Intro to International Relations
Intro to International Relations Poli Sci 175
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin Butler-Córdova on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Poli Sci 175 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Relations in Political Science at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 03/09/16
The North-South Gap - Global North: north hem, developed - Global South: less developed, southern hemisphere - The 1% is only 85 people (shimko 2013, 61) - What is underdevelopment?- -- World Bank uses three dimensions of well-being to qualify development: 1. poverty- whether households or individuals have enough resources or abilities today to meet their needs. 2. inequality: in the distribution of income, consumption or other attributes across the population. 3. vulnerability Basic Human Needs: - food - drinkable water - shelter - schooling/education? - healthcare? - security? - Maslow Hierarchy of Needs - HDI - Characteristics of the Global South: Chronic and income poverty Health crises; hunger; malnutrition Disproportionate suffering among women High population growth Mass migration; refugees Greater trafficking - Political Characteristics: Tyranny, political repression, instability Increased war/armed conflict (insecurity) Superficial democracy (KB, 126) - Economic/Industrial Characteristics: An emphasis on primary product exports (over manufacturing-based exports) Anarchy (failed institutions, failed states) Lack of urbanization (under-industrialized states) Specialized (rather than diverse) economies (ex- 96% of Uganda's exports come from coffee) Causes of Underdevelopment: RQ: what explains underdevelopment in the global south? RQ: why are poor countries poor? 1. Systems-level explanations - the global economic system is the primary obstacle to development in that the dynamics of global capitalism ensure that the rich get richer and the poor get poorer (industrial capitalism) -- dependency theory -- world systems theory 2. State-level explanations - Economic policies of developing states are the primary obstacle to development (IMF position) - Culture (i.e., Weber's Protestant Ethic) - Social welfare policies - Poor infrastructure - Structural explanations: weak institutions -> cannot resolve collective action problems -> cannot provide public goods -> poverty (Lim 2010) - Modernization Theory - Colonialism (insofar as it has been shown to leave behind a host of negative consequences) 3. Individual-level explanations: subject to the levels of analysis problem Dependency Theory: - Dependence: a situation in which the economy of certain countries is conditioned by the development and expansion of another economy to which the former is subjected -- based on a division of labor b/w a dominant core and a subordinate. Marxism - Popular explanations: -- colonial dependence -- financial- industrial dependence -- technological- industrial dependence - Casual Mechanisms: -- colonialism/imperialism: predatory extraction of economic surplus of poor state for the gain of dominant state (enclave communities) -- foreign investment -> trade deficit -> borrowing foreign currency to finance debt -> failure to provide public goods -- capitalism (double edged sword_ -- foreign aid -- MNC-led culture Modernization Theory: In order for countries to move from traditional to modern, to develop, need to engage in new tech, focus production by means of motive and not by labor of humans or animals. Countries that are still focusing in agricultural sector will ultimately remain backward or primitive. - Popular explanations: -- policy prescriptions -- failure to industrialize - Causal mechanism: -- war -- corruption -- regime/institutions -- social/cultural conditions -- inadequate/misplaced production -- division of labor -- lack of education (investment in humanity) - Contemporary understandings: modernization theorists argue: wealthy countries should supply missing components of development (investment capital, FDI, aid) until there's is an evident trickle-down effect on development. Colonialism and Underdevelopment: RQ- What is the impact of colonialism on underdevelopment? Characteristics of Colonialism: - Concentrated wealth accumulation at the core; draining surplus from the periphery. - Development of enclave economies. -Created an International Division of Labor - Specialized economies - Intrastate grievances - Created institutions using colonists 4 Products of Colonialism: 1. Skills gap: training and experience necessary to manage economy was limited to white Europeans. 2. Narrow Development: colonial economies were developed only to suit the needs of the home country. 3. Arbitrary borders: inherited borders caused internal rivalries among ethnic groups, making economic plans difficult. 4. Ineffective governments: weak institutions, corruption, lack of centralization, disputed power. The IMF and Underdevelopment- Post-colonial states faced particular challenges - Prices of primary products fluctuated greatly from year to year, creating income instability and challenges to planning and development. - Declining terms of trade: prices for primary products fall without a parallel reduction in the price of manufactured goods. If primary products were problematic, then the solution is to develop manufacturing. To do so, however, required capital. - Import substitution: provides domestic investors with incentives to produce goods so that demand for previously imported products declines. -- achieved through selective investment, tariffs, quotas. -- domestically manufactured goods were substituted for imported manufactured goods. -- worked for low-tech industries (shoes, clothes). -- high-tech industries required more capital. Two options were available: 1. relying on MNCs 2. Int'l financial institutions Problems- - Governments became heavily involved in managing economies; owners and operators of industry. - Manufacturers still relied on global north technology to produce goods for their domestic markets. - Debt Crisis: the inability of many developing nations to pay back foreign debts. -IMF bailouts: IMF gave money to crippled states so long as those states agreed to make IMF-specified reforms. -- Conditionality: the IMF policy of requiring certain policies and reforms in order to receive loans. - Structural Readjustment Policies and the Washington Consensus -- Fiscal austerity -- Reductions in gov't subsidies to domestic industries -- Reduction in tariffs, quotas, and other import barriers -- Capital market liberalism -- Privatization - Neoliberalism: a contemporary version of economic liberalism emphasizing the importance of limited government, reduced regulation, and the market economy. -- Government interventions that work against the market produce economic inefficiency, stagnation, and perpetual underdevelopment, -- Focus on export-led industrialization - Export-led industrialization: concentrates on developing domestic export industries capable of competing in overseas markets. --Problems: - requires fair trade regulations - still reliant on northern states for some parts of materials/manufacturing - shifting policies is akin to political suicide - consider the leadership in the IMF IMF treating the wrong problem? - growth isn't happening Closing the Gap: - Rationalist perspective: markets alone do not guarantee the development of the public goods necessary to national development (i.e., market failure) -- Development requires: - political leadership - organization - coercion through the creation of public institutions (Bates 1988, Lim 2010) - effective legal-institutional framework --Challenges: - pursuing socially beneficial policies often means the loss of political power - corruption -foreign aid - cost - security versus development - prioritization Group of 77 (G-77): (Later UNCTAD) a coalition of the world's poorest countries that sponsored the 1963 Joint Declaration of Developing Countries calling for reform to allow greater equality in the north-south trade. New International Economic Order: (NIEC) the 1974 UN policy that called for a north-south dialogue to open the way for the less developed countries in the GS to participate in the making of int'l policy. 2008 Banco del Sur: founded by Brazil and Argentina to compete with the world bank North wants: - IMF to assume more control over member states' macroeconomic policies. - To provide aid.. sort of. South wants: - Opposes IMF interference - Trade not aid (fair trade), trade blocs - Debt relief -North should pay for required upgrades in technology that are needed only because of Northern practices. World War I and II lot of people died during WWII World War I Nov 9, 1918- protests in berlin Noon: Chancellor Max von Baden announces the Kaiser’s abdication and resigns the chancellorship to Friedrich Ebert (SPD). 2 pm: Philipp Scheidemann (SPD) proclaims the German Republic November 11: cease-fire of the western front [ June 28, 1919: Treaty of Versailles] Germany lost a lot of territory Weimar Republic: A nat’l assembly was elected in January 1919 and convened in the city (town) of Weimar. Its task was to write a new constitution. 1919-1923: founding crises and hyperinflation 1924-1933: economic crisis, rise of the NSDAP (Nazi); collapse of democracy. Political System: Weimar: Semi-presidential construction Federal structure Lower house: Reichstag Upper house: reichstrat – weaker than the imperial Bundersrat. President Collapse of Weimar: The Versailles Treaty- terms made the treaty made Weimar governments unpopular and their task impossible. Nazi Seizure of Power: Failed Beer Hall Putsch in 1923 Reichstag election- Nazi Party gets 18% of the vote Presidential election- Nazi pres Reichstag election, 1923: negative majority emerges, NSDAP and KPD win over half the seats. Leading conservatives increasingly conclude that they can guide and control Nazis, only stable route to gov’t. January 30, 1933: Hindenburg appoints Hitler Chancellor. Feb 1- Feb 27- Reichstag fire Feb 28: Hindenburg blames communists for fire, issues decree March 5: Nazi and backers don’t win const. amending (2/3) majority March 8: seats won by KPD are disallowed, legislators arrested. March 24: enabling act passes, granting gov’t the power to make laws, including laws contrary to the constitution. “Synchronization” and Suppression Holocaust: 6 million, 65% of Jewish population in Europe was murdered. Potsdam Conference: Pro-reconstruction Principles- military occupation, demilitarization, total defeat, destroy National Socialism, prepare reconstruction of German life, de-cartelization of economy. Four D’s: demilitarization, denazification, democratization, decartelization West Germany: Sept 1: basic law (Grundgesetz) May 1949: basic law takes effect. Germany Today: top in economic success Democratic Islamic state of Iran: Facts: 19% below poverty line Low GDP, like 17,000 per capita Political overview: Islamic Republic Theocracy (shi’a islam) Representative institution subjected to control Who are Iranians? Ethnic groups: 61% Persian, Farsi official language. Religion: shi’a muslim (89%), sunni muslim (9%) Persia: Age of Empires: First Persian empire, defeated by alex the great in 330 bce Second Persian empire (Sassanian) Third empire: shi’a islam became official state religion, prior tech advances not revived Not colonized by Europe Constitutions and Revolutions: Iran was first non-western state to institute constitutional monarchy after the revolution of 1906 o Signals failure of Qajar rule, paves way for Pahlavi dynasty o Institutes the Majles (parliament) as concession to politically active ulema, merchants and western educated elites Military commander Reza Khan Pahlavi didn’t like all of above ^ Newly appointed prime minister Mosaddeq nationalizes the Anglo-Iranian oil company in 1951 o CIA operatives force a coup d’etat in 1953 o All civilization rolled back and increases push for modernity Islamic revolution ends 1979 ends 2,500 years of monarchic rule; creates Islamic republic Contemporary Chaos: The broad coalition of revolutionaries fell apart after 1979 o Radicals won the rev and exclude more liberal elements of society o Khomeini and the radicals benefit from US embassy debacle and from Iraq invasion and war 1980-88 Political turbulence is now the norm Conservatives consolidate power, Ahmadinejad elected pres in 2004 o Fear of US invasion post 2003 played into the conservatives hands o Widespread corruption, political violence escalate; 2009 conservatives steal the election, a “divine assessment” Green movement protests were anti-regime but not really controlled by reformist camp. Thousands arrested, killing and injuring dozens. By 2011, Khameini was fed up with the corruption and insubordination Political Culture: Iran has deeply nationalistic culture o Bloody revolutions and popular anti-regime sentiments o Deep resentment of most sunni arab states Iran’s twelver shi’a religion is not incompatible with politivs like sunni-based wahibiism Martyrdom is popular with shi’a and political revolution is seen as just a cause Executive Institutions: Head of state/government: supreme leader o Appointed for life o Highest political authority o Sets domestic and foreign policy agendas President Legislative Institutions: Parliament: 290 member unilateral body elected by universal suffrage for four year terms o Members must be muslim but 5 seats are reserved to represent Christians (3), Jews (1) and Zoroastrians (1); women serve as MPs Foreign Policy: Product of Iranian history, regional issues, who controls the process (supreme leader) o Distrust of west, esp US and Britain, meddled in internal politics since before 1979 o Sought to destabilize non-shi’a regimes in neighboring states by supporting separatists and Hizbollah, making for tense relations with other states o Currently supports pro-assad regime forces in Syrian conflict International Relations: Iran sees itself as an important regional power since it is the only Islamic republic, the only shi’a majority state and was not colonized o Long standing rivalry with Iraq; seeks to usurp Saudi position in Muslim world; militantly anti- Israel; large ethnic minorities lead to tense relations with turkey and azerbajan Tense relations with Afghanistan and turkey have made Iran a trafficking hotspot for sex slaves, money and drugs (usually heroin) Aspiring Regional Power: Iran sought to export its revolution to shi’a groups in Iraq, Lebanon, and Bahrain in the 1980s o All this has done is destabilize neighbors, created diplomatic tensions; increased perception it is a rogue state. Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps have been deployed in Syria and have trained militia to support the pro- assad regime military forces o Iran is betting on the winner in Syria; drawing closer to Russia to bolster support for its regional agenda. Terrorism: Iran has been on the US dept. of state’s list of state terror sponsors since 1984 o Openly support HIzbollah in Lebanon, Hamas in Palestine o Covertly supported various shi’a and islamist actions against secular, Israeli, or western targets in the region. Low cost relatie to open war, low risk of retaliation by US military or allies, but very high risk of retaliation by Sunni militant groups like the Kurds “vicious cycle” After 9/11, Iran denounced attacks Nuclear Controversy: Iran is signatory to the NPT and received technology assistance for its domestic program Widely held that advanced enrichment was intended to spur weapons development 2015 Nuclear Deal: In july 2015 Iran and all major powers signed the joint comprehensive plan of action to alter the Iranian nuclear program This agreement was a product of years of negotiations, and is supported by the P5+1 (US, China, Russia, France, Germany) o International atomic energy association will monitor to ensure Iran is no longer enriching uranium to levels that could be weaponized. o The west will relax the economic sanctions on iran, which is rouhani’s ideal outcome for increasing economic development. Opponents argue that this only rewards cheating on the NPT and tat monitoring is ineffective; military intervention was not supported
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