Intr To Psychology
Intr To Psychology PSY 110
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abdiel Weissnat on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 110 at University of Miami taught by R. Gillis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see /class/205708/psy-110-university-of-miami in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
it L755 l 3 unfit is the scientific study of mind and behavior 3 pieces scientfic e study of what the mind causes you to do behavior is product of mind A Freud overemphasized sexuality everyone has conscious and subconscious mind 1905 People are not fully rational ld superego Early childhood experience and sexual development B l l il39 lig Ell W3tSOI i1913 argued against Freud all you can study is behavior Ex Pavlov working with dogs bells amp Dogs Skinner followed Watson Kohler Wertheimer During WW2 they studied the whole is greatertha the sum of its parts Visual perception Ex With Two Lights created old fashion motion pictures D lFlU l lquotl lquotllifolfCr Maslow Rogers 19708 All people are motivated to reach their full potential selfactualization Hierarchy of needs 3 thinking memory language problem solving creativity Studying Thinking I Much bigger part of Psychology since 7 L iquotli ilquotl 1859 Origin of Species in a gene pool there are individual differences in the population Natural Selection Most fit animals reproduce in the greatest number Bell Curve changes in gene pool occurs over 10000 s of yrs 1879 first scientific laboratory of psychology Used study of 1893 Established first school of took human experience consciousness and break it down to can t be objective of themselves Psychology at Cornell B ii u Frill i39ail l i i families tall parents gt tall children etc Anthropometric laboratory tested every facet of as many people as he could get 9000 Measured CoRelations lead to creation of correlation coefficient D iliazznai 1890 School of Functionalism Principles of PSYChOIOQYI focused on the function of consciousness function is more important than structure E 1li1llmrid Frill 1900 School of Psychoanalysis interpretation of dreams unconscious mind F Ivan Pavlov 1920 s G 1 i lill39l c Can only measure behavior not study thoughts Induced phobia Little Albert Human SerVIces Clinical therapy Jifrfll pl l germ School of Education FamilyMaritalJob Counseling adjustment to everyday life Community helps people with Legal Problems financial help 52 it school setting Applied halyard all mrsll researching better ways to teach Forensic anything to do with legal system Sports mi N iiir fl ifl w j giflirrjiiii will studies of factories Lightingcoors of walls etc mana ementworker relationships gm W nurse doctor patient relationship frag design of equipment human equipment interaction Experimental Basic research for the sake of research knowledge Social Personality Cognitive Developmental PhysiologicalMedicalBiological 7 r iiW 3 vffi r if 3 Every Federally funded research institution must at in ti m 39 have an IRB Minimize risk goal 1 Sunnort If YES Goal Of a 180 is to advance KIIIJWIBIIQB ill the field ill fill ill Ell 14 True Exneriment correlational MBIIIIIII 1 Randomly Divide Subjects 1 Measure Two Variables 2 Manipulate the Independent 2 Calculate the Relationship Variable 3 Measure the Dependent Variable Example Mean Coffee gp 75 bpm Example Pearson s correlation 90 Mean no Coffee gp 65 bpm May infer that coffee CAUSED Support for hypothesis but cannot Causality an increase in Heart Rate infer Causality Remember Correlation does not imply Correlational studies often have lliiiVl ifiiilliill li l39vivliill illillf andor If quotn 2 Is a research method that uses statistical techniques to determine the de ti x a weakness in correlation studies caused by the fcth correlation etween any two variables may be caused by an unknown third variable l1 Iii 7 method If A and B re correlated we don t know if changes in A cause changes in B or if changes in B cause changes in A 5 ii a in people might in stead explain one outcome with one explanation and a second outcome with a second explanation and a third with a third and so on They make to attempt to disprove anything They just nd alternate explanations It is always easy to offer an explanation of any nding after the fact The trick in science is to make a prediction and ONLY THEN collect the data to see if it comes out as predicted V ml fli iU Lr iii d ee ectfls 339 Hula L so on B n l lv llil39 ill Ql ital 6 We bein a true exeriment 35 alt mi r3 such as age Intelligence gender and We have not actually controlled those variable quot in experimental research the behaviorthat results from manipulation of an independent variable If we don t do this any ofthose extraneous third variables might explain any effect we observe on the dependent variable and we could not infer causality 7 WWquot ll7T ii ll li l illllr mzllimxrli subtract 39ll39i 7191er i135 a population of interest This allows us to generalize any ndings from the sample to the larger population g pointed out that natural selection acts on in mitt gill quotl le we v N in a population to begin with brilliant book gm Q r L u and that natural selection could not occur if there M This led to Investigations of individual differences in people which led to psychology 1 i Area underthe normal curve about 34 14 2 13 Descriptive Statistics to present large amount of data in easy to understand way Central Tendency Variability Tables Graphs zscores The Normal Curve Correlations lCDO lPOONA 1 Central Tendency a air b Median 0 Mode 2 Variability 3 v How far a score deviates from the average in standard units Know what a zscore is It is also called a standardized score Such conversions allow us to compare scores that are on different scales with different means and standard deviations or even different units of measure For example we might say that since your 2 score for height is67 while your 2 score for weight is 80 cu are heavier than you are tall 2143434142 5 35 l Correlations have two independent qualities Magnitude and Direction 95 is still a very strong correlation It just happens to be negative The weakest correlation would be 0 which is actually no correlation at all 10 to 10 Direct and inverse 6 Graphing Line amp Bar Graphs i3 l quotMilli Elli aiiil39lf39 Use descriptive statistics and probability theory to make judgents from your results about something reality 1 Makin 39ud ments from data 2 2 ttest 3 Ftest or ANOVA analysis of variance 4 Regression find line of best fit 5 Chi Square or X2 ll Random Sampling vs Random division first step of a tru experiment is random division to get equal subgroups 2 in order to et unbiasedrepresentative sample What does it mean to Ezra5quot 2 air girlie Manipulation of independent variable becomes a dependent j i 1m 39ii Jl iili39lii ls involve in depth explorations of either a single case or a small group of subjects who are examined individually Advantage exible due to lack oftime limitations Limitations poor sampling techiniques that often limit generalization of ndings to other people in the clinical category being investigated and tendency for subjects to report earlier experiences inaccurately e w l ivy39nw vllv39ivwril Researchrs observe their subjects as they go about their usual activities which often take place in a natural settIng Advantage this often provides wealth of information which may generate hypotheses for further research in a more controlled environment Recording behavior rsthand instead of relying on inaccurate reports of past experiences biased behaviors Limitations Subjects behavior may be altered by the presence of an observer The reliability of recorded observations may sometimes be compromised by preeXisting observer biases e A representative group of people are questioned using interviews or written questionnaires about their behaviors and attitudes Know b name but no symptoms or etc A The Synapse B Neurotransmitters 1 Acetylcholine 2 Norepinephrine excitatory sex 3 Dopamine Adrenaline Makes people more talkative and excitable It affects brain processes that control movement emotional response and ability to experience pleasure and pain addiction 4 Serotonin transmission of nerve impulses 5 Gammaaminobutyric acid GABA arousalanxiety C Neuromodulators through glad circulatory blood systems Natural Opioids inhibits transmission of pain A Imaging techniques 1 CAT or CT Used to locate brain abnormalities that involves rotating xray scanner around skull to produce image 2 PET scans Inject subject with glucose like sugar tagged with radioactive isotope that accumulates in brain cells in direct proportion to activity level 3 MRI uses radiowaves to excite H in brain tissues creating magnetic field change 4 FMRI magnetic resonance imaging that measures energy released by brain cells that are active during specific tasks 5 Lesions stimulation and recording B Overview of Brain 1 CTeiirviliivlell Cerebrum Neocortex Left amp Right hemispheres Association Cortex Largest part of the cerebral cortex integrates sensory and motor messages and thinking interpreting and remembering N L i L 379 as l ii l li33 ill i llquotj vim synthesis putting elements together perceive whole maps 3D sketch 2 Corpus Callosum 3 Contralateral Connection 4 Cerebellum C The Cerebral Cortex 1 Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex 39 quot ll quot consists of visual cortex color vision color recognition Movement emotion memory The parietal lobes contain the primary sensory cortex which controls sensation touch pressure Behind the primary sensory cortex is a large association area that controls ne sensation 39udment of texture weight size shape lvaw rll in Emotional responses Hearing Memory Speech contains the auditory cortext Auditory Cortex responds to auditory signals a Hii f 13 E quot 39 39 left fonl le controls speech b ii x ifw39iiquotii iiitxii Left tem oral lobe understands speech c quot 39 sill 39 5 consists of visual cortex color vision color recognition d Hi all illiillifgll Quillquot illli iual cortex info frm eye int electrical ttern that brain translates into vision e Central Fissure Motor and Sensory regions f Brain plasticity 2 Split Brain and Lateralization 50 s Speary corpus callosum cutting would cure epilepsy tested on cats Cured almost all individuals 23 total m study of relationship between the physical aspects of external stimuli and our own perceptions of these stimuli where perception occurs Visual perception of form r Requires 3 C t arr 1 MC Esher Illusory contours a line or boundary that doesn t exist optical illusion a mistake IV Gestalt Laws of Grouping w objects that are close together are perceived to 3 must be able to separate image from the background 1 it 7 ii belo tger 5 L ii 5122immmm Plants objects that move together share a common fa are perceived to go together ex Interwoven trees in the wind VI Binocular cues two eyes Binocular disparity distance caused by distance between eyes further you go the more disparity 1 Stereopsis depth perception 2 Convergence focus on something close your eyes converge VII Monocular cues one eye ou don t need two i H Piwr alllllga 3quot ll39lt 2 1 Moi mm eyes two see disparate images aquot you have to do is move Moving objects move faster up close than far away quot22 based on fact that objects close to us tend to block out parts of objects farther away oveap 5 i fuzzy than those close because of dust and haze 6 Relative brightness 913 I 1i 7 7 Visual illusion based on positions of same size objects lll Eiwtxwzw Objects are normally perceived to be constant in size color or brightness and shape despite the fact that their retinal images change according to different conditions A Size constancy although the retinal image of an object recedes into distance viewer adjusts for this change and perceived the object to be constant in time B Shape constancy Shit don t change no matter the angle you look at it from C BrightnessColor constancy perceive objects that we see at night to be the same brightness as they appear during the day D Miscellaneous ideas 1 w3939 j m see the whole thing then you see elements that make it up Reading word by word phrase by phrase 2 g mm in see elements of project first and then put them together Reading letter by letter V ii ii mf gm general discussion Dichotic listening studies of 1950 s headphones on college students and would tell you to listen into one ear and repeat it other ear was completely shut off Cocktail party phenomenon 24 Be sure to look in the book for the several different visual illusions mentioned there Know the names of each illusion Sleep and Altered States 39 Awareness of being aware two mirrors aimed at each other hall of infinit mirrors Rouge Test Rouge on the mirror tests 5 Great Apes ll What is Altered Consciousness Iquot Sleep the best studied altered state EEG s monitor brain wave patterns producing different phases 2 during sleep 1 Awake Beta Waves 2 Drowsy Relaxed Alpha Waves 3 Hypnogonic State Right before you fall asleep 4 Stage 1 of Sleep Theta 5 Stage 2 of Sleep Sleep spindles noise sensitive 6 Stage 3 of Sleep Delta waves EEG 2050 7 Stage 4 of Sleep Delta waves EEG 50 8 REM Rapid Eye Movement Dreams B ill iflf iifl Elli3vltlhihjiviz Around the day controlled by Melatonin Melatonin hormone secreted by pineal gland SAD Seasonal Affective Disorder diagnostic category in which major depression or bipolar depression recurrently follows seasonal pattern C Why do we sleep 1 Repair Theory recover from the wear and tear of the day rejuvenate Ex Babies sleep 16 hrs 8 Rem because they are are growing and learning but the elderly need less sleep because they don t grow and learn as much 2 Adaptive Nonresponding awake when it is best suited for their lifestyle food avoiding predators D Why do we dream Repression Theom Freud s theory dreams are unconsciously motivated Royal road to Manifest VS Latent Content I Forefront of your dream disquised version of lgiji liffi v2 turnian Hidden unconscious mind Royal Road dreams are key to problems wish fulfillment ActivationSvnthesis vaothesis random neural activity random firings make sense of that and piece together a story 3 Problem Solving Hypothesis main function of dreams is to help us cope with the stresses and problems in our lives Process the stressful events first rem is short term anxiety producing act something similar years ago something similar as a child synthesizing and creating a solution to your problem 4 Memom Consolidation important part of memory process moving information to long term memory Editing the days activities and storing the important information E Sleep Disorders F Miscellaneous D Sleep Disorders Insomnia lack of sleep or satisfying sleep Narcolepsy sleep attacks emotion triggered Sudden Infant Death Syndrome SlDS Healthy baby suddenly dies from breathing excessive COZ Sleep Apnea adults stop breathing forget to breathe associated with snoring more common as you get older Sleep walking Somnsleepambulism walk Sleep talking most people outgrow Bed wetting Enuresis most people outgrow Nocturnal Myoclonus uncontrolled leg movements thrashing of arm and legs more common as you get older 59 Questions in Order 12 per topic Go through outlines know ideas amp names Applied questions 4 or 5 Questions from the book Review Study Guide VSUAL LLUSONS
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