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Greek Romn Mythlgy

by: Bailee Lesch

Greek Romn Mythlgy CLA 220

Marketplace > University of Miami > Classics > CLA 220 > Greek Romn Mythlgy
Bailee Lesch
GPA 3.62

H. Tran

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This 39 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailee Lesch on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CLA 220 at University of Miami taught by H. Tran in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see /class/205731/cla-220-university-of-miami in Classics at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 09/17/15
Artemis Diana Atharnas CadInus Cassiopeia Cepheus Chrysaor Danae Daughters of Minyas DemeterCeres Dictys Dionysus Bacchus Echo Europa Gorgons Graiae Hades Pluto Harmonia Hermaphroditus Hesperides InoLeucothea Lyncus Medusa Muses Narcissus Pegasus Pentheus PersephoneKoreProserpina Perseus Phineus Pierides Polydectes Poseidon Neptune Salmacis Semele Sirens Sown men Triptolemus Typhoeus Typhon Achelous river god Deiaheira s suitor Achilles Death of Shield arms Acrisius father of Dahae grandfather of Perseus Actaeon Admetus Adonis born from aphrodisiac myrrhdies ih impotehce ihducihg lettuce killed by Wild boar fails test of mahhood because sexually precocious Aeetes father of Medea king of Colchis on the eastern shore of the Black Sea Aegeus Aegisthus son of Thyestes cousin of Agamemhon Aeheas Agamemhon amp Mehelaus sons of Atreus Ajax The Greater Ajax The Lesser Alcestis Alpheus amp Arethusa Althaea mother of Meleager Amazonomachy Ahchises Trojah lover of AphroditeVenus father of Aeheas Ahdromeda daughter of Cassiopeia amp Cepheus AphroditeVenus born from cast off gehitals of Ourahos amp ocean waves or daughter of Zeus and Dione Apples of the Hesperides Apollo Arachne Arcas son of Callisto nearly kills his bear mother Zeus lifts mother and son into constellation AresMars Argonautica Argus Panoptes Ariadne helps Theseus abandoned by Theseus on island married DionysusBacchus ArtemisDianaCynthia AscaniusIulus AsclepiusAesculapius Atalanta Athamas Atlas Atreus amp Thyestes sons of Pelops Augustus Octavian real historical figure first emperor of Rome synthesis of mythical Romulus and Numa adopted son of Julius Caesar Aulis Battle of Actium 3l BCE historical battle that marked the end of the Roman Republic and prepared the way for the Roman Empire under OctavianAugustus its first emperor Baucis and Philemon only happy marriage between mortals pious old couple devoted to xenia Boreas Violent Wind from Thrace amp Orithyia sister of Procris Violent beginnings of marriage Hades amp Persephone Boreades Calais and Zetes sons of Boreas Argonauts vs Harpies Bird women Byblis sister of Caunus Cadmus Caenis Caeneus born a woman always a woman Callisto turn into a bear Calydonian Boar Calypso Capitoline Triad Jupiter Minerva Juno contrast with Rome s ancient Triad JupiterKingship MarsWar QuirinusCitizenry Cassandra daughter of Priam and Hecuba Castor like Clytemnestra son of Tyndareus and Leda amp Pollux like Helen son of Zeus and Leda inseparable twins share mortal death and immortal life Cecrops Centaurs Centaurus son of lxion amp Nephele mates with mares to produce the Centaurs Cephalus wooed by DawnEos amp Procris magical Javelin Laelaps magical dog vs Teumessian Fox seemingly ideal marriage Cerberus CeresDemeter Chiron trades immortality with Heracles through agency of Prometheus Chrysaor son of Medusa and Poseidon Cinyras Cipus rejects kingship but cornua corona Circe daughter of the Sun sister of Aeetes Cloelia Clytemnestra Coronis Cretan Bull Cronus castrates his father Ouranus in a plot with mother Gaia father of the Olympians amp Rhea tricks Cronus into regurgitating the Olympians with a stone CupidEros LoveDesire Cygnus impervious skin son of Poseidon swan Cyparissus killer of the dearest object of his love Cephalus accidentally killing his beloved Procris Cumaean Sybil Daedalus Danae Daphne Daughters of Pelias Dawn Eos amp Tithonus Deianeira Deucalion amp Pyrrha Dictys fisherman who rescued Danae amp Perseus good brother of bad Polydectes Dido DionysusBacchus Echo What happens when you fall in love with a self centered person Erichthonios Eris Erysichthon Europa Eurydice Eurystheus like Heracles his enemy grandson of Perseus born before Heracles through Hera s trickery received kingdom of Tiryns and Mycenae assigned Heracles with his l2 labors Eire breathing bronze bulls bronze war meant to be indomitable vanquished not by forcethe Argonauts but with Medea s magic Flora goddess of lush spring The Four Ages EuriesErinyes born from the blood dropped by Ouranos castrated genitals Gaia Mother Earth amp Ouranos parents of l2 Titans 3 Hundred handers and 3 Cyclopes Ganymede his abduction by Zeus signifies the right and authority of the older male in educating and mentoring the younger boy immortalized as cup bearer to Olympians Gens lulia Geryon Golden Apples Heracles Eris Atalanta signify marriage Golden Bough Aeneas to underworld King of the Woods from slave to king Golden Fleece Golden Ram Phrixos amp Helle 7 Hellespont Gorgons Graiae HadesPluto Harmonia daughter of Aphrodite and Ares Wife of Cadmus Hecate Hecuba Helen of Sparta The Heliades turned to poplars cry tears of amber for brother Phaethon HeliosSol the Sun god amp Phaethon Hephaistos Vulcan The Lemnian HeraJuno HeraclesHercules son of Zeus and Alcmena stepson of Amphitryon Hermaphroditus young boy diminished by Salmacis HermesMercury son of Zeus and cave nymph Maia Hesperides daughters of Night possess cap of invisibility Winged sandals and kibisis special bag Hippolytus Virbius at Lake Nemi in Aricia ltaly Hippomenes Hyacinthus eternal image of the kouros dies passes beyond the realm of Apollo Horatius Cocles Hydra lcarius lnoLeucothea lo lphicles lphigeneia Janus Jason son of Aeson nephew of Pelias Judgment of Paris King of the Woods Rex nemorensis royal succession is fundamentally problematic and violent can only be king by killing the previous king Laocoon Laomedon Lars Porsena Etruscan king of Clusium ally of Targuin the Proud Latinus laurel Apollo s tree symbol of victory favored by Augustus Lavinia new wife of Aeneas daughter of king of Latins the new Helen Aeneas s marriage with Lavinia symbolizes the melding of the Trojan people with Italian natives 7 and so the birth of a new race leading to the future Romans Leda Lucius lunius Brutus Lucretia s uncle and avenger first consul of Rome with Targuinius Collatinus Rome s Liberatorz Oath of Brutus ancestor of Marcus lunius Brutus one of the assassins of Julius Caesar Lycaon Maenads Mares of Diomedes Marsyas Megara Midas Medea Medusa Megara Meleager Memnon king of the Ethiopians son of DawnEos and Tithonus arms forged by HephaistusVulcan killed by Achilles most beautiful warrior in the Trojan War Minos son of Zeus and Europa Minotaur Minyades reject Dionysus for Athena turned to batswork turned to Vines Mucius Scaevola Muses Myrrha Narcissus Nemean Lion Neoptolemus son of Achilles necessary for conquering Troy as his father was necessary for killing Hector Nephele cloud illusion manufactured as Hera look alike by Zeus and Hera to trick lxion mother of Centaurus in another story first Wife of Athamas mother of Phrixos and Helle gives them the Golden Ram Nessus Niobe Nisus king of Megara father of treacherous Scylla Numa Pompilius flamines salii amp Egeria one of the Camenae goddesses of wells and divination for carmen song Numitor amp Amulius OdysseusUlysses Omphale Orestes Orpheus Palamedes direct competitor to Odysseus unmasked his trick for avoiding going to the Trojan War later framed by Odysseus which led to his death by stoning Palladium Pallas AthenaMinerva Pan god of rustic nature fertility lower body of goat and horns rustic music preferred by Midas ParisAlexander Pasiphae Pegasus offspring of Medusa and Poseidon kicked the Spring of the Horse into existence with its hoof source of the Muses inspiration helps Bellerophon defeat the Chimaira positive symbol arising out of negative symbol Peleus Pentheus PerdixTalus nephew of Daedalus pushed off the Acropolis by jealous uncle PersephoneKoreProserpina Perseus Phaedra Philoctetes Phineus seer made blind for revealing too much starved by the Harpies Pholus tried to be a good Centaurhost Pierides Pirithous son of Zeus and Dia his marriage precipitates the Centauromachy Polydectes king of Seriphos Polydorus youngest son of Priam and Hecuba Polyphemus Cyclops Polyxena youngest daughter of Priam and Hecuba Pomona PoseidonNeptune Procne amp Philomela Prometheus Pygmalion father of Paphos and grandfather of Cinyras rejects the Propoetides amp Galatea the male manufactured woman Pythagoras teacher of Numa religious reformer belief in transmigration of the souls all of nature is one likens humans eating meat with the Cyclops eating Ulysses men Python amp Pythian Games Rape of the Sabines Rhea Silvia Remus Romulus Quirinus Satyrs Scylla daughter of Nisus king of Megara Scylla amp Charybdis Semele Sextus Targuinius amp Lucretia Silenus godfather of DionysusBacchus perpetually drunk Sirens Sisyphus Sown men Stables of Augeias Tantalus Tarpeia Targuinius Collatinus husband of Lucretia cousin of Sextus Targuinius first consul of Rome with Lucius lunius Brutus Targuin the Proud Targuinius Superbus Tauris Tereus Theseus son of AegeusPoseidon and Aethra sword and sandals from complete outsider to king like Heracles agent of order Thetis Tiresias Tullius Hostilius 3m1 legendary king of Rome complete opposite of Numa Turnus TyphoeusTyphon Zeus arch enemy son of Gaia and Tartarus hates music last of Zeus challenges before he can be deemed the new king of the cosmos Vertumnus Roman god of the seasons War belt of Hippolyte Wedding Thetis and Peleus Wooden Horse xenia ZeusJupiter Achelous river god Deianeira s suitor Admetus Aegeus Alcestis Althaea Apples of the Hesperides Ariadne Atalanta Atlas Baucis and Philemon Byblis Calydonian Boar Castor and Pollux Caunus Cerberus CeresDemeter Cretan Bull Daedalus Deianeira DionysusBacchus Erysichthon Eurydice Eurystheus Geryon Hera HeraclesHercules Hippolytus Hydra lanthe lcarus lole lphicles lphis Mares of Diomedes Megara Meleager Minos Minotaur Nemean Lion Nessus Nisus Hippolytus Omphale Orpheus Pasiphae PerdixTalus Phaedra PoseidonNeptune Prometheus Scylla Stables of Augeias Theseus War belt of Hippolyte xenia Zeus Achilles 9 in Greek mythology he was a Greek hero of the Trojan War the central character and the greatest warrior of Homer39s Iliad Achilles was named the most handsome of the heroes assembled against Troy by Plato Later legends state that Achilles was invulnerable in all of his body except for his heel As he died because of a small wound on his heel the term quotAchilles39 heel has come to mean a person39s principal weakness Acrisius 9 a mythical king of Argos and a son of Abas and Aglaea or Ocalea depending on the author grandson of Lynceus greatgrandson of Danaus His twin brother was Proetus with whom he is said to have quarreled even in the womb of his mother When Abas died and Acrisius had grown up he expelled Proetus from his inheritance but supported by his fatherinlaw Iobates the Lycian Proetus returned and Acrisius was compelled to share his kingdom with his brother by giving Tiryns to him while he retained Argos for himself Actaeon 9 in Greek mythology son of the priestly herdsman Aristaeus and Autonoe in Boeotia was a famous Theban hero Like Achilles in a later generation he was trained by the centaur Chiron He fell to the fatal wrath of Artemis but the surviving details of his transgression vary quotthe only certainty is in what Aktaion suffered his pathos and what Artemis did the hunter became the hunted39 he was transformed into a stag and his raging hounds struck with a 39wolfs frenzy lyssa tore him apart as they would a stag quot This is the iconic motif by which Actaeon is recognized both in ancient art and in Renaissance and postRenaissance depictions Aeacus 9 a mythological king of the island of Aegina in the Saronic Gulf He was son of Zeus and Aegina a daughter of the rivergod Asopus He was born on the island of Oenone or Oenopia to which Aegina had been carried by Zeus to secure her from the anger of her parents and whence this island was afterwards called Aegina According to some accounts Aeacus was a son of Zeus and Europa Some traditions related that at the time when Aeacus was born Aegina was not yet inhabited and that Zeus changed the ants of the island into men Myrmidons over whom Aeacus ruled or that he made men grow up out of the earth Ovid on the other hand supposes that the island was not uninhabited at the time of the birth of Aeacus and states that in the reign of Aeacus Hera jealous of Aegina ravaged the island bearing the name of latter by sending a plague or a fearful dragon into it by which nearly all its inhabitants were carried off and Zeus restored population by changing ants into men Aeetes 9 a King of Colchis presentday Georgia son of the sungod Helios and the Oceanid Perseis a daughter of Oceanus brother of Circe and Pasiphae and father of Medea Chalciope and Apsyrtus His consorts were Eidyia mother of Medea and either Asterodia the Oceanid Neaera the Nereid or Eurylyte According to others he was brother of Perses a king of Tauris husband of his niece Hecate and father of Circe Medea and Aegialeus Yet other versions make Aeetes a native of Corinth and son of Ephyra or else of a certain Antiope Aegeus 9 an archaic figure in the founding myth of Athens The quotgoatman who gave his name to the Aegean Sea was next to Poseidon the father of Theseus the founder of Athenian institutions and one of the kings of Athens Aegina 9 a figure of Greek mythology the nymph of the island that bears her name Aegina lying in the Saronic Gulf between Attica and the Peloponnesos The archaic Temple of Aphaea the quotInvisible Goddess on the island was later subsumed by the cult of Athena Aphaia may be read as an attribute of Aegina that provides an epithet or as a doublet of the goddess Though the name Aegina betokens a goatnymph such as was Cretan Amalthea she was given a mainland identity as the daughter of the rivergod Asopus and the nymph Metope39 of their twelve or twenty daughters many were ravished by Apollo or Zeus Aegina bore at least two children Menoetius by Actor and Aeacus by Zeus both of whom became kings The mortal son Menoetius was king of Opus and was counted among the Argonauts His son was Patroclus Achilles39 cousin through their paternal family connection to Aegina and his intimate companion The son made immortal Aeacus was the king of Aegina and was known to have contributed help to Poseidon and Apollo in building the walls of Troy Through him Aegina was the greatgrandmother of Achilles who was son of Peleus son of Aeacus Aeson 9 the son of Cretheus and Tyro who also had his brothers Pheres and Amythaon Aeson was the father of Jason and Promachus with Polymede the daughter of Autolycus Other sources say the mother of his children was Alcimede or Amphinome Aeson s mother Tyro had two other sons Neleus and Pelias with the god of the sea Poseidon Aethra 9 a name applied to four different individuals Mother of Theseus Oceanid Wife of Hyperion and Wife of Phalanthus Aethra was a daughter of King Pittheus of Troezen and the mother of Theseus his father was the king Aegeus of Athens or in some versions Poseidon Aegeus went to Troezen a city southwest of Athens that had as its patrons Athena and Poseidon where Pittheus got Aegeus drunk on unmixed wine and put him to bed with his daughter Following the instructions of Athena in a dream she left the sleeping Aegeus and waded across to the island of Sphairia that lay close to Troezen s shore There she poured a libation to Sphairos Pelops39 charioteer and was possessed by Poseidon in the night When she was thus doubly pregnant Aegeas decided to go back to Athens Before leaving he covered his sandals shield and sword under a huge rock which served as a primitive altar to Strong Zeus and told her that when their son would grow up he should move the rock and bring his weapons back Aethra did as she was told and Theseus recovering the weapons that were his birthright grew to be a great hero killing the Minotaur among other adventures Aethra is also the name of one of the Oceanids the 3000 daughters of Oceanus and Tethys She is sometimes called the wife of Atlas and mother of the Pleiades and the Hyades more usually the offspring of Pleione A figure called Aethra possibly the Oceanid is in one source called the wife of Hyperion rather than Theia and mother of Helios Eos and Selene Another Aethra was the wife of the Spartan Phalanthus She fulfilled the prophecy given to her husband by her tears after which he conquered Tarentum for himself Agave 9 In Greek mythology Agave or Agaue from Ancient Greek39 English translation quotillustriousquot was the daughter of Cadmus the king and founder of the city of Thebes Greece and of the goddess Harmonia Her sisters were Autonoe Tno and Semele and her brother was Polydorus She married Echion one of the five Spartoi and was the mother of Pentheus a king of Thebes She also had a daughter Epirus She was a Maenad a follower of Dionysus also known as Bacchus in Roman mythology Ajax the Greater 9 a mythological Greek hero the son of Telamon and Periboea and king of Salamis He plays an important role in Homer39s Iliad and in the Epic Cycle a series of epic poems about the Trojan War To distinguish him from Ajax son of Oileus Ajax the Lesser he is called quotTelamonian Ajax quot Greater Ajax or quotAjax the Great ln Etruscan mythology he is known as Aivas Tlamunus Andromeda 9 a princess from Greek mythology who as divine punishment for her mother39s bragging the Boast of Cassiopeia was chained to a rock as a sacrifice to a sea monster She was saved from death by Perseus her future husband Her name is the Latinized form of the Greek The traditional etymology of the name is quotshe who has bravery in her mindquot from quotmanquot as in quotsoldierquot and similarly quotbraveryquot combined with quotto think to be mindful of Alternatively it could mean quotshe who leads The subject has been popular in art since classical times as well as the princess and dragon motif in general From the Renaissance interest revived in the original story typically as derived from Ovid39s account Apollo 9 one of the most important and diverse of the Olympian deities in Greek and Roman mythology The ideal of the kouros a beardless athletic youth Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of light and the sun truth and prophecy medicine healing plague music poetry arts archery and more Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto and has a twin sister the chaste huntress Artemis Apollo is known in Greekinfluenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu Apollo was worshiped in both ancient Greek and Roman religion and in the modern GrecoiRoman Neopaganism As the patron of Delphi Pylhian Apollo Apollo was an oracular godithe prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle Medicine and healing were associated with Apollo whether through the god himself or mediated through his son Asclepius yet Apollo was also seen as a god who could bring ill health and deadly plague Amongst the gods custodial charges Apollo became associated with dominion over colonists and as the patron defender of herds and flocks As the leader of the Muses Apollon Musegeles and director of their choir Apollo functioned as the patron god of music and poetry Hermes created the lyre for him and the instrument became a common attribute of Apollo Hymns sung to Apollo were called paeans Arachne 9 a great mortal weaver who boasted that her skill was greater than that of Minerva the Latin parallel of Pallas Athena goddess of wisdom and crafts Arachne refused to acknowledge that her knowledge came in part at least from the goddess The offended goddess set a contest between the two weavers According to Ovid the goddess was so envious of the magnificent tapestry and the mortal weaver s success and perhaps offended by the girl39s choice of subjects the loves and transgressions of the gods that she destroyed the tapestry and loom and slashed the girl39s face Not even Pallas nor bluefevered Envy Could damn Arachne39s work The brown haired goddess Raged at the girl39s success struck through her loom Tore down the scenes of wayward joys in heaven Ultimately the goddess turned Arachne into a spider Arachne simply means quotspiderquot in Greek Areas 9 the son of Zeus and Callisto Callisto was a nymph in the retinue of the goddess Artemis Zeus being a irtatious god wanted Callisto for a lover As she would not be with anyone but Artemis Zeus cunningly disguised himself as Artemis and seduced Callisto The child resulting from their union was called Arcas Hera became jealous and in anger transformed Callisto into a bear She would have done the same or worse to her son had Zeus not hidden Arcas in an area of Greece that would come to be called Arcadia in his honor There Arcas safely lived until one day during one of the court feasts held by king Lycaon Arcas39 maternal grandfather Arcas was placed upon the burning altar as a sacrifice to the gods He then said to Zeus quotIf you think that you are so clever make your son whole and unharmed At this Zeus became enraged He made Arcas whole and then directed his anger toward Lycaon turning him into the first werewolf After this occurrence Arcas became the new king of Arcadia and the country39s greatest hunter One day when Arcas went hunting in the woods he came across his mother Seeing her son after so long she went forth to embrace him Not knowing that the bear was his mother he went to kill her with an arrow Zeus taking pity upon the two decided to avert the tragedy and put them both up in the heavens and their constellations are now referred to as Ursa Maj or and Ursa Minor the big and little bears When Hera heard of this she became so angry that she asked Tethys to keep them in a certain place so that the constellations would never sink below the horizon and receive water Arcas was remembered for having taught people the art of weaving and baking bread He was married to either Laodamia Leaneira daughter of Amyclas or Meganeira daughter of Croco or the nymph Chrysopeleia or the Dryad Erato and left a number of children including Apheidas Elatus Azan and Triphylus also an illegitimate son Autolaus and at least two daughters Hyperippe and Diomeneia AresMars 9 the Greek god of war He is one of the Twelve Olympians and the son of Zeus and Hera In Greek literature he often represents the physical or violent aspect of war in contrast to the armored Athena whose functions as a goddess of intelligence include military strategy and generalship The Greeks were ambivalent toward Ares although he embodied the physical valor necessary for success in war he was a dangerous force quotoverwhelming insatiable in battle destructive and man slaughtering Fear Phobos and Terror Deimos were yoked to his battle chariot In the Iliad his father Zeus tells him that he is the god most hateful to him An association with Ares endows places and objects with a savage dangerous or militarized quality His value as a war god is even placed in doubt during the Trojan War Ares was on the losing side while Athena often depicted in Greek art as holding Nike Victory in her hand favored the triumphant Greeks Ares plays a relatively limited role in Greek mythology as represented in literary narratives though his numerous love affairs and abundant offspring are often alluded to When Ares does appear in myths he typically faces humiliation He is well known as the lover of Aphrodite the goddess of love who was married to Hephaestus god of craftsmanship but the most famous story involving the couple shows them exposed to ridicule through the wronged husband39s clever device The counterpart of Ares among the Roman gods is Mars who as a father of the Roman people held a more important and dignified place in ancient Roman religion for his agricultural and tutelary functions During the Hellenization of Latin literature the myths of Ares were reinterpreted by Rom an writers under the name of Mars Greek writers under Roman rule also recorded cult practices and beliefs pertaining to Mars under the name of Ares Thus in the classical tradition of later Western art and literature the mythology of the two figures becomes virtually indistinguishable Arethusa 9 Arethusa means quotthe waterer In Greek mythology she was a nymph and daughter of Nereus making her a Nereid and later became a fountain on the island of Ortygia in Syracuse Sicily The myth of her transformation begins when she came across a clear stream and began bathing not knowing it was the river god Alpheus He fell in love during their encounter but she ed after discovering his presence and intentions as she wished to remain a chaste attendant of Artemis After a long chase she prayed to her goddess to ask for protection Artemis hid her in a cloud but Alpheus was persistent She began to perspire profusely from fear and soon transformed into a stream Artemis then broke the ground allowing Arethusa another attempt to ee Her stream traveled under the earth to the island of Ortygia but Alpheus owed through the sea to reach her and mingle with her waters During Dem eter39s search for her daughter Persephone Arethusa entreated Demeter to discontinue her punishment of Sicily for her daughter39s disappearance She told the goddess that while traveling in her stream below the earth she saw her daughter looking sad as the queen of Hades Arethusa occasionally appeared on coins as a young girl with a net in her hair and dolphins around her head These coins were comm on around Ortygia the location in which she ends up after eeing from Alpheus The Roman writer Ovid called Arethusa by the name quotAlpheiasquot because her stream was believed to have a subterranean communication with the river Alpheius in Peloponnesus Alpheus 9 lso known as Alpheios Ancient Greek meaning quotwhitish was in Greek mythology a river the modern Alfeios River and rivergod Like most rivergods he is a son of Oceanus and Tethys Telegone daughter of Pharis bore his son the king Orsilochus He was also the grandfather of Diocles and greatgrandfather of a pair of soldiers Crethon and Orsilochus who were slain by Aeneas during the Trojan War According to Pausanias Alpheius was a passionate hunter and fell in love with the nymph Arethusa but she ed from him to the island of Ortygia near Syracuse and metamorphosed herself into a well after which Alpheius became a river which owing from Peloponnesus under the sea to Ortygia there united its waters with those of the well Arethusa This story is related somewhat differently by the Roman writer Ovid Arethusa a beautiful nymph once while bathing in the river Alfeios in Arcadia was surprised and pursued by the river god39 but the goddess Artemis took pity upon her and changed her into a well which owed under the earth to the island of Ortygia Argonautica 9 a Greek epic poem written by Apollonius Rhodius in the 3rd century BCE The only surviving Hellenistic epic the Argonaurz39ca tells the myth of the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts to retrieve the GoldenFleece from the mythical land of Colchis Another much lessknownArganau ca using the same body of myth was composed by Valerius Flaccus during the time of Vespasian Argus Panoptes 9 or Argos guardian of the heifernymph To and son of Arestor was a primordial giant whose epithet quotPanaptesquot quotallseeingquot led to his being described with multiple often one hundred eyes The epithet Panaptes was applied to the Titan of the Sun Helios and was taken up as an epithet by Zeus Zeus Panaptes quotIn a way Walter Burkert observes quotthe power and order of Argos the city are embodied in Argos the neatherd lord of the herd and lord of the land whose name itself is the name of the land quot According to Ovid to commemorate her faithful watchman Hera had the hundred eyes of Argus preserved forever in a peacock39s tail ArtemisDiana9 one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities Her Roman equivalent is Diana Some scholars believe that the name and indeed the goddess herself was originally preGreek Homer refers to her asArtemis Agratera Pal m39a Theron quotArtemis of the wildland Mistress of Animals In the classical period of Greek mythology Artemis was often described as the daughter of Zeus andLeto and the twin sister of Apollo She was the Hellenic goddess of the hunt wild animals wilderness childbirth virginity and young girls bringing and relieving disease in women39 she often was depicted as a huntress carrying a bow and arrows The deer and the cypress were sacred to her In later Hellenistic times she assumed the ancient role of Eileithyia in aiding childbirth Artemis later became identified with Selene and Etruscan goddess Artume AsclepiusAesculapius 9 the God of Medicine and Healing in ancient Greek religion Asclepius represents the healing aspect of the medical arts his daughters are Hygieia quotHygienequot Taso quotMedicinequot Aceso quotHealingquot AglaeaZEgle quotHealthy Glowquot and Panacea quotUniversal Remedyquot The rod of Asclepius a snakeentwined staff remains a symbol of medicine today although sometimes the caduceus or staff with two snakes is mistakenly used instead He was associated with the RomanEtruscan god Vediovis He was one of Apollo39s sons sharing with Apollo the epithet Paean quotthe Healer Some historians have proposed that there may have been a historical Asclepius during the Greek Dark Ages who became the subject of a Hero cult and on whom the mythological character was based Athamas 9 The king of Orchomenus in Greek mythology Athamas was married first to the goddess Nephele with whom he had the twins Phrixus or Frixos and Helle He later divorced Nephele and married Tno daughter of Cadmus With Tno he had two children Learches and Melicertes Athamas also had a brother Salmoneus who was the father of Tyro Phrixus Frixos and Helle were hated by their stepmother Ino Ino hatched a devious plot to get rid of the twins roasting all the town39s crop seeds so they would not grow The local farmers frightened of famine asked a nearby oracle for assistance Tno bribed the men sent to the oracle to lie and tell the others that the oracle required the sacrifice of Phrixus Frixos Athamas reluctantly agreed Before he was killed though Phrixus Frixos and Helle were rescued by a ying golden ram sent by Nephele their natural mother Helle fell off the ram into the Hellespont which was named after her and died but Phrixus survived all the way to Colchis where King Aeetes took him in and treated him kindly giving Phrixus his daughter Chalciope in marriage In gratitude Phrixus gave the king the golden eece of the ram which Aeetes hung in a tree in his kingdom AthenaMinerva 9 the goddess of wisdom courage inspiration civilization warfare strength strategy fem ale arts crafts justice and skill Minerva Athena39s Roman incarnation embodies similar attributes Athena is also a shrewd companion of heroes and the goddess of heroic endeavour She is the virgin patron of Athens The Athenians built the Parthenon on the Acropolis of her namesake city Athens in her honor Athena Parthenos Athena39s veneration as the patron of Athens seems to have existed from the earliest times and was so persistent that archaic myths about her were recast to adapt to cultural changes In her role as a protector of the city alis many people throughout the Greek world worshiped Athena as Athena Palias quotAthena of the cityquot Athens and Athena bear etymologically connected names Atlas 9 the primordial Titan who supported the heavens Although associated with various places he became commonly identified with the Atlas Mountains in northwest Africa Atlas was the son of the Titan Iapetus and the Oceanid Asia or Klymene In contexts where a Titan and a Titaness are assigned each of the seven planetary powers Atlas is paired with Phoebe and governs the moon He had three brothers Prometheus Epimetheus and Menoetius Aurora goddess of Dawn 9 the Latin word for dawn the goddess of dawn in Roman mythology and Latin poetry Like Greek Eos and Rigvedic Ushas and possibly Germanic Ostara Aurora continues the name of an earlier IndoEuropean dawn goddess Hausas In Roman mythology Aurora goddess of the dawn renews herself every morning and ies across the sky announcing the arrival of the sun Her parentage was exible for Ovid she could equally be Pallann39s signifying the daughter of Pallas or the daughter of Hyperion She has two siblings a brother Sol the sun and a sister Luna the moon Rarely Roman writers imitated Hesiod and later Greek poets and made the Anemoi or Winds the offspring of the father of the stars Astraeus with EosAurora Aurora appears most often in Latin poetry with one of her mortal lovers A myth taken from the Greek Eos by Roman poets tells that one of her lovers was the prince of Troy Tithonus Tithonus was a mortal and would age and die Wanting to be with her lover for all eternity Aurora asked Zeus to grant immortality to Tithonus Zeus granted her wish but she failed to ask for eternal youth for him and he wound up aging eternally Aurora turned him into a grasshopper Autochthony 9 In mythology Autochthones are those mortals to have sprung from the soil rocks and trees They are rooted and belong to the land eternally They have neither personal father nor mother selfborn An Autochthon is not the same with the demigods offspring of Gaia gegenes earthborn although later the terms have been con ated Autochthons are reported in the following regions In Attica Amphictyon Cecrops I Cranaus Erichthonius Periphas InBoeotia Ogyges Alalcomenes Spartoi In the Peloponese Pelasgus of Arcadia Lelex of Laconia and Aras of Phliasia Finally in Atlantis Evenor BacchusDionysus 9 the god of the grape harvest winemaking and wine of ritual madness and ecstasy in Greek mythology His name in Linear B tablets shows he was worshipped from c 150071100 BC by Mycenean Greeks other traces of Dionysiantype cult have been found in ancient Minoan Crete His origins are uncertain and his cults took many forms some are described by ancient sources as Thracian others as Greek In some cults he arrives from the east as an Asiatic foreigner39 and in others from Ethiopia in the South He is a god of epiphany quotthe god that comes and his quotforeignnessquot as an arriving outsidergod may be inherent and essential to his cults He is a major popular figure of Greek mythology and religion and is included in some lists of the twelve Olympians His festivals were the driving force behind the development of Greek theater He was also known as Bacchus the name adopted by the Romans and the frenzy he induces bakkheia His thyrsus is sometimes wound with ivy and dripping with honey It is a beneficent wand but also a weapon and can be used to destroy those who oppose his cult and the freedoms he represents He is also the Liberator whose wine music and ecstatic dance frees his followers from selfconscious fear and care and subverts the oppressive restraints of the powerful Those who partake in his mysteries are possessed and empowered by the god himself His cult is also a quot cult of the souls his maenads feed the dead through bloodofferings and he acts as a divine communicant between the living and the dead In Greek mythology he is presented as a son of Zeus and the mortal Semele thus semidivine or heroic and as son of Zeus and Persephone or Demeter thus both fully divine partchthonic and possibly identical with Iacchus of the Eleusinian Mysteries Dionysus is a syncretism of a local Greek nature deity and a more powerful god from Thrace or Phrygia such as Sabazios or Zalmoxis Battus 9 In Greek mythology Battus is a shepherd from Pylos Battus witnessed Hermes stealing Apollo39s cattle Though he promised his silence he told many others Hermes turned him to stone In early Greek history Battus was the founder of Cyrene and several kings of Cyrene of the same name were descended from him Bellerophon 9 a hero of Greek mythology He was quotthe greatest hero and slayer of monsters alongside of Cadmus and Perseus before the days of Heracles and his greatest feat was killing the Chimera a monster that Homer depicted with a lion39s head a goat39s body and a serpent39s tail quother breath came out in terrible blasts of burning amequot Boreads Calais Zetes 9 They were the sons of Boreas and Oreithyia daughter of King Erechtheus of Athens Due to being sons of the north wind they were supernaturally gifted in different ways depending on changes in the story from being passed down through generations and cultures either being as fast as the wind or able to y having wings either on their feet or backs depending on the myth They were Argonauts and played a particularly vital role in the rescue of Phineas from the harpies They succeeded in driving the monsters away but did not kill them at a request from the goddess of the rainbow Iris who promised that Phineas would not be bothered by the harpies again As thanks Phineas told the Argonauts how to pass the Symplegades It is said that the Boreads were turned back by Iris at the Strophades The islands39 name meaning quotIslands of Turning refers to this event Their death was said to be caused by Heracles on Tenos in revenge for when they convinced the Argonauts to leave him behind as he searched for Hylas Boreas 9 the Greek god of the cold north wind and the bringer of winter His name meant quotNorth Wind or quotDevouring One Boreas is depicted as being very strong with a violent temper to match He was frequently shown as a winged old man with shaggy hair and beard holding a conch shell and wearing a billowing cloak Pausanias wrote that Boreas had snakes instead of feet though in art he was usually depicted with winged human feet Boreas was closely associated with horses He was said to have fathered twelve colts after taking the form of a stallion to the mares of Erichthonius king of Troy These were said to be able to run across a field of grain without trampling the plants Pliny thought that mares might stand with their hindquarters to the North Wind and bear foals without a stallion The Greeks believed that his home was in Thrace and Herodotus and Pliny both describe a northern land known as Hyperborea quotBeyond the North Windquot where people lived in complete happiness and had extraordinarily long lifespans Boreas was also said to have kidnapped Oreithyia an Athenian princess from the river llissus Boreas had taken a fancy to Oreithyia and had initially pleaded for her favours hoping to persuade her When this failed he reverted to his usual temper and abducted her as she danced on the banks of the llissus Boreas wrapped Oreithyia up in a cloud raped her and with her Boreas fathered two sonsithe Boreads Zethes and Calaisiand two daughtersi Khione goddess of snow and Cleopatra From then on the Athenians saw Boreas as a relative by marriage Bull of Marathon 9 The worship of the Sacred Bull throughout the ancient world is most familiar to the Western world in the biblical episode of the idol of the Golden Calf The Golden Calf after being made by the Hebrew people in the wilderness of Sinai were rejected and destroyed by Moses and his tribe after his time upon the mountain peak Exodus Marduk is the quotbull of Utu Shiva39s steed is Nandi the Bull The sacred bull survives in the constellation Taurus The bull whether lunar as in Mesopotamia and Egypt or solar as in India is the subject of various other cultural and religious incarnations as well as modern mentions in new age cultures Cadmus 9 a Phoenician prince the son of king Agenor and queen Telephassa of Tyre and the brother of Phoenix Cilix and Europa He was originally sent by his royal parents to seek out and escort his sister Europa back to Tyre after she was abducted from the shores of Phoenicia by Zeus Cadmus founded the Greek city of Thebes the acropolis of which was originally named Cadmeia in his honor Cadmus was credited by the ancient Greeks Herodotus is an example with introducing the original Alphabet or Phoenician alphabet Phoenician lettersquotto the Greeks who adapted it to form their Greek alphabet Callisto 9 a nymph of Artemis Transformed into a bear and set among the stars she was the bearmother of the Arcadians through her son Arcas As a follower of Artemis Callisto who Hesiod said was the daughter of Lycaon king of Arcadia took a vow to remain a virgin as did all the nymphs of Artemis But to have her Zeus disguised himself Ovid says as Artemis Diana herself in order to lure her into his embrace Callisto was then turned into a bear According to Ovid it was Jupiter Zeus who took the form of Diana Artemis so that he might evade his wife Juno s detection forcing himself upon Callisto while she was separated from Diana and the other nymphs Her pregnant condition was discovered some months later while bathing with Diana and her fellow nymphs Upon this Diana was enraged and expelled Callisto from the group and subsequently she gave birth to Arcas Juno then took the opportunity to avenge her wounded pride and transformed the nymph into a bear Sixteen years later Callisto still a bear encountered her son Arcas hunting in the forest Just as Arcas was about to kill his own mother with his javelin Jupiter averted the tragedy by placing mother and son amongst the stars as Ursa Major and Minor respectively Juno enraged that her attempt at revenge had been frustrated appealed to Oceanus that the two might never meet his waters thus providing a poetic explanation for their circumpolar positions Cecrops 9 a mythical king of Athens who is said to have reigned for fiftysix years The name is not of Greek origin according to Strabo or it might mean 39face with a tail39 it is said that born from the earth itself he had his top half shaped like a man and the bottom half in serpent or fishtail form He was the founder and the first king of Athens itself though preceded in the region by the earthborn king Actaeus of Attica Cecrops was a culture hero teaching the Athenians marriage reading and writing and ceremonial burial The Acropolis was also known as the Cecropia in his honor The Athenians are said to have called themselves Cecropidee during the reigns of the five following kings in his honor Cecrops l was the father of three daughters Herse Pandrosus and Aglaurus To them was given a box or jar containing the infant Erichthonius to guard unseen They looked and terrified by the two serpents Athena had set within to guard the child they fled in terror and leapt from the Acropolis to their deaths Some accounts say one of the sisters was turned to stone instead Apparently Cecrops married Aglaurus the daughter of Actaeus former king of the region of Attica It is unknown if this woman was the mother of Cecrops39s son Erysichthon Erysichthon predeceased him and he was succeeded by Cranaus who is said to have been one of the wealthiest citizens of Athens at that time Cephalus 9 used both for the herofigure in Greek mythology and carried as a theophoric name by historical persons The word kephalas is Greek for quotheadquot perhaps used here because Cephalus was the founding quotheadquot of a great family that includes Odysseus It could be that Cephalus means the head of the sun that kills evaporates Procris dew with his unerring ray or 39javelin39 Cephalus was one of the lovers of dawn goddess Eos Sumptuous sacrifices for Cephalus and Procris are required in the inscribed sacred calendar of Thorikos in southern Attica Cercyon wrestler 9 figure in Greek mythology He was the King of Eleusis and a very strong man According to the different versions he was the son of Poseidon and one of the daughters of Amphictyon or Poseidon and the nymph Argiope or Branchus and the nymph Argiope or Hephaestus He had two children Alope and Hippothous He stood on the roads around Eleusis and challenged passersby to a wrestling match The loser always the passerby was murdered though Cercyon promised his kingdom to anyone who won He was eventually beaten and killed by Theseus who took over the kingdom of Eleusis Theseus won owing to his skill rather than superiority in brute physical strength With this Theseus started the sport of wrestling Cercyon39s daughter Alope had an affair with or was raped by Poseidon and she begets Hippothoon Cercyon had his daughter buried alive but Poseidon turned her into the spring Alope near Eleusis Chimaira 9 according to Greek mythology a monstrous firebreathing female creature of Lycia in Asia Minor composed of the parts of multiple animals upon the body of a lioness with a tail that ended in a snake39s head the head of a goat arose on her back at the center of her spine The Chimera was one of the offspring of Typhon and Echidna and a sibling of such monsters as Cerberus and the Lernaean Hydra The term chimera has also come to describe any mythical animal with parts taken from various animals and more generally an impossible or foolish fantasy Chiron 9 was held to be the superlative centaur among his brethren Like the satyrs centaurs were notorious for being wild and lusty overly indulgent drinkers and carousers given to violence when intoxicated and generally uncultured delinquents Chiron by contrast was intelligent civilized and kind but he was not related directly to the other centaurs He was known for his knowledge and skill with medicine Chrysaor 9 the brother of Pegasus was often depicted as a young man the son of Poseidon and Medusa However Chrysaor is sometimes said to be a giant or a winged boar Chrysaor and his brother the winged horse Pegasus were not born until Perseus chopped off Medusa39s head Chrysaor was also said to be born from the neck of Medusa whereas Pegasus was born from Medusa39s blood Medusa one of the Gorgon sisters the most beautiful and the only mortal one offended Athena by having sexual intercourse with Poseidon in one of Athena39s temples thereby desecrating it Chrysaor and Pegasus were born from the drops of Medusa39s blood which fell in the sea39 some say that they sprang from Medusa39s neck as Perseus beheaded her a quothigherquot birth such as the birth of Athena from the head of Zeus Chrysaor is said to have been king of Iberia Andorra Gibraltar Spain and Portugal Chrysaor had one son Geryon from Callirrhoe daughter of Oceanus Colchis 9 an ancient Georgian state kingdom and region in Western Georgia which played an important role in the ethnic and cultural formation of the Georgian nation The Kingdom of Colchis contributed significantly to the development of medieval Georgian statehood after its unification with the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Iberia The term Colchians is used as the collective term for early Georgian tribes which populated the eastern coast of the Black Sea In Greek mythology Colchis was the home of Aeetes and Medea and the destination of the Argonauts Colchis is also thought to be the possible homeland of the Amazons Its geography is mostly assigned to what is now the western part of Georgia and encompasses the presentday Georgian provinces of Samegrelo Imereti Guria Adjara Abkhazeti Svaneti Racha39 the modern Turkey s Rize Trabzon and Artvin provinces Lazistan TaoKlarjeti and the modern Russia s Sochi and Tuapse districts The Colchians were probably established on the Black Sea coast by the Middle Bronze Age Coronis 9 Coronis crow or quotravenquot daughter of Phlegyas King of the Lapiths was one of Apollo39s lovers While Apollo was away Coronis already pregnant with Asclepius fell in love with Ischys son of Elatus A white crow which Apollo had left to guard her informed him of the affair and Apollo enraged that the bird had not pecked out Ischys eyes as soon as he approached Coronis flung a curse upon it so furious that it scorched its feathers which is why all crows are black Apollo sent his sister Artemis to kill Coronis because he could not bring himself to Afterward Apollo feeling dejected only regained his presence of mind when Coronis39 body was already aflame on a funeral pyre Upon a sign from Apollo Hermes cut the unborn child out of her womb and gave it to the centaur Chiron to raise Hermes then brought her soul to Tartarus Creation 9 A creation myth or creation story is a symbolic narrative of a culture tradition or people that describes their earliest beginnings how the world they know began and how they first came into it Creation myths develop in oral traditions and are the most common form of myth found throughout hum an culture In the society in which it is told a creation myth is usually regarded as conveying profound truths although not necessarily in a historical or literal sense They are comm only although not always considered casmaganical mythsithat is they describe the ordering of the cosmos from a state of chaos or amorphousness They often are considered sacred accounts and can be found in nearly all known religious traditions Several features are found in all creation myths They are all stories with a plot and characters that are either deities humanlike figures or animals which often speak and transform easily They are often set in a dim and nonspecific past what historian of religion lLircea Eliade termed in illa tempare Also all creation myths speak to deeply meaningful questions held by the society that shares them revealing of their central worldview and the framework for the selfidentity of the culture and individual in a universal context Crommyonian Sow 9 In Greek mythology the Crommyonian Sow was a wild pig which ravaged the region around the village of Crommyon between Megara and Corinth and was eventually slain by Theseus in his early adventures According to Apollodorus it was said by some to be the daughter of Echidna and Typhon and was named after the old woman who raised it According to Strabo the sow was said to be the mother of the Caledonian Boar Hyginus says that the pig that Thesesus killed at Crommyon was a boar CronosSaturn 9 leader and the youngest of the first generation of Titans divine descendants of Gaia the earth and Uranus the sky He overthrew his father and ruled during the mythological Golden Age until he was overthrown by his own son Zeus and imprisoned in Tartarus Cronus was usually depicted with a sickle or scythe which was also the weapon he used to castrate and depose Uranus his father In Athens on the twelfth day of the Attic month of Hekatombaion a festival called Kronia was held in honor of Cronus to celebrate the harvest suggesting that as a result of his association with the virtuous Golden Age Cronus continued to preside as a patron of harvest Cronus was also identified in classical antiquity with Rom an deity Saturn Crow 9 CupidEros LoveDesire 9 the god of desire affection and erotic love He is the son of the goddess Venus and the god Mars His Greek counterpart is Eros He is also known in Latin as Amor quotLovequot the Amores plural are the equivalent of the Greek Erotes In popular culture Cupid is frequently shown shooting his bow to inspire romantic love often as an icon of Valentine39s Day He is now in the current culture the personification of love and courtship in general Danae 9 a daughter of King Acrisius of Argos and Eurydice She was the mother of Perseus by Zeus She was sometimes credited with founding the city of Ardea in Latium Disappointed by his lack of male heirs Acrisius asked an oracle if this would change The oracle told him to go to the Earth39s end where he would be killed by his daughter39s son She was childless and meaning to keep her so he shut her up in a bronze tower or cave But Zeus came to her in the form of golden rain and impregnated her Soon after their child Perseus was born None too happy but unwilling to provoke the wrath of the gods by killing his offspring Acrisius cast the two into the sea in a wooden chest The sea was calmed by Poseidon and at the request of Zeus the pair survived They washed ashore on the island of Seriphos where they were taken in by Dictys the brother of King Polydectes who raised the boy to manhood Later after Perseus killed Medusa and rescued Andromeda the oracle39s prophecy came true Daphne 9 daughter either of Peneus and Creusa in Thessaly or of the river Ladon in Arcadia The pursuit of a local nymph by an Olympian god part of the archaic adjustment of religious cult in Greece was given an arch anecdotal turn in Ovid39s Metamorphoses where the gods infatuation was caused by an arrow from Eros who wanted to make Apollo pay for making fun of his archery skills and to demonstrate the power of love39s arrow Ovid treats the encounter Apollo39s lapse of majesty in the mode of elegiac lovers and expands the pursuit into a series of speeches According to the rendering Daphne prays for help either to the river god Peneus or to Gaia and is transformed into a laurel Daughters of Cecrops Pandrosos Aglauros Herse 9 Cecrops l was the father of three daughters Herse Pandrosus and Aglaurus To them was given a box or jar containing the infant Erichthonius to guard unseen They looked and terrified by the two serpents Athena had set within to guard the child they ed in terror and lept from the Acropolis to their deaths Some accounts say one of the sisters was turned to stone instead Athena gave the box to the three daughters of Cecrops the king of Athens Herse Pandrosus and Aglaurus and warned them never to open it Overcome with curiosity Aglaurus and Herse opened the box which contained the infant and futureking Erichthonius quottroubles born from the earth Sources are unclear whether only one sister or all three participated The sisters were terrified by what they saw in the box either a snake coiled around an infant or an infant that was halfman and halfserpent They went insane and threw themselves off the Acropolis Other accounts state that they were killed by the snake Daughters of Pelias 9 Hera who was still angry with Pelias conspired to make him fall in love with Medea who she hoped would kill Pelias When Jason and Medea returned Pelias still refused to give up his throne Medea conspired to have Pelias own daughters Peliades kill him She told them she could turn an old ram into a young ram by cutting up the old ram and boiling it During the demonstration a live young ram jumped out of the pot Excited the girls cut their father into pieces and threw them in a pot in the expectation that he would emerge rejuvenated Pelias did not survive Pelias son Acastus later drove Jason and Medea to Corinth and so reclaimed the kingdom Delos 9 The island of Delos isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades near Mykonos is one of the most important mythological historical and archaeological sites in Greece Delos had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of Apollo and Artemis From its Sacred Harbour the horizon shows the two conical mounds that have identified landscapes sacred to a goddess in other sites one retaining its pre Greek name Mount Kynthos is crowned with a sanctuary of Dionysus Established as a cult centre Delos had an importance that its natural resources could never have offered In this vein Leto searching for a birthingplace for Apollo addressed the island DemeterCeres 9 the goddess of the harvest who presided over grains the fertility of the earth and the seasons personified by the Hours Her comm on surnames are Sito wheat as the giver of food or corngrain and Thesmophoros divine order unwritten law as a mark of the civilized existence of agricultural society Though Demeter is often described simply as the goddess of the harvest she presided also over the sanctity of marriage the sacred law and the cycle of life and death She and her daughter Persephone were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries that predated the Olympian pantheon In the Linear B Mycenean Greek tablets of circa 14001200 BC found at Pylos the quottwo mistresses and the king are identified with Demeter Persephone and Poseidon Her Roman equivalent is Ceres Deucalion 9 a son of Prometheus and Pronoia The anger of Zeus was ignited by the hubris of the Pelasgians and he decided to put an end to the Bronze Age Lycaon the king of Arcadia had sacrificed a boy to Zeus who was appalled by this savage offering Zeus loosed a deluge so that the rivers ran in torrents and the sea ooded the coastal plain engulfed the foothills with spray and washed everything clean Deucalion with the aid of his father Prometheus was saved from this deluge by building a chest Like his Biblical equivalent Noah and Mesopotamian counterpart Utnapishtim he uses his chest to save himself and his wife Pyrrha Dictys 9 Dictys was a fisherman and brother of King Polydectes of Seriphos both being the sons of Magnes by a naiad He discovered Danae and Perseus inside a chest that had washed up on shore He immediately fell in love with Danae and wanted to marry her but Danae didn39t want to marry him He treated them well and raised Perseus as his own son After Perseus killed Medusa rescued Andromeda and later showed Medusa39s head to Polydectes turning him and the nobles with him to stone he made Dictys king Dictys one of the sailors who tried to abduct Dionysus but was turned into a dolphin by the god Dictys a centaur who attended Pirithous39 weddings and battled with the Lapiths Fleeing Pirithous he slipped and fell off a cliff impaling him on the top of an ash tree killing himself Dictys son of Poseidon and Agamede daughter of Augeas Echo 9 an Oread a mountain nymph who loved her own voice Zeus loved consorting with beautiful nymphs and visited them on Earth often Eventually Zeus39s wife Hera became suspicious and came from Mt Olympus in an attempt to catch Zeus with the nymphs Sometimes the young and beautiful nymph Echo would distract and amuse Zeus39 wife Hera with long and entertaining stories while Zeus took advantage of the moment to ravish the other mountain nymphs When Hera discovered the trickery she punished the talkative Echo by taking away her voice except in foolish repetition of another s shouted words Thus all Echo could do was repeat the voice of another Echo fell in love with a vain youth named Narcissus who was the son of the blue Nymph Liriope of Thespia The most popular version of the EchoNarcissus story depicts that when Narcissus realizes he is in love with his own re ection he becomes utterly distraught and realizing no way to fulfill his love he takes his hunting knife and stabs himself through the heart As the blood drops fell to the ground they spawned the first growth of the Daffodil also known as the Narcissus ower or plant Echo was a beautiful and musical nymph who could sing and play many instruments She lived in the woods and denied the love of any man or god Pan a lecherous god fell in love with Echo but she ran away from him He became so angry when she refused him he created such a quotpanicquot causing a group of shepherds to kill her Echo was torn to pieces and spread all over the Earth The goddess of the earth Gaia received the pieces of Echo whose voice remains repeating the last words of others In some versions Echo and Pan had two children Tambe and lynx Epaphos 9 the son of Zeus and To and a king of Egypt The nameword Epaphus means quotTouchquot This refers to the manner in which he was conceived by the touch of Zeus39 hand He was born in Euboea Herodotus Strabo or according to others in Egypt on the river Nile after the long wanderings of his mother He was then concealed by the Curetes by the request of Hera but lo sought and afterward found him in Syria Epaphus is regarded in the myths as the founder of Memphis Egypt With his wife Memphis or according to others Cassiopeia he had one daughter Libya Another of his daughters bore the name of Lysianassa Epaphus also criticized Phaeton39s heraldry which prompted him to undertake his fateful journey in his father Phoebus39 chariot of the sun Belus another mythological king of Egypt is a grandson of Epaphus Epimetheus 9 was the brother of Prometheus quotforesigh literally quotforethought a pair of Titans who quot acted as representatives of mankind They were the inseparable sons of lapetus who in other contexts was the father of Atlas While Prometheus is characterized as ingenious and clever Epimetheus is depicted as foolish In later myths the daughter of Epimetheus and Pandora was Pyrrha who married Deucalion and was one of the two who survived the deluge Erichthonios 9 a mythological early ruler of ancient Athens Greece He was according to some legends autochthonous born of the soil or Earth and raised by the goddess Athena Early Greek texts do not distinguish between him and Erectheus his grandson but by the fourth century BC during Classical times they are entirely distinct figures Europa 9 a Phoenician woman of high lineage from whom the name of the continent Europe has ultimately been taken The name Europa occurs in Hesiod39s long list of daughters of primordial Oceanus and Tethys The story of her abduction by Zeus in the form of a white bull was a Cretan story as Kerenyi points out quotmost of the lovestories concerning Zeus originated from more ancient tales describing his marriages with goddesses This can especially be said of the story of Europa The daughter of the earthgiant Tityas and mother of Euphemus by Poseidon was also named Europa F irebreathing Bronze Bulls 9 The Flood 9 A ood myth or deluge myth is a mythical or religious story of a great ood sent by a deity or deities to destroy civilization as an act of divine retribution It is a theme widespread among many cultures though it is perhaps best known in modern times through the biblical and Quranic account of Noah39s Ark the foundational myths of the Quiche and Mayas through Deucalion in Greek mythology the Utnapishtim in the Epic of Gilgamesh or the Hindu puranic story of Manu Parallels are often drawn between the oodwaters of these myths and the primeval waters found in some creation myths since the oodwaters are seen to cleanse humanity in preparation for rebirth Most ood myths also contain a culture hero who strives to ensure this rebirth The Four Ages Gold Silver Bronze Iron 9 Gaia lVIother Earth 9 the primordial Earthgoddess in ancient Greek religion Gaia was the great mother of all the heavenly gods and Titans were descended from her union with Uranus the sky the seagods from her union with Pontus the sea the Giants from her mating with Tartarus the hellpit and mortal creatures were sprung or born from her earthy esh The earliest reference to her is Mycenaean Greek Linear B maka quotMother Gaiaquot Her equivalent in the Roman pantheon was Terra Geryon 9 son of Chrysaor and Callirrhoe and grandson of Medusa was a fearsome giant who dwelt on the island Erytheia of the mythic Hesperides in the far west of the Mediterranean A more literalminded later generation of Greeks associated the region with Tartessos in southern Tberia Geryon was often described as a monster with human faces According to Hesiod Geryon had one body and three heads whereas the tradition followed by Aeschylus gave him three bodies A lost description by Stesichoros said that he has six hands and six feet and is winged39 there are some midsixthcentury Chalcidian vases portraying Geryon as winged Some accounts state that he had six legs as well while others state that the three bodies were joined to one pair of legs Apart from these weird features his appearance was that of a warrior He owned a twoheaded hound named Orthrus which was the brother of Cerberus and a herd of magnificent red cattle that were guarded by Orthrus and a herder Eurytion son of Erytheia Gigantomachy 9 the symbolic struggle between the cosmic order of the Olympians led by Zeus and the nether forces of Chaos led by the giant Alcyoneus Heracles fought on the side of Olympians who defeated the Giants in accordance with Hera s prophecy that the gods39 victory would not be accomplished without the participation of the son of a mortal mother Pallene was regarded as the Giants home ground during the Gigantomachy39 their leader Alcyoneus could not be defeated in his homeland so Heracles picked him up and carried him over the border out of Pallene and slaughtered him there The attempt of the Giants Otus and Ephialtes to storm Olympus by piling Mount Ossa upon Mount Pelion is linked with the Gigantom achy in some sources and treated as a separate adolescent attack upon the power of Zeus in others Golden RamGolden Fleece 9 the eece of the goldhaired winged ram which can be procured in Colchis It figures in the tale of Jason and his band of Argonauts who set out on a quest by order of King Pelias for the eece in order to place Jason rightfully on the throne of lolcus in Thessaly The story is of great antiquity 7 it was current in the time of Homer eighth century BC 7 and consequently it survives in various forms among which details vary Thus in later versions of the story the ram is said to have been the offspring of the sea god Poseidon and Themisto less often Nephele or Theophane The classic telling is the Argonautica of Apollonius of Rhodes composed in midthird century BC Alexandria recasting early sources that have not survived Another much lessknown Argonautica using the same body of myth was composed in Latin by Valerius Flaccus during the time of Vespasian Gorgons 9 a terrifying female creature The name derives from the Greek word gorgos which means quotdreadfulquot While descriptions of Gorgons vary across Greek literature the term commonly refers to any of three sisters who had hair of living venomous snakes and a horrifying visage that turned those who beheld it to stone Traditionally while two of the Gorgons were immortal Stheno and Euryale their sister Medusa was not and was slain by the mythical hero Perseus Gorgons were a popular image of Greek mythology appearing in the earliest of written records of Ancient Greek religious beliefs such as those of Homer Because of their legendary gaze images of the Gorgons were put upon objects and buildings for protection For example an image of a Gorgon holds the primary location at the pediment of the temple at Corfu It is the oldest stone pediment in Greece and is dated to c 600 BC Graiae 9 were three sisters who shared one eye and one tooth among them They are one of several trios of archaic goddesses in Greek mythology The Graeae were daughters of Phorcys and Ceto Thus they were among the Phorcydes all of which were either aquatic seabased or chthonic earthbased deities The Graiae were sisters to the Gorgons The Graeae took the form of old greyhaired women though at times poets euphemistically described them as quotbeautifulquot In other legends they are described as being halfswan They shared one eye and one tooth which they took turns using By stealing their eye while they were passing amongst themselves The Heliades 9 the daughters of Helios and Clymene the Oceanid According to one source there were three of them Aegiale Aegle and Aetheria According to another source there were five Helia Merope Phoebe Aetheria and Dioxippe Yet other sources include on the list Phaethousa and Lampetia who are otherwise called daughters of Neaera Their brother Phaethon died after attempting to drive his father39s chariot the sun across the sky He was unable to control the horses and fell to his death according to most accounts Zeus struck his chariot with a thunderbolt to save the Earth from being set afire The Heliades grieved for four months and the gods turned them into poplar trees and their tears into amber According to some sources their tears amber fell into the river Eridanos in which Phaethon had fallen HadesPluto 9 the ancient Greek god of the underworld The genitive Haidau was an elision to denote locality quot the housedominion afHades Eventually the nominative came to designate the abode of the dead In Greek mythology Hades is the oldest male child of Cronus and Rhea According to myth he and his brothers Zeus and Poseidon defeated the Titans and claimed rulership over the cosmos ruling the underworld air and sea respectively39 the solid earth long the province of Gaia was available to all three concurrently Because of his association with the underworld Hades is often interpreted in modern times as the personification of death even though he was not Hades was also called quotPloutonquot quotRich One a name that the Romans Latinized as Pluto The Romans would associate HadesPluto with their own chthonic gods Dis Pater and Orcus The corresponding Etruscan god was Aim Symbols associated with him are the Helm of Darkness and the threeheaded dog Cerberus Harmonia 9 the immortal goddess of harmony and concord Her Roman counterpart is Concordia and her Greek opposite is Eris whose Roman counterpart is Discordia Harpies 9 one of the winged spirits best known for constantly stealing all food from Phineas The literal meaning of the word seems to be quotthat which snatches as it comes from the ancient Greek word harpazein which means quotto snatch A harpy was the mother by the West Wind Zephyros of the horses of Achilles Hecate 9 a chthonic GrecoRoman goddess associated with magic witchcraft necromancy and crossroads She is attested in poetry as early as Hesiod39s Theagany An inscription from late archaic Miletus naming her as a protector of entrances is also testimony to her presence in archaic Greek religion She has been associated with childbirth nurturing the young gates and walls doorways crossroads magic lunar lore torches and dogs HeliosSol the Sun god 9 the personification of the sun in Greek mythology Homer often calls him simply Titan or Hyperion while Hesiod and the Homeric Hymn separate him as a son of the Titans Hyperion and Theia or Euryphaessa and brother of the goddesses Selene the moon and Eos the dawn The names of these three were also the common Greek words for sun moon and dawn Ovid also calls him Titan in fact quotlumina Titan The Emperor Julian the Apostate forsook to show Romans that Helios was the only true god and that the other roman gods were just an image or manifestations of the supreme solar divinity during that time the solar monotheism was the official religion of the Roman Empire and Sol Invictus was recognized as supreme god Helle 9 a character in Greek mythology who figured prominently in the story of Jason and the Argonauts Phrixus son of Athamas and Nephele along with his twin sister Helle were hated by their stepmother Ino Ino hatched a devious plot to get rid of the twins roasting all the town39s crop seeds so they would not grow The local farmers frightened of famine asked a nearby oracle for assistance Ino bribed the men sent to the oracle to lie and tell the others that the oracle required the sacrifice of Phrixus Before he was killed though Phrixus and Helle were rescued by a ying golden ram sent by Nephele their natural mother Helle fell off the ram into the Hellespont which was named after her and died but Phrixus survived all the way to Colchis where King Aeetes took him in and treated him kindly giving Phrixus his daughter Chalciope in marriage In gratitude Phrixus gave the king the golden eece of the ram which Aeetes placed in a consecrated grove under the care of a sleepless dragon With the Greek god Poseidon she was the mother of the giant Almops and Paeon called Edonus in some accounts Hephaistos Vulcan The Lemnian 9 a Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan He is the son of Zeus and Hera the King and Queen of the Gods or else according to some accounts of Hera alone He was the god of technology blacksmiths craftsmen artisans sculptors metals metallurgy fire and volcanoes Like other mythic smiths but unlike most other gods Hephaestus was lame which gave him a grotesque appearance in Greek eyes He served as the blacksmith of the gods and he was worshipped in the manufacturing and industrial centers of Greece particularly in Athens The center of his cult was in Lemnos Hephaestus39s symbols are a smith39s hammer an anvil and a pair of tongs although sometimes he is portrayed holding an axe HeraJuno 9 the wife and one of three sisters of Zeus in the Olympian pantheon of classical Greek Mythology Her chief function was as the goddess of women and marriage In Roman mythology Juno was the equivalent mythical character The cow and later the peacock were sacred to her Hera39s mother was Rhea and her father Cronus Portrayed as majestic and solemn often enthroned and crowned with the poles a high cylindrical crown worn by several of the Great Goddesses Hera may bear a pomegranate in her hand emblem of fertile blood and death and a substitute for the narcotic capsule of the opium poppy Hera was known for her jealous and vengeful nature most notably against Zeus39s lovers and offspring but also against mortals who crossed her such as Pelias Paris offended her by choosing Aphrodite as the most beautiful goddess earning Hera s hatred HeraclesHercules 9 a divine hero in Greek mythology the son of Zeus and Alcmene foster son of Amphitryon and great grandson and halfbrother of Perseus He was the greatest of the Greek heroes a paragon of masculinity the ancestor of royal clans who claimed to be Heracleidae and a champion of the Olympian order against chthonic monsters In Rome and the modern West he is known as Hercules with whom the later Roman Emperors in particular Commodus and Maximian often identified themselves The Romans adopted the Greek version of his life and works essentially unchanged but added anecdotal detail of their own some of it linking the hero with the geography of the Central Mediterranean Details of his cult were adapted to Rome as well Extraordinary strength courage ingenuity and sexual prowess with both males and females were among his characteristic attributes Although he was not as clever as the likes of Odysseus or Nestor Heracles used his wits on several occasions when his strength did not suffice such as when laboring for the king Augeas of Elis wrestling the giant Antaeus or tricking Atlas into taking the sky back onto his shoulders Together with Hermes he was the patron and protector of gymnasia and palaestrae His iconographic attributes are the lion skin and the club These qualities did not prevent him from being regarded as a playful figure that used games to relax from his labors and played a great deal with children By conquering dangerous archaic forces he is said to have quotmade the world safe for mankindquot and to be its benefactor Heracles was an extremely passionate and emotional individual capable of doing both great deeds for his friends such as wrestling with Thanatos on behalf of Prince Adm etus who had regaled Heracles with his hospitality or restoring his friend Tyndareus to the throne of Sparta after he was overthrown and being a terrible enemy who would wreak horrible vengeance on those who crossed him as Augeas Neleus and Laomedon all found out to their cost Hermaphroditus 9 the child of Aphrodite and Hermes He was a minor deity of bisexuality and effeminacy According to Ovid born a remarkably handsome boy he was transformed into an androgynous being by union with the water nymph Salmacis His name is the basis for the word hermaphrodite HermesMercury 9 he great messenger of the gods in Greek mythology and a guide to the Underworld Hermes was born on Mount Cyllene in Arcadia An Olympian god he is also the patron of boundaries and of the travelers who cross them of shepherds and cowherds of the cunning of thieves of orators and wit of literature and poets of athletics and sports of weights and measures of invention and of commerce in general His symbols include the tortoise the rooster the winged sandals the winged hat and the caduceus Roman adaptation of the Greek religion Hermes was identified with the Roman god Mercury who though inherited from the Etruscans developed many similar characteristics such as being the patron of commerce He protects and takes care of all the travelers miscreants harlots old crones and thieves that pray to him or cross his path He is athletic and is always looking out for runners or any athletes with injuries who need his help Hermes is a messenger from the gods to humans sharing this role with lris An interpreter who bridges the boundaries with strangers is a hermeneus Hermes name is the root of the word quothermeneuticsquot the study and theory of interpretation In Greek a lucky find was a hermaian Hermes delivered messages from Olympus to the mortal world He wears shoes with wings on them and uses them to fly freely between the mortal and immortal world Hermes was the second youngest of the Olympian gods being born before Dionysus Hermes as an inventor of fire is a parallel of the Titan Prometheus In addition to the lyre Hermes was believed to have invented many types of racing and the sports of wrestling and boxing and therefore was a patron of athletes Hesperides 9 nymphs who tend a blissful garden in a far western corner of the world located near the Atlas mountains in North Africa at the edge of the encircling Oceanus the worldocean By Roman times the garden of the Hesperides had lost its archaic place in religion and had dwindled to a poetic convention in which form it was revived in Renaissance poetry to refer both to the garden and to the nymphs that dwelt there Hydra 9 an ancient nameless serpentlike chthonic water beast as its name evinces that possessed many heads 7 the poets mention more heads than the vasepainters could paint and for each head cut off it grew two more i and poisonous breath so virulent even her tracks were deadly The Hydra of Lerna was killed by Heracles as the second of his Twelve Labours Its lair was the lake of Lerna in the Argolid though archaeology has borne out the myth that the sacred site was older even than the Mycenaean city of Argos since Lerna was the site of the myth of the Danaids Beneath the waters was an entrance to the Underworld and the Hydra was its guardian The Hydra was the offspring of Typhon and Echidna both of whom were noisome offspring of the earth goddess Gaia InoLeucothea 9 was one of the aspects under which an ancient sea goddess was recognized in this case as a transformed nymph In the more familiar variant lno the daughter of Cadmus sister of Semele and queen of Athamas became a goddess after Hera drove her insane as a punishment for caring for the newborn Dionysus She leapt into the sea with her son Melicertes in her arms and out of pity the Hellenes asserted the Olympian gods turned them both into seagods transforming Melicertes into Palaemon the patron of the Isthmian games and Tno into Leucothea Io 9 a priestess of Hera in Argos a nymph who was raped by Zeus who changed her into a heifer to escape detection His wife Hera set everwatchful Argus Panoptes to guard her but Hermes was sent to distract the guardian and slay him Heifer lo was loosed to roam the world stung by a maddening gadfly sent by Hera and wandered to Egypt thus placing her descendant Belus in Egypt39 his sons Cadmus and Danaus would then quotreturnquot to mainland Greece According to Ovid one day Zeus noticed the maiden and lusted after her As lo tells her own story in Aeschylus39 Prometheus Bound she rejected his whispered nighttime advances until the oracles caused her own father to drive her out into the fields of Lerna There Zeus covered her with clouds to hide her from the eyes of his jealous wife Hera who nonetheless came to investigate In a vain attempt to hide his crimes Zeus turned himself into a white cloud and transformed lo into a beautiful white heifer Hera was not fooled She demanded the heifer as a present and Zeus could not refuse her without arousing suspicion Hera tethered To to the olivetree in the Iemenas of her cult site the Heraion and placed her in the charge of manyeyed Argus Panoptes to keep her separated from Zeus Zeus commanded Hermes to kill Argus Ovid added the detail that he lulled all hundred eyes to sleep ultimately with the story of Pan and Syrinx Hera then forced To to wander the earth without rest plagued by a gadfly to sting her into madness lo eventually crossed the path between the Propontis and the Black Sea which thus acquired the name Bosporus meaning 0x passage where she met Prometheus Iris The Rainbow 9 the personification of the rainbow and messenger of the gods As the sun unites Earth and heaven Iris links the gods to humanity She travels with the speed of wind from one end of the world to the other 1 and into the depths of the sea and the underworld Itys 9 Philomela was a daughter of PandionI King of Athens and Zeuxippe and a sister of Procne Despite Ovid39s fanciful or simply mistaken etymology as quot lover of songquot the name means quot lover of fruit quotlover of applesquot or quotlover of sheepquot Procne39s husband King Tereus of Thrace son of Ares agreed to travel to Athens and escort Philomela to Thrace for a visit Tereus lusted for Philomela on the voyage Arriving in Thrace he forced her to a cabin in the woods and raped her In Ovid39sMeIamarphases Philomela39s defiant speech is rendered This incited Tereus to cut out her tongue and leave her in the cabin Philomela then wove a tapestry or a robe that told her story and had it sent to Procne In revenge Procne killed her son by Tereus Itys and served him to Tereus who unknowingly ate him When he discovered what had been done Tereus tried to kill the sisters they ed and he pursued but in the end all three were changed by the Olympian Gods into birds Ixion 9 king of the Lapiths the most ancient tribe of Thessaly and a son of Ares or Leonteus or Antion and Perimele or the notorious evildoer Phlegyas whose name connotes quotfieryquot Peirithoos was his son Ixion married Dia a daughter of Deioneus or Eioneus and promised his fatherinlaw a valuable present However he did not pay the bride price so Deioneus stole some of Ixion39s horses in retaliation Ixion concealed his resentment and invited his fatherinlaw to a feast at Larissa When Deioneus arrived Ixion pushed him into a bed of burning coals and wood These circumstances are secondary to the fact of Ixion39s primordial act of murder Jason 9 a late ancient Greek mythological hero from the late 10th Century BC famous as the leader of the Argonauts and their quest for the Golden Fleece He was the son of Aeson the rightful king of Iolcus He was married to the sorceress Medea Jason appeared in various literature in the classical world of Greece and Rome including the epic poem Argonaun39ca and tragedy Medea Laelaps Tempest 9 a Greek mythological dog that never failed to catch what he was hunting In one version of Laelaps origin he was a gift from Zeus to Europa The hound was passed down to King Mnos lIinos had been cursed by his wife he ejaculated scorpions and spiders that would devour the genitals of those he slept with Because of this he called Procris of Athens to his aid When she cured him he gave her Laelaps and a javelin that never missed its target and in some versions of the story Talos a bronze giant Procris39s husband decided to use the hound to hunt the Teumessian fox a fox that could never be caught This was a paradox a dog who always caught his prey and a fox that could never be caught The chase went on until Zeus perplexed by their contradictory fates turned both to stone At least one version of the Procris story asserts that Laelaps was a gift to her from the goddess Artemis Laurel 9 Leda 9 daughter of the Aetolian king Thestius and wife of the king Tyndareus of Sparta Her myth gave rise to the popular motif in Renaissance and later art of Leda and the Swan She was the mother of Helen of Troy Clytemnestra and Castor and Pollux Leda was admired by Zeus who seduced her in the guise of a swan As a swan Zeus fell into her arms for protection from a pursuing eagle Their consummation on the same night as Leda lay with her husband Tyndareus resulted in two eggs from which hatched Helen later known as the beautiful quotHelen of Troy Clytemnestra and Castor and Pollux also known as the Dioscuri Which children are the progeny of Tyndareus the mortal king and which are of Zeus and are thus halfimmortal is not consistent among accounts nor is which child hatched from which egg The split is almost always half mortal half divine although the pairings do not always re ect the children39s heritage pairings Castor and Polydeuces are sometimes both mortal sometimes both divine One consistent point is that if only one of them is immortal it is Polydeuces It is also always stated that Helen is the daughter of Zeus LetoLatona 9a daughter of the Titans Coeus and Phoebe The island of Kos is claimed as her birthplace In the Olympian scheme Zeus is the father of her twins Apollo and Artemis the Letoides which Leto conceived after her hidden beauty accidentally caught the eyes of Zeus For the classical Greeks Leto is scarcely to be conceived apart from being pregnant and finding a place to be delivered of Apollo and Artemis for Hera being jealous made it so all lands shunned her Finally she finds an island that isn39t attached to the ocean oor so it isn39t considered land and she can give birth This is her one active mythic role once Apollo and Artemis are grown Leto withdraws to remain a dim and benevolent matronly figure upon Olympus her part already played In Roman mythology Leto39s equivalent is Latona a Latinization of her name in uenced by Etruscan Letun A measure of what a primal goddess Leto was can be recognized in her father and mother Her Titan father is called quotCoeusquot and his obscure name links him to the sphere of heaven from pole to pole Leto39s mother quotPhoebequot is precisely the quotbright purifying epithet of the full moon Lycaon 9 a king of Arcadia son of Pelasgus and Meliboea who in the most popular version of the myth tested Zeus and as a punishment was transformed into the form of a wolf According to Ovid it was only Lycaon who served Zeus the flesh of a prisoner partly cooked and partly roasted Thereupon Zeus brought the roof down and transformed the eeing Lycaon into a wolf Marsyas 9 the satyr Marsyas is a central figure in two stories involving music in one he picked up the double ute aulas that had been abandoned by Athena and played it39 in the other he challenged Apollo to a contest of music and lost his hide and life In Antiquity literary sources often emphasize the hubris of Marsyas and the justice of his punishment In one strand of modern comparative mythography the domination of Marsyas by Apollo is regarded as an example of myth that recapitulates a supposed supplanting by the Olympian pantheon of an earlier quotPelasgianquot religion of chthonic heroic ancestors and nature spirits Marsyas was a devote of the ancient Mother Goddess RheaCybele and his episodes are situated by the mythographers in Celaenae in Phrygia today the town of Dinar in Turkey at the main source of the Meander the river Menderes When a genealogy was applied to him Marsyas was the son of Olympus son of Heracles and Euboea daughter of Thespius or of Oeagrus or of Hyagnis Olympus was alternatively said to be Marsyas39 son or pupil Metis 9 of the Titan generation and like several primordial figures an Oceanid in the sense that Metis was born of Oceanus and Tethys of an earlier age than Zeus and his siblings Metis was the first great spouse of Zeus indeed his equal and the mother of Athena Zeus39 first daughter the goddess of war and wisdom By the era of Greek philosophy in the fifth century BCE Metis had become the goddess of wisdom and deep thought but her name originally connoted quotmagical cunning and was as easily equated with the trickster powers of Prometheus as with the quotroyal meiisquot of Zeus The Stoic commentators allegorized Metis as the embodiment of quotprudencequot quotwisdomquot or quotwise counselquot in which form she was inherited by the Renaissance Medea 9 a woman in Greek mythology She was the daughter of King Aeetes of Colchis niece of Circe granddaughter of the sun god Helios and later wife to the hero Jason with whom she had two children Mermeros and Pheres In Euripides39s play Medea Jason leaves Medea when Creon king of Corinth offers him his daughter Glauce The play tells of how Medea gets her revenge on her husband for this betrayal The myths involving Jason have been interpreted by specialists as part of a class of myths that tell how the Hellenes of the distant heroic age before the Trojan War faced the challenges of the preGreek quotPelasgianquot cultures of mainland Greece the Aegean and Anatolia Jason Perseus Theseus and above all Heracles are all quotliminalquot figures poised on the threshold between the old world of shamans chthonic earth deities and the new Bronze Age Greek ways Medusa 9 a Gorgon a chthonic monster and a daughter of Phorcys and Ceto The author Hyginus interposes a generation and gives Medusa another chthonic pair as parents Gazing directly upon her would turn onlookers to stone She was beheaded by the hero Perseus who thereafter used her head as a weapon until he gave it to the goddess Athena to place on her shield In classical antiquity the image of the head of Medusa appeared in the evilaverting device known as the Gorgoneion MelicertesMelicertor 9 the son of the Boeotian prince Athamas and Ino daughter of Cadmus Ino pursued by her husband who had been driven mad by Hera because Ino had brought up the infant Dionysus threw herself and Melicertes into the sea from a high rock between Megara and Corinth Both were changed into marine deities Ino as Leucothea noted by Homer Melicertes as Palaemon The body of the latter was carried by a dolphin to the Isthmus of Corinth and deposited under a pine tree Here it was found by his uncle Sisyphus who had it removed to Corinth and by command of the Nereids instituted the Isthmian Games and sacrifices in his honor Minos 9 a king of Crete son of Zeus and Europa Every year he made King Aegeus pick seven men and seven women to go to Daedalus39 creation the labyrinth to be eaten by The Minotaur After his death Minos became a judge of the dead in Hades The Mnoan civilization of Crete has been named after him by the archaeologist Arthur Evans By his wife Pasiphae he fathered Ariadne Androgeus Deucalion Phaedra Glaucus Catreus Acacallis and Xenodike By a nymph Pareia he had four sons Eurymedon Nephalion Chryses and Philolaus who were killed by Heracles in revenge for the murder of the latter39s two companions and by Dexithea one of the Telchines he had a son Euxanthius Some say his wife was not Pasiphae but Crete Mnos along with his brothers Rhadamanthys and Sarpedon was raised by king Asterion of Crete When Asterion died his throne was claimed by Minos who banished Sarpedon and according to some sources Rhadamanthys too Minotaur 9 a creature with the head of a bull on the body of a man or as described by Roman poet Ovid quotpart man and part bull He dwelt at the center of the Cretan Labyrinth which was an elaborate mazelike construction designed by the architect Daedalus and his son Icarus on the command of King lIinos of Crete The Minotaur was eventually killed by the Athenian hero Theseus The term Mnotaur derives from the Ancient Greek a compound of the name lIinos and the noun quotbullquot translating as quot the Bull of lIinos In Crete the Mnotaur was known by its proper name Asterion a name shared with Mnos fosterfather Minotaur was originally a proper noun in reference to this mythical figure The use of minolaur as a common noun to refer to members of a generic race of bullheaded creatures developed much later in 20thcentury fantasy genre fiction Minyades daughters of Minyas 9 three sisters in Greek mythology who were daughters of Mnyas and the protagonists of a myth about the perils of neglecting the worship of Dionysus Their names were Alcathoe Leucippe and Arsippe although instead of quotArsippequot Claudius Aelianus calls the latter quotAristippaquot and Plutarch quotArsinoequot Ovid uses quotLeuconoequot instead of quotLeucippequot Muses 9 in Greek mythology poetry and literature are the goddesses who inspire the creation of literature and the arts They were considered the source of the knowledge related orally for centuries in the ancient culture that was contained in poetic lyrics and myths The compliment to a real woman who inspires creative endeavor is a later idea Myrmidons 9 legendary people of Greek history They are very brave and skilled warriors commanded by Achilles as described in Homer39s Iliad Their eponymous ancestor was Myrmidon a king of Thessalian Phthia who was a son of Zeus and quotwideruling Eurymedousa a princess of Phthia She was seduced by Zeus in the form of an ant An etiological myth of their origins expanding upon their etymology i the name in Classical Greek was interpreted as quotantpeople from murmedon quotant39s nestquot and that from murmex quotantquot 7 was first mentioned by Ovid in Metamorphoses in Ovid39s telling King Aeacus of Aegina father of Peleus pleaded with Zeus to populate his country after a terrible plague Zeus said his people would number as the ants on his sacred oak and from the ants sprang the people of Aegina the Myrmidons According to Homer39s Iliad the Myrmidons were the fiercest warriors in all of Greece As said in Iliad quotGo home then with your ships and comrades to lord it over the Myrmidonsquot Narcissus 9 possibly derived from narke meaning quotsleep numbness in Greek mythology was a hunter from the territory of Thespiae in Boeotia who was renowned for his beauty He was exceptionally proud in that he disdained those who loved him Nemesis saw this and attractedNarcissus to a pool where he saw his own re ection in the waters and fell in love with it not realizing it was merely an image Unable to leave the beauty of his reflection Narcissus died N ephele 9 a cloud nymph who figured prominently in the story of Phrixus and Helle Greek myth also has it that Nephele is the cloud whom Zeus created in the image of Hera to trick Ixion to test his integrity after displaying his lust for Hera during a feast as a guest of Zeus Ixion failed in restraining his lust for Hera thus fathering the Centaurs Nephele married Athamus but he divorced her for Ino Phrixus son of Athamas and Nephele along with his twin Helle were hated by their stepmother Ino Ino hatched a devious plot to get rid of the twins roasting all the town39s crop seeds so they would not grow The local farmers frightened of famine asked a nearby oracle for assistance Ino bribed the men sent to the oracle to lie and tell the others that the oracle required the sacrifice of Phrixus Before he was killed though Phrixus and Helle were rescued by a flying golden ram sent by Nephele their natural mother Phrixus and Helle were instructed to not look down to Earth for the duration of their ight Helle though did look down and fell off the ram into the Hellespont and drowned but Phrixus survived all the way to Colchis where King Aeetes took him in and treated him kindly giving Phrixus his daughter Chalciope in marriage In gratitude Phrixus gave the king the Golden Fleece of the ram which Aeetes hung in a tree in his kingdom The golden eece would later be taken by Jason N iobe 9 a daughter of Tantalus and of either Dione the most frequently cited or of Eurythemista or Euryanassa and she was the sister of Pelops and Broteas all of whom figure in Greek mythology She was already mentioned in Homer39s Iliad which relates her prideful hubris for which she was punished by Leto who sent Apollo and Artemis with the loss of all her children and her nine days of abstention from food during which time her children lay unburied Once the gods interred them she retreated to her native Sipylus quotwhere Nymphs dance around the River Acheloos and although being a stone she broods over the sorrows sent from the Gods Later writers asserted thatNiobe was wedded to Amphion one of the twin founders of Thebes where there was a single sanctuary where the twin founders were venerated but in fact no shrine to Niobe Ocyrhoe 9 Ocyrhoe was a daughter of Chiron and Chariclo Ocyrhoe was transformed into a horse because she told her father Chiron his exact fate She revealed that he would forsake his immortality to be spared the agonizing pain of a serpent s poison For this transgression Ocyrhoe39s ability to speak was taken One might assume that she turned into a horse because her father was a centaur and because she had long auburn hair Ocyrrhoe one of the Oceanids Ocyrrhoe a nymph She was the mother by Hippasus of Charops Socus Apisaon Agelaus Pammon and Hippomedon Orithyia 9 daughter of King Erechtheus of Athens and his wife Praxithea in Greek mythology Her brothers were Cecrops Pandorus and Metion and her sisters were Procris Creusa and Chthonia Boreas the north wind fell in love with her At first he attempted to woo her but after failing at that he decided to take her by force as violence felt more natural to him While she was playing by the Ilissos River she was carried off to Sarpedon s Rock near the Erginos River in Thrace There she was wrapped in a cloud and raped Aeschylus wrote a satyr play about the abduction called Orithyia which has been lost Ouranos Heaven 9 the primal Greek god personifying the sky His equivalent in Roman mythology was Caelus In Ancient Greek literature according to Hesiod in his Theagany Uranus or Father Sky was the son and husband of Gaia Mother Earth Uranus and Gaia were ancestors of most of the Greek gods but no cult addressed directly to Uranus survived into Classical times and Uranus does not appear among the usual themes of Greek painted pottery Elemental Earth Sky and Styx might be joined however in a solemn invocation in Homeric epic Pallas AthenaMinerva 9 the goddess of wisdom courage inspiration civilization warfare strength strategy female arts crafts justice and skill Mnerva Athena39s Roman incarnation embodies similar attributes Athena is also a shrewd companion of heroes and the goddess of heroic endeavour She is the virgin patron of Athens The Athenians built the Parthenon on the Acropolis of her namesake city Athens in her honor Athena Parthenos Athena39s veneration as the patron of Athens seems to have existed from the earliest times and was so persistent that archaic myths about her were recast to adapt to cultural changes In her role as a protector of the city alis many people throughout the Greek world worshiped Athena asAIhena Palias quotAthena of the city Athens and Athena bear etymologically connected names Pan 9 the god of the wild shepherds and flocks nature of mountain wilds hunting and rustic music as well as the companion of the nymphs His name originates within the Greek language from the word paein meaning quotto pasture He has the hindquarters legs and horns of a goat in the same manner as a faun or satyr With his homeland in rustic Arcadia he is recognized as the god of fields groves and wooded glens because of this Pan is connected to fertility and the season of spring The ancient Greeks also considered Pan to be the god of theatrical criticism Pandora 9 the first woman As Hesiod related it each god helped create her by giving her unique gifts Zeus ordered Hephaestus to mold her out of earth as part of the punishment of mankind for Prometheus39 theft of the secret of fire and all the gods joined in offering her quotseductive gif quot Her other name inscribed against her figure on a whiteground kylix in the British Museum is Anesidora quot she who sends up giftsquot up implying quot from belowquot within the earth According to the myth Pandora opened a jar pilhas in modern accounts sometimes mistranslated as quotPandora39s box releasing all the evils of mankind 7 although the particular evils aside from plagues and diseases are not specified in detail by Hesiod i leaving only Hope inside once she had closed it again She opened the jar out of simple curiosity and not as a malicious act Pasiphae 9 the daughter of Helios the Sun by the eldest of the Oceanids Perse39 Like her doublet Europa her origins were in the East in her case at Colchis the palace of the Sun39 she was given in marriage to King Minos of Crete With Minos she was the mother of Ariadne Androgeus Glaucus Deucalion Phaedra and Catreus She was also the mother of quotstarlikequot Asterion called by the Greeks the Minotaur after a curse from Poseidon caused her to experience lust for and mate with a white bull sent by Poseidon quotThe Bull was the old preOlympian Poseidonquot Ruck and Staples remark In the Greek literalistic understanding of a Minoan myth in order to actually copulate with the bull she had the Athenian artificer Daedalus construct a portable wooden cow with a cowhide covering within which she was able to satisfy her strong desire The effect of the Greek interpretation was to reduce a morethanhuman female daughter of the Sun itself to a stereotyped emblem of grotesque bestiality and the shocking excesses of female sensuality and deceit In Ovid39s ArsAmalaria Pasiphae is reduced to unflattering human terms Pasiphae eri gaudebal adultera Iaun39i quotPasiphae took pleasure in becoming an adulteress with a bullquot Patroclus 9 In Greek mythology as recorded in the Iliad by Homer Patroclus glory of the father was the son of Menoetius grandson of Actor King of Opus and was Achilles39 beloved comrade and brotherinarms Pegasus 9 one of the best known fantastical as well as mythological creatures in Greek mythology He is a winged divine horse usually white in color He was sired by Poseidon in his role as horsegod and foaled by the Gorgon Medusa He was the brother of Chrysaor born at a single birthing when his mother was decapitated by Perseus GrecoRoman poets write about his ascent to heaven after his birth and his obeisance to Zeus king of the gods who instructed him to bring lightning and thunder from Olympus Friend of the Muses Pegasus is the creator of Hippocrene the fountain on Mt Helicon He was captured by the Greek hero Bellerophon near the fountain Peirene with the help of Athena and Poseidon Pegasus allows the hero to ride him to defeat a monster the Chimera before realizing many other exploits His rider however falls off his back trying to reach Mount Olympus Zeus transformed him into the constellation Pegasus and placed him in the sky Peleus 9 a hero whose myth was already known to the hearers of Homer in the late 8th century BCE Peleus was the son of Aeacus king of the island of Aegina and Endeis the oread of Mount Pelion in Thessaly39 he was the father of Achilles He and his brother Telamon were friends of Heracles serving in his expedition against the Amazons his war against King Laomedon and with him in the quest for the Golden Fleece Though there were no further kings in Aegina the kings of Epirus claimed descent from Peleus in the historic period Pelias 9 king of lolcus in Greek mythology the son of Tyro and Poseidon His wife is recorded as either Anaxibia daughter of Bias or Phylomache daughter of Amphion He was the father of Acastus Pisidice Alcestis Pelopia Hippothoe Asteropia and Antinoe Tyro was married to Cretheus with whom she had three sons Aeson Pheres and Amythaon but loved Enipeus a river god She pursued Enipeus who refused her advances One day Poseidon filled with lust for Tyro disguised him self as Enipeus and from their union was born Pelias and Neleus twin boys Tyro exposed her sons on a mountain to die but they were found by a herdsmen who raised them as his own as one story goes or they were raised by a maid When they reached adulthood Pelias and Neleus found Tyro and killed their stepmother Sidero for having mistreated her Sidero hid in a temple to Hera but Pelias killed her anyway causing Hera39s undying hatred of Pelias Pelias was powerhungry and he wished to gain dominion over all of Thessaly To this end he banished Neleus and Pheres and locked Aeson in the dungeons in lolcus While in there Aeson married and had several children most famously Jason Aeson sent Jason to Chiron the centaur on Mount Pelium to be educated while Pelias paranoid that he would be overthrown was warned by an oracle to beware a man wearing one sandal Many years later Pelias was holding the Olympics in honor of Poseidon when Jason rushing to lolcus by the modern city of Volos lost one of his sandals in the ooded river Anaurus while helping someone cross In Virgil39s Aeneid Hera had disguised herself as an old woman whom Jason helped across the river and then lost his sandal When Jason entered Tolcus he was announced as a man wearing one sandal Paranoid Pelias asked him what he Jason would do if confronted with the man who would be his downfall Jason responded that he would send that man after the Golden Fleece Pelias took advice and sent Jason to retrieve the Golden Fleece Pelops 9 king of Pisa in the Peloponnesus He was the founder of the House of Atreus through his son of that name He was venerated at Olympia where his cult developed into the founding myth of the Olympic Games the most important expression of unity not only for the Peloponnesus quot island of Pelops but also for all Hellenes At the sanctuary at Olympia chthonic nighttime libations were offered each time to quotdarkfacedquot Pelops in his sacrificial pit bathras before they were offered in the following daylight to the skygod Zeus Pentheus 9 a king of Thebes son of the strongest of the Spartes Echion and of Agave daughter of Cadmus the founder of Thebes and the goddess Harmonia Much of what is known about the character comes from Euripides39 tragic play The Bacchae Periphetes clubbearer 9 The most prominent Periphetes also known as Corynetes or the ClubBearer was a son of Hephaestus and Anticleia Like his father he was lame in one leg with only one eye as a Cyclopes would have He roamed the road from Athens to Troezen where he robbed travelers and killed them with his bronze club Theseus killed him by throwing a boulder at him and afterwards used the club as his own weapon PersephoneProserpina 9 the daughter of Zeus and the harvest goddess Demeter and queen of the underworld39 she was abducted by Hades the king of the underworld The myth of her abduction represents her function as the personification of vegetation which shoots forth in spring and withdraws into the earth after harvest39 hence she is also associated with spring and with the seeds of the fruits of the fields Persephone as a vegetation goddess Kore and her mother Demeter were the central figures of the Eleusinian mysteries that predated the Olympian pantheon Perseus 9 the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty of Danaans there was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits in defeating various archaic monsters provided the founding myths of the Twelve Olympians Perseus was the Greek hero who killed the Gorgon Medusa and claimed Andromeda having rescued her from a sea monster sent by Poseidon in retribution for Queen Cassiopeia declaring herself more beautiful than the sea nymphs Phaethon 9 the son of Helios and Clymene Perhaps the most famous version of the myth is given us through Ovid in his Metamorphoses Book II Phaeton seeks assurance that his mother Clym ene is telling the truth that his father is the sun god Helios When Phaeton obtains his father39s promise to drive the sun chariot as proof he fails to control it and the Earth is in danger of buIning up when Phaeton is killed by a thunderbolt from Zeus to prevent further disaster The name quotPhaetonquot means the quotshiningquot is also an epithet of Clym enus by Merope or Clym ene and Lucifer the Morning Star Venus Phaethon is also the name of another minor Greek deity the god of the wandering star Dios the planet Jupiter Philomela 9 a daughter of Pandionl King of Athens and Zeuxippe and a sister of Procne Despite Ovid39s fanciful or simply mistaken etymology as quot lover of songquot the name means quotlover of fruit quot lover of applesquot or quotlover of sheepquot Phineus the blind prophet 9 a Phoenician King of Thrace The name 39Phineas39 or 39Phineus39 may be associated with the ancient city of Phinea on the Thracian Bosphorus Phrixus 9 the son of Athamas king of Boiotia and Nephele a goddess of clouds His twin sister Helle and he were hated by their stepmother Ino Ino hatched a devious plot to get rid of the twins roasting all of Boeotia39s crop seeds so they would not grow The local farmers frightened of famine asked a nearby oracle for assistance Ino bribed the men sent to the oracle to lie and tell the others that the oracle required the sacrifice of Phrixus and Helle Before they were killed though Phrixus and Helle were rescued by a ying or swimming ram with golden wool sent by Nephele their natural mother39 their starting point is variously recorded as Halos in Thessaly and Orchomenus in Boeotia During their ight Helle swooned fell off the ram and drowned in the Dardanelles renamed the Hellespont sea of Helle but Phrixus survived all the way to Colchis where King Aeetes the son of the sun god Helios took him in and treated him kindly giving Phrixus his daughter Chalciope in marriage In gratitude Phrixus sacrificed the ram to Zeus and gave the king the golden eece of the ram which Aeetes hung in a tree in the holy grove of Ares in his kingdom guarded by a dragon that never slept Phrixus and Chalciope had four sons who later joined forces with the Argonauts The oldest was Argos Pierides 9 In one myth King Pierus king of Macedon had nine daughters he named after the nine Muses believing that their skills were a great match to the Muses He thus challenged the Muses to a match resulting in his daughters the Pie des being turned into chattering magpies for their presumption Sometimes they are referred to as water nymphs associated with the springs of Helicon and with Pieris It was said that the winged horse Pegasus touched his hooves to the ground on Helicon causing four sacred springs to burst forth from which the muses were born Athena later tamed the horse and presented him to the muses Polydectes 9 King Polydectes was the ruler of the island of Seriphos son of Magnes and an unnamed naiad Polydectes fell in love with Danae when she and her son Perseus were saved by his brother Dictys Perseus was very protective of his mother and wouldn39t allow Polydectes near Danae Therefore Polydectes wanted to get rid of him so he could marry her He thereby hatched a plot Polydectes went under the pretence that he was going to marry Hippodamia a princess from another land and ordered every man in Seriphos to supply him with suitable gifts Perseus however could not afford an extravagant gift and turned up in the king39s court empty handed Polydectes jeered at the young lad and encouraged the rich nobles to do the same This caused Perseus to speak up and pledge to get the king anything he desired Polydectes then announced that he wanted nothing more than the head of the Gorgon Medusa Perseus agreed and Polydectes told him that he could not return to the island without it Therefore Polydectes unknowingly sealed Perseus39s fate to achieve a place in the Hall of Heroes Perseus slew Medusa supposedly avoiding her deadly gaze by using his shield as a mirror Pontos 9 a historical Greek designation for a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea located in modernday northeastern Turkey The name was applied to the coastal region in antiquity by the Greeks who colonized the area and derived from the Greek name of the Black Sea quotHospitable Sea or simply Pontos Having originally no specific name the region east of the river Halys was spoken of as the country quot on the Pontosquot and hence acquired the name of Pontus which is first found in Xenophon39s Anabasis The extent of the region varied through the ages but generally it extended from the borders of Colchis modern Georgia until well into Paphlagonia in the west with varying amounts of hinterland Several states and provinces bearing the name of Pontus or variants thereof were established in the region in Hellenistic Roman and Byzantine times PoseidonNeptune 9 the god of the sea and as quotEarthShakerquot of the earthquakes in Greek mythology The name of the seagod Nethuns in Etruscan was adopted in Latin for Neptune in Roman mythology both were sea gods analogous to Poseidon Linear B tablets show that Poseidon was venerated at Pylos and Thebes in preOlympian Bronze Age Greece but he was integrated into the Olympian gods as the brother of Zeus and Hades Poseidon has many children There is a Homeric hymn to Poseidon who was the protector of many Hellenic cities although he lost the contest for Athens to Athena Procne 9 In Greek mythology Procne was sister to Philomela as well as the wife of Tereus and mother of Itys Procris 9 the daughter of Erechtheus king of Athens and his wife Praxithea She married Cephalus the son of Deioneus Procris had at least two sisters Creusa and Orithyia Sophocles wrote a tragedy called Procris which has been lost as has a version contained in the Greek Cycle but at least six different accounts of her story still exist Procrustes the stretcher 9 a rogue smith and bandit from Attica who physically attacked people by stretching them or cutting off their legs so as to force them to fit the size of an iron bed In general when something is Procrustean different lengths or sizes or properties are fitted to an arbitrary standard Prometheus 9 a Titan the son of Iapetus and Themis and brother to Atlas Epimetheus and Menoetius He was a champion of mankind known for his wily intelligence which stole fire from Zeus and gave it to mortals Zeus then punished him for his crime by having him bound to a rock while a great eagle ate his liver every day only to have it grow back to be eaten again the next day His myth has been treated by a number of ancient sources in which Prometheus is credited with 7 or blamed for 7 playing a pivotal role in the early history of mankind During the Greek War of Independence Prometheus became a figure of hope and inspiration for Greek revolutionaries and their philhellene supporters Karl Marx was greatly in uenced by the story of Prometheus and called him quotthe greatest saint and martyr of the philosophers calendarquot since then Prometheus has become a general symbol for socialism and communism Pyrrha 9 the daughter of Epimetheus and Pandora and wife of Deucalion When Zeus decided to end the Bronze Age with the great deluge Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha were the only survivors Even though he was imprisoned Prometheus who could see the future and had foreseen the coming of this ood told his son Deucalion to build an ark and thus they survived During the ood they landed on Mount Parnassus the only place spared by the ood The story of Deucalion and Pyrrha is also retold in the Roman poet Ovid s famous collection of Metamorphoses In this retelling Jove takes pity on the couple recognizing them to be devout worshipers He parts the clouds and ends the deluge specifically to save Deucalion and Pyrrha who are oating aimlessly on a raft When the storm has cleared and the waters have subsided Deucalion and Pyrrha are taken aback by the desolate wreckage of the land and understand that they are now responsible for repopulating the earth Confused on how to carry out their destiny they go to see the goddess Themis Themis tells Pyrrha that she must cast the bones of her mother to successfully reproduce Pyrrha is distraught at the idea of desecrating her mother s honor by digging up her bones but Deucalion correctly reasons that Themis is referring to great mother earth as Themis would never advise someone to commit a crime Both Pyrrha and Deucalion throw a stone over their shoulder 7 Pyrrha s turning into a woman Deucalion s turning into a man Once the land has been repopulated with humans mother earth follows suit and begins to produce all other forms of life Ovid uses this opportunity to inform his audience that heat and water are the sources of all life 7 because when heat and moisture blend in due balance they conceive these two these are the origin of everything Though fire and water fight humidity and warmth create all things that harmony Pythian Games 9 one of the four Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece a forerunner of the modern Olympic Games held every four years at the sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi They were held in honor of Apollo two years after and two years before each Olympic Games and between eachNemean and Isthmian Games They were founded sometime in the 6th century BCE and unlike the Olympic Games also featured competitions for music and poetry The music and poetry competitions predated the athletic portion of the games and were said to have been started by Apollo after he killed Python and set up the oracle at Delphi Otherwise the athletic events were the same as the Olympic Games A fourhorse chariot race was held in a hippodrome in the plain not far from the sea in the place where the original stadium was sited According to Ovid in the formative years of growth after the deluge mother earth accidentally produced a gigantic Python that terrorized the humans Apollo successfully killed it though it required almost every arrow from his quiver To ensure that no one forgot about this heroic deed he created the Pythian games to commemorate his victory The winners received a wreath of bay laurel sacred to Apollo from the city of Tempe in Thessaly Smaller versions of the Pythian Games were celebrated in many other cities of the Levant and Greece Python 9 the earthdragon of Delphi always represented in Greek sculpture and vasepaintings as a serpent He presided at the Delphic oracle which existed in the cult center for his mother Gaia quotEarthquot Python being the place name that was substituted for the earlier Krisa Hellenes considered the site to be the center of the earth represented by a stone the amphalas or navel which Python guarded Python became the chthonic enemy of the later Olympian deity Apollo who slew him and remade his former home and the oracle the most famous in Classical Greece as his own Changes such as these in ancient myths may re ect a profound change in the religious concepts of Hellenic culture Some were gradual over time and others occurred abruptly following invasion Raven 9 Salmacis 9 an atypical naiad who rejected the ways of the virginal Greek goddess Artemis in favor of vanity and idleness Her attempted rape of Hermaphroditus places her as the only nymph rapist in the Greek mythological canon In Ovid39s Metamorphoses she becomes one with Hermaphroditus and Hermaphroditus curses the fountain to have the same effect on others However it39s very likely that Ovid fabricated the entire tale himself his use of eraeterea dulcique animus navilate Ieneba could be read in several ways as havitate could be translated as either something strange or something new which would imply that it was a new tale Salmacis could also have been intended simply as a contrast to the previous tales in Ovid39s Metamorphoses as others involve a dominant male pursuing an elusive female Sciron 9 a bandit killed by Theseus on the way from Troezen to Athens An Isthmian outlaw he was the son of either Pelops or Poseidon He dwelled at the Sceironian Rocks a cliff on the Saronic coast of the Isthmus of Corinth He robbed travelers passing the Sceironian Rocks and forced them to wash his feet When they knelt before him he kicked them over the cliff into the sea where they were eaten by a monstrous sea turtle Theseus killed him in the same way by pushing him off the cliff A passage in Ovid where the poet claims that certain cliffs by the name of Sciron owe their name to the man suggests an aetiological origin for the tale Semele 9 daughter of the Boeotian hero Cadmus and Harmonia was the mortal mother of Dionysus by Zeus in one of his many origin myths In another version of his mythic origin he is the son of Persephone The name quot Semelequot like other elements of Dionysiac cult is manifestly not Greek but ThracoPhrygian39 derived from a PIE rootmeaning quoteart quot Her son was a god who died in order to be reborn as it happens in the religions of the Orient and in the religion of Minoan Crete Sinis pinebender 9 a bandit killed by Theseus on the road to Athens An Isthmian outlaw Sinis was the son of Polypemon and Sylea Sinis would force travelers to help him bend pine trees to the ground and then unexpectedly let go catapulting the victims through the air Alternative sources say that he tied people to two pine trees that he bent down to the ground then let the trees go tearing his victims apart This led to him being called Pityocamptes quotpinebenderquot Sinis was the second bandit to be killed by Theseus as the hero was traveling from Troezen to Athens in the very same way that he had previously killed his own victim s Theseus then raped Sinis39 daughter Perigune who later bore Theseus39 son Melanippus Perigune later married Deioneus of Oechalia Sirens 9 three dangerous birdwomen portrayed as seductresses who lured nearby sailors with their enchanting music and voices to shipwreck on the rocky coast of their island Roman poets placed them on an island called Sirenum scopuli In some later rationalized traditions the literal geography of the quotfloweryquot island of Anthemoessa is fixed sometimes on Cape Pelorum and at others in the islands known as the Sirenuse near Paestum or in Capreae All such locations were surrounded by cliffs and rocks Sparagmos 9 refers to an ancient Dionysian ritual in which a living animal or sometimes even a human being would be sacrificed by being dismembered by the tearing apart of limbs from the body Sparagmas was frequently followed by omophagia the eating of the raw esh of the one dismembered It is associated with the Maenads or Bacchantes followers of Dionysus and the Dionysian Mysteries Syrinx 9 a nymph and a follower of Artemis known for her chastity Pursued by the amorous Greek god Pan she ran to the river39s edge and asked for assistance from the river nymphs In answer she was transformed into hollow water reeds that made a haunting sound when the gods frustrated breath blew across them Pan cut the reeds to fashion the first set of panpipes which were thenceforth known as syrinx The word syringe was derived from this word Tantalus 9 the ruler of an ancient western Anatolian city called either after his name as quotTantalisquot quotthe city of Tantalusquot or as quot Sipylusquot in reference to Mount Sipylus at the foot of which his city was located and whose ruins were reported to be still visible in the beginning of the Common Era although few traces remain today Pausanias further reports that there was a port under his name and a sepulchre of him hy no means obscure in the same region In Greek mythology he was the father of Pelops Niobe and Broteas and was a son of Zeus and the nymph Plouto Thus like other heroes in Greek mythology such as Theseus and the Dioskouroi Tantalus had both a hidden divine sire and a mortal one Tereus 9 a Thracian king the son of Ares and husband of Procne Procne and Tereus had a son ltys Tereus desired his wife39s sister Philomela He forced himself upon her then cut her tongue out and held her captive so she could never tell anyone He told his wife that her sister had died Philomela wove letters in a tapestry depicting Tereus39 crime and sent it secretly to Procne In revenge Procne killed Niobe and Tereus39 son Itys and served his flesh in a meal to his father Tereus When Tereus learned what she had done he tried to kill the sisters but all three were changed by the Olympian Gods into birds Tereus became a hoopoe39 Procne became the nightingale whose song is a song of mourning for the loss of her son39 Philomela became the swallow Because she has no tongue she can only twitter instead of singing Themis 9 an ancient Greek Titaness She is described as quot of good counselquot and is the embodiment of divine order law and custom Themis means quot divine law rather than human ordinance literally quotthat which is put in place To the ancient Greeks she was originally the organizer of the quotcommunal affairs of humans particularly assemblies Thetis 9 is encountered in Greek mythology mostly as a sea nymph or known as the goddess of water one of the fifty Nereids daughters of the ancient one of the seas with shapeshifting abilities who survives in the historical vestiges of most later Greek myths as Proteus whose name suggests the quotfirstquot the quotprimordialquot or the quotfirstbornquot When described as a Nereid in Classical myths Thetis was the daughter of Nereus and Doris and a granddaughter of Tethys with whom she sometimes shares characteristics Often she seems to lead the Nereids as they attend to her tasks Sometimes she also is identified with Metis Thrace 9 a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe As a geographical concept Thrace designates a region bounded by the Balkan Mountains on the north Rhodope Mountains and the Aegean Sea on the south and by the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara on the east The areas it comprises are southeastern Bulgaria Northern Thrace northeastern Greece Western Thrace and the European part of Turkey Eastern Thrace The biggest part of Thrace is part of presentday Bulgaria In Turkey it is also called Rumelia The name comes from the Thracians an ancient TndoEuropean people inhabiting Southeastern Europe Tiresias 9 a blind prophet of Thebes famous for clairvoyance and for being transformed into a woman for seven years He was the son of the shepherd Everes and the nymph Chariclo Tiresias participated fully in seven generations at Thebes beginning as advisor to Cadmus himself Titanomachy 9 the tenyear series of battles fought in Thessaly between the two camps of deities long before the existence of mankind the Titans based on Mount Othrys and the Olympians who would come to reign on Mount Olympus This Titanamachia is also known as the Battle of the Titans Battle afGads or just The Titan War Triptolemus 9 always connected with Demeter of the Eleusinian Mysteries might be accounted the son of King Celeus of Eleusis in Attica or according to the PseudoApollodorus the son of Gaia and Oceanusianother way of saying he was quotprimordial man Triptolemus is also depicted as a young man with a branch or diadem placed in his hair usually sitting on his winged chariot adorned with serpents His attributes include a plate of grain a pair of wheat or barley ears and a scepter Trozen 9 a small town and a former municipality in the northeastern Peloponnese Greece According to Greek mythology Troezen came into being as a result of two ancient cities Hyperea and Anthea being unified by Pittheus who named the new city in honor of his deceased brother Troezen Troezen was the place where Aethra daughter of Pittheus slept with both Aegeus and Poseidon the same night and fell pregnant with the great Greek hero Theseus Before returning to Athens Aegeus left his sandals and sword under a large boulder in Troezen and requested that when the child was able to prove himself by moving the boulder he must return the items to his father in Athens Theseus did indeed lift the boulder when he came of age TyphaonTyphon 9 the last son of Gaia fathered by Tartarus and the most deadly monster of Greek mythology He was known as the quotFather of all monsters his wife Echidna was likewise the quotMother of All Monstersquot Typhon was described in pseudo Apollodorus Bibliatheke as one of the largest and most fearsome of all creatures His human upper half reached as high as the stars His hands reached east and west and instead of a human head he had a hundred dragonheads some however depict him as having a human head and the dragonheads being attached to his hands instead of fingers He was feared even by the mighty gods His bottom half was gigantic viper coils that could reach the top of his head when stretched out and made a hissing noise His whole body was covered in wings and fire ashed from his eyes Typhon attempts to destroy Zeus at the will of Gaia because Zeus had imprisoned the Titans Typhon initially overcame Zeus in their first battle and tore out Zeus39 sinews However Hermes recovered the sinews and restored them to Zeus Typhon was finally defeated by Zeus who trapped him underneath Mount Etna ZeusJoveJupiter 9 the quotFather of Gods and men who ruled the Olympians of Mount Olympus as a father ruled the family He is the god of sky and thunder in Greek mythology His Roman counterpart is Jupiter and his Etruscan counterpart is Tinia Zeus was the child of Cronus and Rhea and the youngest of his siblings In most traditions he was married to Hera although at the oracle of Dodona his consort was Dione according to the Iliad he is the father of Aphrodite by Dione He is known for his erotic escapades These resulted in many godly and heroic offspring including Athena Apollo and Artemis Hermes Persephone by Demeter Dionysus Perseus Heracles Helen of Troy Minos and the Muses by Miemosyne by Hera he is usually said to have fathered Ares Hebe and Hephaestus As Walter Burkert points out in his book GreekReligian quotEven the gods who are not his natural children address him as Father and all the gods rise in his presence For the Greeks he was the King of the Gods who oversaw the universe As Pausanias observed quotThat Zeus is king in heaven is a saying common to all men In Hesiod39s Theagany Zeus assigns the various gods their roles In the Homeric Hymns he is referred to as the chieftain of the gods His symbols are the thunderbolt eagle bull and oak In addition to his IndoEuropean inheritance the classical quotcloudgatherer also derives certain iconographic traits from the cultures of the Ancient Near East such as the scepter Zeus is frequently depicted by Greek artists in one of two poses standing striding forward with a thunderbolt leveled in his raised right hand or seated in majesty Achilles Death of Shield arms Acis amp Galatea Aeneas Agamemnon Ajax The Greater Ajax The Lesser Anchises Apollo Artemis AscaniusIulus Amata Avernus Aulis Calypso Cassandra Circe Clytemnestra Cyclops Cumaean Sybil Dawn ampTithonus Dido Golden Bough Hecuba HeraclesHercules Hersilia Iphigeneia Laocoon Latinus Lavinia Mars Memnon Neoptolemus Numitor amp Amulius OdysseusUlysses Orestes Palamedes Palladium ParisAlexander Philoctetes Polydorus Polymestor Polyphemus Polyxena Rhea Silvia Remus Romulus Scylla amp Charybdis Sirens Sisyphus Tarpeia Thetis Turnus Wooden Horse 1 ZeusJupiter married to HeraJuno Athena Minerva HephaistosVulcan The Lemmian 2 Pelasgos sprung spontaneously from the soil ofArcadia Lycaon unknown mother and wife Callisto impregnated by Zeus Areas 3 Iapetus one of the Titans married other Titan Atlas Prometheus Epimetheus married to Pandora Deucalion Pyrrha 4 HeliosSol mates with Clymene Phaethon The Heliades daughters ofHelios 5 CronosSat11rn married to Rhea The Olympians led by Zeus 6 CronosSat11rn iInpregnates Philyra daughter of Oceanus Chiron 7 Chariclo Ocyrhoe 7 lo iInpregnated by Zeus Epaphos ancestor ofsome later Greeks Achilles Amazonomachy Adonis Apollo Atalanta CaeneusCaenis Centauromachy Centaurs Centaurus Cinyras Cygnus Cyparissus Dia DionysusBacchus Eris Galatea Ganymede Golden Apples Helen ofSparta Heracles earlier sack ofTroy Hippomenes Hyacinthus Ixion Judgment of Paris kautas Laomedon Maenads Midas Myrrha Nephele Orpheus Death of Pan Paris Alexander Patroclus Peleus Phocus Pirithous PoseidonNeptune Propoetides Proteus Pygmalion Silenus Telamon Thetis Walls of Troy Apollo Arcas Argus Pahoptes ArtemisDiana AsclepiusAesculapius Atlas autochthony Battus Callisto Cecrops Chiron Coronis Creation Crow CupidEros LoveDesire CyChus quotThe Swan Daphhe Daughters of Cecrops Pahdrosos Auglauros Herse Deucalion Epaphos Erichthonios The Flood The Four Ages Gaia Mother Earth HeliosSol the Sun god Hephaistos Vulcan The Lemnian HeraJuno HeraclesHercules HermesMercury Hydra lo laurel Lycaon Nyctimene Ocyrhoe Pallas AthenaMinerva Pan Phaethon Pyrrha Pythian Games Python Raven Syrinx Themis ZeusJoveJupiter


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