INTRO AME NATL GOV
INTRO AME NATL GOV POL 201
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Date Created: 09/17/15
POL 201 Intro To American Politics Professor Casey Klofstad Last Time Social Policy The welfare state I rovrams that rovide a minimal standard of living US is less redistributivegenerous Education policy strong tradition of public education in US but recent problems Government regulation to protect us Lecture 20 Economic Policy The business cycle How does the government manage the economy fiscal and monetary policy Tax policy US economy in comparison to other countries The econom and I residential a I roval GDP Constant 2004 Dollars 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 The US Business Cycle Gumn I Upwamm P534713 A A A A A A A 2000 1000 20m 20m mm mm 2on2 2002 as q4 q1 q2 q3 qa m 112 A 39 quot A A A A A A A A A A A A A 1929 1934 1939 19441949 1954 1959 1964 1969 1974 197a 1984 1959 1994 1999 2004 Yea r The Business Cycle Business y pdic quotMquot w decreases in economic productivity de ression severe longterm economic coHapse recession less severe and shorter term economic slowdown The government tries to smooth out the business cycle by managing the economy GDP n billions of 2009 dollars Recent Trends in US GDP 14800 14600 14400 7 14200 7 V In comparison during the Great 14000 A 39 Depression between 1929 and o 1932 US GDP dropped 30 3 6 13800 13600 13400 2007 2007 II 2007 III 2007 IV 20081 2008 II 2008 III 2008 IV 2009 2009 ll Source beagov Year Quarter Unemployment and Inflation The economy grows en pnple p money SO the government wants to keep people employed s they spend y and grow the economy BUT when more people have money we get inflation rising prices 2005 US Federal Government Budget Fiscal Policy Fiscal policy the sum total of government taxing and spending How does it work spend and cut taxes to speed up the economy decrease spending and raise taxes to slow down the economy The Decline of Fiscal Policy Divided government fiscal policy relies on passing a budget Deficits and a growing debt voters don t like this debt is paid for with money that could be going into growing the economy There is only so much that can be cut Monetary Policy Monetary Policy control the economy by controlling the supply of money How does it work put money into the system to get people spending and speed up the economy take money out of the system to reduce spending and slow down the economy The Federal Reserve System I nominates Senate con rms Most of the work involved with monetary policy happens here How The Fed Controls Supply Selling and buying government securitcs selling slows down the economy investors stop spending money because they buy government securities instead buying speeds up the economy gives money back to investors with interest to spend How The Fed Controls Supply Selling and buying government securitws Discount Rate higher rate slows down the economy it is more expensive for you to borrow and so you borrow and spend less money lower rate speeds up the economy it is cheaper for you to borrow money so you borrow and spend more money How The Fed Controls Supply Selling and buying government securities Discount Rate Required Deposit Percentage higher slows down the economy banks have less money to lend orw a spendless lower speeds up the economy banks have more mone to lend so ou borrow and spend more Why Monetary Policy Is Usually Better The Fed is a unitary actor monetary policy is easier and quicker to implement The Fed is an independent actor ony experts run this part of the Jaw isoation from politics makes the Fed more objective HUGE Caveat Fiscal policy alone will NOT work during a deep recession interest rates can only go so low in tough times we can tdon t want to spend no matter how low interest rates are banks are less willing to lend money So someone has to spend money and in times like this that job falls on the government ie fiscal policy Types of Taxes Progressive richer people pay more eg income tax Regressive poorer people pay more eg sales tax The Sales Tax is Regressive 5 Sales Tax Income Car of Income 25K 1250 50K VVV or 25 of income 200K 50K 2500 LEXUS or 125 of income Taxes and Politics Democrats tend to favor progressive taxes Republicans usually argue am them Taxes as a Policy Tool Hidden Welfare State eg Earned Income Tax Credit EITC Taxes can be used to encourage c discourage certain types of behavior eg building a home smoking etc Percentage Americans Views on Taxation Survey respnndents were asked the foilowing question Dc you consider the amount of federal income tax which you would have to pay as too high about right or too lowquot O A A A A A A A A 39A A A A A A 1976 1973 1980 1982 1984 1986 1983 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 023904 W Country mx mcanz mm 1233 3 m2 589 Other Countries Pay More Taxes Income Inequality by Country Gini Coefficients Consumer Confidence and Presidential Approval POL 201 Intro To American Politics Professor Casey Klofstad POL 201 Intro To American Politics Professor Casey Klofstad Last Time Political arties Parties likeminded people trying to control the government by winning office Realignment rare largescale shifts in public s Party ID Parties Today a DEaligned system of relatively weak parties So What parties help democracy but sometimes at a cost Lecture 12 Electoral Politics Presidential elections Congressional elections House and Senate Role of money in campaigns Do campaigns matter Do elections produce a representative government Nominating Presidential Candidates Past controlled by the parties Today primaries and caucuses candidates from same party run against each other in preelections to select the party s nominee so voters choose the nominee instead of party bosses Presidential Primaries So What Is this more democratic because voters choose YES but primary voters are unrepresentative ie they are more ideological Distribution of Ideology in the US Median voter onservatlve liberal Party party at end 01 Wt 0f of campaign campaign Conservative party at start Liberal party of campaign at start of campaign Number of voters Liberal Conservative Issue positions of the public Presidential Primaries So What More democratic voters choosw YESmnu primary voters are unrepresentative ALSO campaign season IS too long turns on voters frontloaded system more money more problems The Electoral College EC Each state has electoral votes votes number of Senate and House seats To win the EC you need a majority of the 538 electoral votes Most states are winnertakeall winner of popular vote can loquot advantages the large states Trends in Presidential Elections Republican dominance since Iauu war favors the Republicans 1990s Clinton during peacev 2000s VERY close elections indication of partisan dealignment Congressional Nominations House and Senate also use primaries Open Seats attract many primary candidates How Are House Districts Made A census is taken every 10 years House seats redistributed among the states based on shifts in population States redraw the district Lines power left to the states with some federal requirements potential for gerrymandering lncumbency Advantage Vote Percentage Incumbency Advantage in the US Congress Line chart reports the estimated increase in a candidate39s vote percentage resulting from incumbancy compared to what an otherwise identical candidate would have received running for an open seat ll A V V AV v V W V A A A A A A A A A A A 1948 11954 11958 T1964 1968 1 1974 11978 11934 I 1988 I 1994 11998 1 1950 1956 1960 1966 1970 1976 1980 1986 1990 1996 2000 Ave Number of Terms Served in the US Congress Why Incumbency Advantage Party decline we use incumbency as a shortcut in voting eg name recognition Constituency service helplng WI bureaucracy porK prOJects Resources of the office amp technology staff mailing privileges travel etc Strategic challengers Incumbency Advantage is Weaker in the Senate Elections are statewide so the constituency is more diverse and harder to please More media coverage and more information on candidates Better challengers Senate is a better prize than House Total Cost of US Elections 1000 2500 2000 1500 1 000 500 0 A A A A A A A A A A A lt9 43quot 9 ca 3 9 lt8quot 03 0 Q lt 491 gr 65 6 9 31 63 1 0 Ile 3 59 9 3 a N a a 5 9 3 9 9 Costly Campaigns So What Candidate bias especially in presidential primaries The Permanent Campaign ine between governance campaigning has become blurry Source bias where does all of this money come from Campaign Finance Sources Presidential Elections 450 400 Soft Money unlimited and POST 2002 unregulated funds given 350 A indirectly to candidates Soft money was 7 through the parties banned in 2002 5 McCain zg Hard Money funds given Feingold E 250 39 directly to candidates that are BUT g m regulated and limited by the politicians and g government I groups always E 150 seen to find a r W wavtoget 10 around V campaign 50 r finance laws 0 A A eg 527 A 1984 was 1992 i996 2900 gr ups39 I Soft money I Hard Money I Public fu nds Do Campaigns Matter Q If party ID and incumbency determine elections do campaigns matter A YES on the margins turnout matter more in primaries can t use party as a shortcut when voting quen anrci Minorities Sewing in the US Congress Number of Representatives 70 d A l I A l A l A A A l K A A L A 1 I 1971 1973 19751977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1587 1989 1991 1993 1935 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 I Women representatives I Black representatives I Hispanic represEntatives Why Fewer Minorities in Congress Overt biases prejudice etc Ramifications of past discrimination past discrimination mde ard for women and minorities to run in the past without past experience women ano minorities are less likely to run for office Representation Substantive people in office share my views Descriptive people in office look like me and because of that they share my vieWS MajorityMinority Districts District where a minority group makes up the majority of the population How do we get these 1982 amendments to the 1965 Voting Rights Act quen anrci Minorities Sewing in the US Congress Number of Representatives 70 d A l I A l A l A A A l K A A L A 1 I 1971 1973 19751977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1587 1989 1991 1993 1935 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 I Women representatives I Black representatives I Hispanic represEntatives Different District Lines Can Yield Different Results Scenario 1 3 competitive districts Scenario 2 2 Rep and 1 Dem District 1 District 3 District 2 REPUBLICAN VOTERS DEMOCRAT VOTERS MajorityMinority Districting So What Less representation because u increased Republican power Do all members of a racial group think the same eg difference between Hispanics What groups need majorityminority districts POL 201 Intro To American Politics Professor Casey Klofstad POL 201 Intro To American Politics Professor Casey Klofstad Last Time The Courts Role check the other 2 branches interpret The Constitution AND laws State and federal court systems Judicial review and statutory interpretation Courts are powerful but constrained other branches precedent public opinion Part 3 Political Outcomes and Impact of the Governing H Process Domestic economic gt and social policies Elected Of cials The People amp Gov z lnsz iz uz ions FOFELH OIlC and national security Do policy outcomes Policy meet the wishes of the Outcomes people Lecture 17 Civil Liberties What are civil liberties and rights Where do liberties come from Important liberties expression religion the accusw privacy economic Civil liberties in a post911 world Liberties and Rights Civil Liberties due process things the government can t do to you Civil Rights equal protection given the things government CAN do everybody needs to be treated equally Origin of Liberties Theoretical natural from gou the Laws of Nature and of Nature s God entitle them PracticalProcedural The Bill of Rights PreCivil War Liberties The Bill of Rights applies ONLY to the actions of the federal government NOT to the states WHY anguage does not specify the states would have forced us to deal with slavery eg Dred Scott v Sandford Liberties After the Civil War 14th Amendment allows V v Rights to be applied to the states due process clause HOW Selective Incorporation force the states to com with individual amendments in Bill of Rights on a case bycase basis Freedom of Expression Most fundamental of all liberties Via the lst Amendment Freedoms of speech assembly and the press all three are interrelated but speech is central The Schoolhouse Rock Diagram of American Politics Elected Officials The People amp Gov t Institutions Policy Outcomes Protection of Speech Over Time The Supreme Court applies The Bill of Rights to the states BUT 1 SC decisions typically reflect the mood of the times 2 SC decisions constrain liberties in times of warcrisis because of 1 Speech Doctrines Clear and Present Danger no speech if threatens nat l security Fighting Words no speech if it causes injurydisturbance Balancing some things are more imp than speech Fundamental Freedoms speech is almost always most important
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