLange s ndings are accurate while contradictory evidence like autobiographies of patients with lockedin syndrome prove the opposite The few studies available do not provide enough information to answer our questions about emotional feelings 5 0 gt1 9 Use the results of studies involving patients with spinal cord injuries to answer the question Are overt emotional behaviors necessary for emotional feeling Do these findings support the JamesLange theory of emotion Studies involving patients paralyzed by spinal cord injuries are of use because although they have changes In heart rate and activity of other organs they cannot move their muscles so emotional behaviors are limited Most people report that they experience their emotions as strongly as before especially fear and sadness These individuals prove that the feeling aspect of emotions do not require overt behaviors which is contradictory to J ames Lange s findings Use the results of studies involving individuals with Mobius Syndrome to answer the question Are facial expressions necessary for emotional feelings People with Mobius Syndrome are unable to smile They nevertheless report feeling happy or amused the same way other people do So facial expressions are not necessary for emotional feelings Use the results of studies in which subjects were asked to report their emotional experiences to an amusing article when the subject held a pen between the teeth versus between the lips as evidence related to the question Do facial expressions such as smiling alter an individual s emotional state In one study participants holding the pen in a smiling position rated cartoons slightly funnier than did those who held it in the annoyed position That is the sensation of smiling apparently increases amusement Therefore facial expressions indeed alter an individual s emotional state Which dimensions are used in the circumplex model of emotion and in the evaluative space model of emotion Discuss differences in these two models in terms of the independence of positive and negative affect For example is it possible to experience positive and negative emotions at the same time Circumplex Model Theoretical model that emphasizes positivenegative valence and degree of arousal as the key aspects of emotional experience when arranged according to this model emotions form a circle de ned by the dimensions of pleasantness and arousal This model emphasizes the feeling aspect of emotion not the cognitivephysiologicalbehavioral aspects In the circumplex model the feeling aspect of emotion in terms of pleasantness and arousal is called core affect 27 Evaluative Space Model Theoretical model of attitudes proposing that evaluations of some target s goodness and badness are independent rather than opposites Something can be good and bad at the same time As aresult positive and negative affect should be independent dimensions of feeling rather than opposite ends of a single dimension In this model of emotional feelings the main dimensions are Positive Affect and Negative Affect 28 In the circumplex model an emotional stimulus is either good or bad or somewhere in between so it should not be possible to feel strong positive emotion and strong negative emotion at the same time But in the evaluative space model our evaluations of good and bad are independent of each other such that something can be good and bad at the same time 50 Describe the component process theory of appraisal Component Process Theory the appraisal aspect of emotion is particularly important and what is considered to be a basic emotion reflects a compound of more elementary appraisal Dimensions in anger pleasantness arousal control and surprise The key point is that what we call an emotion anger is a compound of several appraisal components each pertaining to a different aspect of the situation The components develop in sequence not all at once When all components occur we recognize a clear example of the emotion without a full pro le like anger Furthermore some of the components of the emotion anger can combine with other components to make different emotions which we might describe as frustration surprise determination and so forth What we typically consider an emotion consists of underlying elements that could be combined in different ways Chapter 2 1 In terms of natural selection and evolution what does it mean to say that emotions are adaptations Emotions have some basis in our genes the genes needed for us to experience emotions started out as random mutations long ago on average individuals with N E 4 emotions had more offspring than individuals without emotions andor took better care of their genetic relatives in such a way that their relatives had more offspring because of this process of natural selection the genes supporting emotions spread through future generations to become typical of the whole population What does it mean to say that humans are an ultrasocial animal Humans conduct almost all of the business of life in highly cooperative groups which we rely on for our most basic survival needs Humans are not built to survive alone Describe the social function of love embarrassment and anger Love The function of love is to help build a sense of commitment in our important relationships so that we re prepared to help each other out the next time a group effort is needed Embarrassment Display of embarrassment lets people know you messed up and feel bad about what happened This display makes people more inclined to like and trust you ensuring that you won t be ostracized by the group of whatever weird thing you did Both love and embarrassment help establish and stabilize relationships with other people in your community Anger Protecting your own resources against theft or vandalism But may also have a relationshipbuilding function being that when you show a person anger he will realize what he has done and if he values the relationship may therefore apologize and avoid making the mistake in the future Describe the results of studies in which individuals from nonWestem cultures were asked to identify emotions in photographs of facial expressions of individuals from Western cultures Russell 1994 In terms of the evolution of emotion what are the implications of these findings Do emotional facial expressions convey the same meaning in different cultures Research participants were shown six photos and asked to identify which one represents a particular emotion Versions of this study have been conducted all over the world and show that on average a nonWestem observer chose the correct emotion word for the facial expression of the emotion These findings strongly suggest that most people throughout the world give similar interpretations to certain facial expressions of emotion In terms of the evolution of emotion these findings show that expressions of emotion probably evolved because they conferred some kind of survival or reproductive advantage on individuals who displayed them This study shows that facial expressions were inherited from our prime ancestors which should therefore be the same in all human cultures 5 0 Use the results of Klaus and Scherer 1997 to answer the question Are particular appraisal patterns the component process model associated with the same emotions throughout the world What were the dimensions of the appraisal patterns used by these investigators Had participants around the world think about a time they felt a particular emotion to describe a situation in which they felt the emotion and to rate that situation indicating how they interpreted the situation Overall this study suggests that certain appraisal patterns are associated with the same emotions throughout the world Appraisal dimensions noveltyexpectedness pleasantness goal conduciveness fairness responsible agent self V someone else coping potential how much control the participant felt morality and relevance for selfconcept People in different cultures often disagree about the role of morality in the appraisal of emotional events How much weight is given to morality in appraisal in African countries compared to Latin American countries Situations eliciting most negative emotions were rated highly immoral by African participants but were rated as more morally justified by Latin American participants The role of morality in emotion is also less universal than culture specific More weight is given to morality in appraisal in African countries than in Latin American countries Chapter 5 l N What is the K luver Bucy Syndrome and indicate what it tells us about the role of the amygdala in emotion Kluver Bucy Syndrome KBS a pattern of emotional changes accompanying removal of both anterior temporal lobes including amygdale The amygdala might is important for behaviors associated with fear What is the role of the amygdala in fear conditioning the prediction of an impending shock the recognition of fear and anger in facial expressions Do people with amygdala damage experience fear FMRI studies show that the amygdala becomes more active during fear conditioning and in general when people see or hear signals of danger and also when seeing an angry face which could reasonably elicit fear as well Amygdaladamaged ratshumans showed much weaker freezing responses and reduced distress related startle facilitation People with amygdala damage are impaired at recognizing facial expressions of fear and anger However they E 4 V39 0 gt1 report that they continue to feel fear and other emotions normally in their every day lives What is the role of the amygdala in the consolidation of longterm episodic memories Amygdala activation associated with the experience of a strong emotion facilitates the consolidation of longterm episodic memories by the hippocampus The amygdala might tag particular memories as having strong emotional signi cance and instigate processes in the hippocampus that enhance these memories for future reference Describe the results of studies of brain damaged war veterans and posttraumatic stress disorder Koenigs et al 2008 and indicate the implications of the results in terms of understanding the function of amygdala 40 of US soldiers who suffered brain damage outside the amygdala developed PTSD Of those with brain damage that included the amygdala none developed the disorder The implications of this study show that the amygdala plays a strong role in the consolidation of longterm episodic memories resulting in PTSD but only to soldiers with an undamaged amygdala Discuss the role of the hypothalamus and autonomic nervous system in homeostasis Use studies of vasopressin as an example The hypothalamus serves as a thermostat of the brain in many ways regulating the homeostatic balance of temperature blood chemistry hydration and other factors via in uence on the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system When the hypothalamus detects your blood pressure is too low it instructs the pituitary gland to release vasopressin which encourages the kidneys to reabsorb uid into the body However with prolonged stress the hypothalamus will trigger the release of cortisol instead so the hypothalamus is the central structure controlling changes in the body that we experience during emotion Describe differences in the sexually dimorphic nucleus SDN of heterosexual and homosexual male and female humans and sheep The SDN of heterosexual males is nearly twice as large in most males than females due to higher testosterone exposure during fetal development SDNs of homosexual males were much more similar in size to the SDNs of females than those of males What is the role of the insular cortex in emotions 9 0 The insular cortex is primarily associated with the experience of disgust but today it is believed that it acts as a map of visceral sensations What are the functions of the prefrontal cortex Part of the brain often associated with advanced cognitive functions like planning working memory and inhibition of impulses rather than emotion Higher cognitive processes of judgment and decisionmaking are not always distinct from emotion however and the prefrontal cortex facilitates the use of emotional information in making good decisions Describe the types of problems that Elliot the man with damage to the I 39 r f 39 cortex J after his surgery Be specific Seemed normal in many regards but he consistently had trouble making decisions would deliberate about unimportant details that resulted in haphazard decisions could neither plan for the future nor follow plans that others suggested would interrupt an important task to do something trivial or continue doing something unimportant when he should quit He performed well on every physical and cognitive test but lacked emotional reactivity Describe the results of studies Anderson et al 1999 that assessed the effects of damage to the prefrontal cortex during infancy Two patients who suffered prefrontal damage during infancy never developed any sense of right and wrong frequently stole lied and hurt other people without any signs of guilt Discuss the reward circuit nucleus accumbens prefrontal cortex and VTA in terms of wanting or anticipating something and consuming and enjoying something An important distinction here is between the emotion associated with anticipation or wanting something and the emotion associated with actually consuming and enjoying The reward circuit is associated with anticipation rather than consumption or enjoyment The system becomes highly active if you see something that you want within your reach As soon as you consume the reward the circuit quiets down again Discuss the relationship between the amount of neural activity in two components of the reward circuit the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex and the magnitude of a reward and the probability of a reward occurring Activation in the nucleus accumbens increases proportionally to the magnitude of a possible reward and activation in the prefrontal cortex increased proportionally to the probability of reward on that trial Describe the effect of drug addiction alcohol cocaine amphetamines on dopamine receptors in the reward circuit Many recreational drugs have their effects by altering the dopaminergic reward system 7 by binding to the transporter that normally facilitates reuptake forcing the dopamine to stay in the axon of the presynaptic neuron longer than normal by entering the axons of reward circuit neurons and pushing dopamine into the synapse or by increasing the release of dopamine by neurons in the VTA Which of the following would in uence dopamine activity in the reward circuit gambling sex food playing a video game shopping Would you expect additions to any of these activities to in uence the number of dopamine receptors in the brain All of them People with addictions have fewer dopamine receptors in the reward circuit presumably as the brain compensated for the oods of dopamine that kept happening after repeated drug use Discuss the role of genes in addiction Certain genes for dopamine receptors may increase the risk of addiction to any substances or behaviors that strongly activate this system Explain how it is possible that medications for Parkinson s disease can lead to a gambling addiction Dopamineincreasing treatments for Parkinson s disease can increase the risk of gambling problems presumably due to altered dopamine activity in reward circuits Indicate the effect of lowering brain serotonin level for the following people with a previous history of violence people with a history of depression and people with a history of substance abuse When researchers have used drugs to lower people s serotonin levels suddenly the people with a previous history of violence became violent those with a history of depression became depressed and those with a history of substance abuse reported a sudden craving for drugs What is the role of the opiate peptides in pain grieving and separation from a loved one Chagte 1 Studies have linked changes in betaendorphin activity to the experience of pain grieving and separation from a loved one This is mainly because of decreased endorphin release Replacing the endorphin with morphine causes a guinea pig to stop crying when separated from their mother but if given a drug that blocks endorphin activity they cried harder than usual r 14 326 328 What is a somatic marker and what is its function When we have to make a decision our mind quickly estimates the likely outcomes of possible options activates quot 39 1e pou e to these mm nmes and uses the emotion to guide the decision The emotional response you feel while imagining any of these outcomes will guide your decision 117 How are emotions generated What is cognition What is emotion 0 Example Same event 2 different emotional reactions and two different changes in behavior receiving a B on an exam 7 distressed aims to work harder satis ed aims to slack off I Emotions a feeling state that is areaction to a recent event Emotions are associated with motivation I Mood feeling state that you always have if you are awake Often it s not about anything that you are aware of I Motivation a process that in uences the direction persistence and vigor of goaldirected behavior 0 The emotional reaction to receiving the letter grade B on an exam is dependent on appraisal An average student with a 22 grade point average has a positive reaction whereas an honor student with a 39 grade point average has negative emotional event They appraise the event differently Cognition knowledge I What is the difference between cognitive content and cognitive process 0 Cognitive content a large percentage of emotional reaction comes back to your beliefs Conscious process 0 Cognitive processes unconscious What cognitive process is necessary to generate an emotion o Appraisal the process in the mind that gives personal meaning to events 0 N0 appraisal no emotion Lazarus Model of Emotion The father of cognition What are the four components of the emotion that results from appraisal l The subj ectiveexperiential component a feeling state 2 Somatic component a change in body a Example Quarterback 7 day of the game he always throws up This is a somatic component 3 Cognitive component refers to thoughts generated and t0 the appraisal process 4 Motivational component action tendency motivational behavior 11912 Q Which component most relevant to understanding the role of emotions in human behavior Why Can emotions be unconscious A The motivational component E motion Q Are all 4 components always activated A No Q What is the difference between conscious emotion and unconscious emotion Give examples A 1 Missing two components as in subliminal advertising picture of a car and subliminal presentation of a word or picture that elicits a positive emotional response e g happy smile love good picture of smiling face Consuming a new lemonlime drink 2 Missing cognitive component worrying of the emotion of anxiety 3 Missing 2 components many decisions we make use unconscious emotions called automatic emotions 4 Missing 3 components repressors Responses to physical or psychosocial threat the only thing that appears is the somatic component Blue ribbon emotions conscious generated by schemabased appraisal cognitive Schema based appraisals based on beliefs about self world and others They are declarative memories and emotional memories An individuals beliefs reflect their life experiences Automatic appraisals based on emotional associative memories Emotional memory classically conditioned memory Q What is a schematic model schema implicational belief A Schemas are beliefs models about self world and others Based on life experiences Essential to appraisal process schemabased but not automatic that leads to emotional reactions Q One cognitive component of the appraisal process is cognitive interpretation of events Define this term and give an example to clarify its role in appraisal Examples Prepositional belief beliefs about the number of galaxies in the universe sunbumed on a cloudy day Implicational belief belief that you are intelligent enough to obtain a degree or that you are liked by others and will many and have a family 12412 Q How can a prepositional belief become an implicational belief and why is this important A An individual must have a very powerful emotional experience before this can happen Ex cigarette smoking slide 23 The power of implicational beliefs Pointing the Bone Witch doctor who points the bone at you meaning you are going to die Person who points the bone at you and you in fact do die If you do not have the implicational belief you will not die Q The process of appraisal is always made with respect to an individual s goals Explain Give an example Appraisal is always made with respect to the person s goals 7 Slide 24 When you have a goal you will suffer 7 ex getting a 40 in college EX In general your goals tell about the type of person you want to be the idealself When you become a parent and your goal is that you want to be a good parent Son in the last semester of graduate school saying son had 11 incompletes later comes to excel in the future No goals no emotions Q What is the relationship between implicational beliefs and goals Give an example A Slide 25 Goals are based on implicational beliefs Beliefs come from life experiences Implicational beliefs about self world and others determine an individual s goal Emotions are based on appraisal Appraisals are always made with respect to an individual s goals Implicational beliefs are based on life experiences Use the appraisal quote to show 1 how implicational beliefs can impose a w or attitude in appraisal 2 and how this bias can in uence an individual s sense of well being What is the role of life experiences in the formation of implicational beliefs Give examples That s where implicational beliefs come from The relationship between life experiences and implicational beliefs Ex Abusive experiences Selfschema characterized by sense of worthlessness World is uncaring unloving and dangerous critical faultfinding judgmental place Others cannot be trusted Emotionally healthy Positive selfschema No criticism or judgment The world is interpersonally rewarding Others can be trusted What is the homeostaticprmciple of schemas and why is it important to understanding of the appraisal process and therefore emotions Stated differently what is the most important goal in the hierarchy slide 28 To preserve and maintain their schemas implicational Implicational Beliefs about Others Ex You have a schematic model implicational belief of Sally which says that she doesn t like you and doesn t want to talk to you so you avoid her So you cognitively interpret her quietness when she is around to mean that she doesn t like you and you experience sadness as a result Implicational Beliefs about Silfi homeostatic principle of schemas Ex Choosing to go to college and Iowa test scores Implicational beliefs about self are based on life experiences 7 psychosocial factors Why I had a particular belief and how it biases the appraisal process To preserve and maintain the implicational belief that I am intelligent enough to go to college Doing poorly on the Iowa test scores 7 is told he will not be going to college by school psychologist Yet held on to implicational belief which bias the appraisal process Ex A clinically depressed person received a glowing compliment from a friend Implicational belief feeling worthless Bias the appraisal process which maintains in the face of contradictory evidence the homeostatic principle of schemas The major implication of the homeostatic principle of schema the appraisal process is always biased never objective Appraisal are always made with respect to goals and beliefs The appraisal tendency theory once an emotion has been generated the appraisal process becomes biased in that you are more likely to appraise events in a way that will maintain that emotion slide 33 For example an individual who is angry is more likely to appraise events as being frustrating or demeaning or obstructions Similarly if someone is anxious fearful she is more likely to make appraisals of danger and threat in the environment Anger is about being blocked pursuing a goal by an external agent Schema based appraisal or appraisal that involves implicational beliefs Automatic appraisal no connection to implicational beliefs but based on classical conditioning Based on emotional associative memories Automatic appraisal is based on emotional associative memories Is it necessary to experience the reward or punishment to develop an emotional memory No Observational learning of phobias by children Use the minuteman study to illustrate the difference between an emotional memory and a declarative memory Minuteman had a seizure multiple times a day Hippocampus essential to develop declarative memories Damage to the hippocampus led to inability to form new declarative memories 0 Crossword puzzles going to a party meeting new people Evidence that he could form and retrieve emotional memories and generate an emotion via automatic appraisal o Stooge provokes anger and an emotional memory Emotion measured by somatic component heart rate blood pleasure sweating 0 Return of the Stooge elicits emotional memory and thereby through automatic appraisal an emotional response as measured physiologically and by verbal comments 13112 What is the Two Memory Hypothesis You can form emotional memories for the rst three years of your life before declarative memories are formed Emphasis on early childhood 0 Infant given negative treatment will cause the development of negative emotional memories which will in turn effect reactions later in life Declarative memories are based on language Discuss the role of emotional memories in reactive attachment disorder Orphanage in Soviet block countries found physical and sexual abuse with no affection Terrible experiences which develop negative emotions and then there s automatic appraisal Use the lunch example to show how emotional memories in uence declarative memories Tell me what you ate for lunch last year at this time in 2002 Student remembered example because husband proposed to her How are emotional memories developed Winters Family 7 use water guns to train cat 7 ordering emotional memories to change behavior Operant conditioning Why use cats No implicational beliefs All they have is automatic appraisal and emotional memories Can t form appraisal memories What is the relationship between a negative emotional memory and avoidance motivation Anxiety is an anticipatory emotion that allows people to avoid a punishment Positive Emotional Memory Sound of a can opener causes cats to come running into the kitchen Associate sound with award for tuna What is the relationship between a positive emotional memory and approach motivation Approach motivation to seek a reward Anticipatory pleasure dog excited to ride in the car and stick head out the window 2212 Case of peter Went from schemabase to automatic appraisal Q Are emotions generated by automatic appraisal always conscious as was the case for Julie and Peter A No The case of Elliot Lacked emotional associations Lost understanding of emotional consequences Q Discuss the role of emotions in decisionmaking A Emotions are a type of knowledge that is important in making decisions Emotions help us predict the emotional consequences of decisions Will a reward or a punishment result from the decision Thus it is the motivational approach of the emotion 7 either approach rewards motivation or avoidance punishment motivation 7 that provides the critical information used in decisionmaking Somatic markers make predictions which we use in decision 2712 Positive somatic marker go for it there is a reward Negative somatic marker beware don t go there Is it necessary to be consciously aware of our emotional responses to be able to use this information in decisionmaking No Experiments that Test AffectAsInformation Theory Studies using false feedback paradigm e g words like rilea ojwox kprael The weather and an ambiguously described individual 0 University of Illinois participated in a study which proved weather has a negative effect on mood particularly if they do not see the sun very much Using the same information Used in advertising to sway your opinion eg advertisements that elicit positive emotional responses such as laughter geico feelings of belonging beer Give other examples of applications of the AffectAsInformation 1 Fear and driving when there is no speed limit gut feeling a Emotional memory fast driving and punishment injury or death b Professor driving in Germany 2 Gut feeling somatic marker of anxiety twinge of anxiety and approaching stranger a Emotional memory being friendly and punishment rejection Ex Anxiety around strangers due to past experience of professor saying what are you talking to me I don t know you 9 emotional memory formed being friendly and rejection which led to a negative somatic marker Class Examples gt Two different students 22 GPA and 39 GPA a Appraisal 03 Consuming a lemonlime drink because of subliminal advertising a Example of an unconscious emotion 0 Getting sunburned on a cloudy day example a Prepositional belief D That you are intelligent enough to obtain a degree a Implicational belief E The number of galaxies in the universe a Prepositional belief F Pointing the Bone a Power of implicational beliefs G Abusive 39 quot 39 391 vs E quot quot healthy 39 quot 39 391 a The relationship between life experience and the formation of implicational beliefs H Sally is quiet and you think she doesn t like you so you avoid her a Implicational beliefs about others 1 Choosing to go to college and low Iowa Test Scores a Homeostatic principle of schemas J Clinically depressed person receiving a compliment a Homeostatic principle of schemas K The Minuteman Study a The difference between an emotional memory and a declarative memory L Orphanage in Soviet Block Countries a The role of emotional memories in reactive attachment disorder M The Lunch Example a How emotional memories in uence declarative memories N Cats hear a can opener a Positive Emotional Memory 0 Dog excited to ride in car a Anticipatory pleasure Approach motivation quotU University of Illinois weather and mood study a AffectAsInformation Theory Advertisements like Geico and Beer a AffectAsInformation Theory 40 leClConve1terInpu swqa2a7u81htm2202012 25701 PM PU Teacher experience a Negative emotional memory b Negative somatic marker c A ectAsInformation I Driving on the Autobaun a A ectAsInformation Theory H Bear chasing you in the woods a Schemabased appraisal b Cognitively interpret U Smoking and antismoking ads a Propositional belief becoming a implicational belief lt Winters Cats and water gun a Development of a Negative Emotional Memory a Case of Julie and Birds a Formation of emotional memory X Case of Peter and Dad a Formation of emotional memory from a repeated emotional experience b Schema based 9 automatic appraisal Tlt Case of Elliot a Personal domains b Lack of emotional associationsconsequences Z Parking On Campus a Somatic Marker leClConve1terInpu swqa2a7u81htm2202012 25701 PM