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by: Quinten Beatty


Marketplace > University of Miami > Biology > BIL 160 > EVOL BIODIVRSITY
Quinten Beatty
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D. Krempels

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D. Krempels
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This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Quinten Beatty on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIL 160 at University of Miami taught by D. Krempels in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/205745/bil-160-university-of-miami in Biology at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 09/17/15
Bio Exam 2 SG 362012 105200 PM FORCES THAT DRIVE EVOLUTION 5 Factors for a population to NOT evolve o No Mutation o Mutation is the raw material of evolution o Indefiniter Large Population size 0 Infinite population produces in nite of unique gametes o Random Mating o No Migration o No gene ow o No Natural Selection 0 Beneficial a adaptive o Deleterious a maladaptve 0 Neutral a neutral Microevolution o genetic change in a species over time without speciation o antibiotic resistant bacteria 0 pesticide resistant insects and other competitors of Homo sapiens o evolutionary change below the species level without reproductive isolation o taxon Macroevolution o the genesis of two reproductiver isolated taxa from a single ancestral taxon o evolutionary change at or above the species level Random Genetic Drift o Changes in relative allele frequency due to random sampling error Genetic Drift o Change in frequency of a gene variant due to random sampling Neutral Genetic Drift o a gene is not influenced at all by natural selection one would expect silent and nonsilent mutations to accumulate at an equal rate since neither kind of mutation matters to the gene39s function or lack thereof Assortive Mating o Positive Mating of similar genotypephenotype individual Increase homozygotes o Negative Mating of dissimilar genotypephenotype individuals Increase heterozygotes Immigration o Migration into a phi especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in m to w there Emigration o migration from a phi especially migration from your native country in m to w in another Natural Selection Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium PAZ 2pq qA21 Physiological Adaptation o Systemic response of an individual to a specific external stimulus in order to maintain homeostasis Evolutionaary Adaptation o Adjustment to environmental demands through long term processes of natural selection 5 Factors for a population to evolve Gene o molecular unit of heredity of a living organism Allele o one of two or more forms of a 9 or a genetic locus generally a group of genes Population o A group of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same place at the same time eg deer population Deme o a locally interbreeding group within a geographic population Gene Pool o The total number ofg of every individual in an interbreeding population Polymorphism o Two or more different phenotypes exist in the same population Homozygous o A homozygous organism for a particular is described to possess either a pair of dominant alleles eg AA or a pair of recessive alleles eg aa Heterozygous o Of or pertaining to an individual or a condition in a g or an organism containing two different allelesfor a particular trait Tenets of Evolution by Natural Selection o Overproduction o Heritable variability o Competition o Differential Reproduction Sexual Selectiondifferent from nonrandom assortive mating can happen two ways o Special case of natural selection o Def an individual39s relative ability to attract and mate with members of the opposite sex Individuals exhibiting characters that make them more attractive to the opposite sex may have an advantage 0 This type of selection can result in sexual dimorphism and it occurs most often when there is competition for mates o 1 Members of one sex compete against each other for mates thereby creating a reproductive differential among themselves If those members of the population having heritable characteristics that contribute to their winning more mates reproduce more than those lacking those traits then natural sexual selection is occurring o 2 Members of one sex prefer a particular trait in the members of the opposite sex creating a reproductive differential in the other sex If members of the population having a heritable trait that makes them more attractive to the opposite sex than those lacking the trait they will outreproduce them Natural selection of the sexual kind is occurring Founder Effect o a small sample of breeding individuals from a large population colonizes a new area Bottleneck Effect o most members of a large population are removed perhaps due to some natural disaster such as a hurricane volcanic eruption pathogen invasion or other catastrophe that doesn39t favor any particular genotype over another leaving only a few survivors ORIGIN OF SPECIES AND MACROEVOLUTION Mutation o the only way new genetic material can arise in a population Forward Mutation o Mutation of a wild type allele to a mutant form ReverseReversion Mutations o Mutations that change back to wild type from one generation to the next Wild Type o The phenotype for a given trait most common in a particular wild population Exaptation o An adaptive trait that started out being neutral Classical Model of evolution o In a population one allele functions better than others at a given locus Balance Model of evolution c When an allele that might be maladaptive under certain circumstances can be maintained in a population by conferring an advantage under some circumstances Neutral Mutation model of evolution o Evolution can proceed largely via the accumulation of neutral mutations Balanced polymorphism o Maintenance of stable frequencies of 2 or more phenotypic forms in a single population Heterozygote Advantage o Heterozygous condition at a particular locus confers a selective advantage Frequency Dependent selection pos and neg o Selective pressure against a particular allele changes with that allele s relative frequency in the population o Positive 0 selection favors the phenotype when it is more common in the population o Negative 0 selection favors the phenotype when it is more rare in the population Search image c When a predator develops knowledge of what a certain preferred type of prey looks like smells like etc then that predator39s sensory systems develop a sensitivity and preference for that shape color size smell etc This reduces foraging time and increases foraging efficiency Inbreeding o when mating between closely related individuals occurs more frequently than would be predicted by their relative frequency in the population Outbreeding o when mating between unrelated individuals occurs more frequently than would be predicted by their relative frequencies in the population Gene Flow the process by which movement of genes takes place between populations or demes gene flow spreads novel alleles that have arisen via mutation gene flow has a homogenizing effect if a recipient population is small relative to a donor population o gene flow increases the effective size of a population o lack of gene flow may eventually lead to speciation but the rate at which this occurs depends on the species Hybrid Zone c an area of secondary contact where there may be limited hybridization between two closely related species that have come into contact after having been separated and subject to some degree of reproductive isolation Introgression o the introduction of alleles from one species39 gene pool into another closely related species due to limited hybridization Reproductive Isolation via hybridization o Hybridization o The act or process of mating organisms of different varieties or species to create a hybrid o Reproductive Isolation 0 Process gene Flow is prevented between two populations of the same species Reproductive isolating mechanisms are factors like different mating seasons or calls c When reproductive isolation is incomplete the relative contributions of these barriers can be interpreted as the relative importance of barriers that prevent species from fusing via hybridization Hybrid speciation o a form of speciation wherein hybridization between two different closely related species leads to a novel species reproductively isolated from the parent species Species Concepts how each defines what makes a species Biological Species Concept o Based largely on reproductive isolation o Produce viable fertile offspring Ecological Species Concept o Based on a species ecological niche Phylogenic Species Concept o Smallest group of individuals descended from a common ancestor Morphological Species Concept o Based on phenotypic characters o If they look the same they are the same Recognition Species Concept o Matingcourtship specializations should also be considered part of the species Cohesion Species Concept o One distinct phenotype can distinguish a species Fitness Coefficient o w adaptive value of a particular genotype Selection Coefficient o s selective pressure against a particular genotype 1w Gamete o a g that fuses with another cell during fertilizationconception in organisms that reproduce sexually Zygote o is the initial gnformed when two gamete cells are joined by means of sexual reproduction Gametic Selection o Preferential selection of gametes germ cells sperm or eggs Gametic selection is a mechanism of transmission distortion Zygotic Selection o aka viability selection results from the forces acting to cause differential mortality of an organism at any stage in its life cycle beyond the gamete stage Transmission Distortion o Departure from the expected 50 likelihood that any given allel will be inherited by an offspring Meiotic Drive o Overrepresentation of certain alleles in the gametes produced during gametogenesis c any process that results in the overrepresentation of certain alleles in the gametes produced during gametogenesis Postzygotic Viability o Genetically based differences in the ability of zygotes to survive Fecundity Selection o occurs when one genotype is more fertile than another for whatever reason Compatibility Selection o results when combinations of eggs and sperm of a particular genotype are more likely to produce viable offspring than other combinations Directional Selection o the individuals at one extreme or the other of the bell shaped curve have a reproductive advantage over the rest o eg in drought years in the Galapagos insects become scarce and seeds relatively abundant Finches with deep thick bills have an advantage in that they can more effectively crack seeds The narrowbilled birds die out or have lower reproductive success because of the scarcity of food Stabilizing Selection o selective forces at work on a population favor greatest reproduction by individuals exhibiting the average state of a particular character In this instance the composition of the population doesn39t change DisruptiveDiversifying Selection o individuals at the average point on the curve are at a selective disadvantage individuals with either extreme have a reproductive advantage Prezygotic Reproductive Isolation o Habitat isolation Temporal isolation Behavioral isolation o Mechanical isolation o Gametic isolation Postzygotic Reproductive Isolation o Reduced hybrid viability o Reduced hybrid fertility o Hybrid breakdown Forms of Reproductive Isolation Allopatric Speciation o Divided by geographic barrier Parapatric Speciation o Gradient of genetic differences develope Peripatric Speciation o New species at the edge of range of original species Sympatric Speciation o No physical separation Phyletic Gradualism o his is the classical traditional view stating that large changes reproductive isolation and morphological differentiation occur due to the gradual accumulation of many genetic changes The classic example put forth in many natural history museums in the form of a nice display is that of the evolution of the modern horse Punctuated Equilibrium o They suggested that major changes can occur relatively suddenly and that they quotpunctuatequot long periods of relatively little change Anagenesis o Phyletic evolution o Conversion of entire population to seemingly different species Cladogenesis o Diversifying evolution o Divergence of 2 new species from a single species Incipient Species o On the verge of becoming separate Adaptive Radiation o An ancestral species can give rise to a variety of diverse species through repeated cladogenesis if its descendant species quotradiatequot into new ecological niches a process that helps drive their diversification Character Displacement o production of distinct phenotypes in a population due to selective pressure o a divergence of an equivalent character in a sympatric species ie living in a single geographic area due to competition for a resource in this case food Altruism o risking the loss of one s own tness via an act that could improve the tness of another individual Group Selection o alleles can become fixed or spread in a population because of the benefits they bestow on groups regardless of the alleles39 effect on the fitness of individuals within that group Kin Selection o assisting relatives in rearing their offspring which may share some of the assisting organism39s genes Individual Fitness o the production of offspring by an individual Inclusive Fitness o individual fitness PLUS fitness gained via kin selection activity Adaptive Characters o Result of natural selection o Characters that adapt to help the organism Maladaptive Characters o Characters that adapt and do not help the organism Neutral Characters o Characters that do not evolve or have no influence once evolved o exaptation Marmoset and honesybee bullshit o Lecture 7 HISTORY OF LIFE ON EARTH Times of Mass Extinctions o 500 mya o 286 mya o 248 mya o 144 mya o 18 mya Pleistocene 9 mass extinction of large mammals ice ages o Current 9 habitat distruction overhunting foreign species increase of coZ concentrations Probable Cause of Pleistocene Extinction o Human overhunting o Climate change o Loss of habitat Cause of present day extinction o Human overhunting o Climate change o Loss of habitat Methods to Date Fossils o Relative Dating 0 Layers of sediment o Uranium lead dating 0 Older samples o Amino acid racemization 0 Young fossils Continental Drifts o Pangea o Laurasia o gondwakaland o Began 245 mya o Fully separated 65 mya Spontaneous Generation o Francesco Redi o Anton van Leeuwenhoek o Lazzaro Spallazani o Louis Pasteur Miller Urey Experiment o Recreated initial conditions on earth o Found it had no oxygen Tools for Evolutionary Relationships o Transitional fossils show evolution largescale o Dna similarities o Common ancestor Stramotolite o Oldest known fossils o Sedimentary rock with striations similar to those made new by extant bacteria Greenhouse Effect o a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases and is reradiated in all directions Since part of this reradiation is back towards the surface energy is transferred to the surface and the lower atmosphere Global Warming o the rising average temperature of Earth39s atmosphere and oceans which started to increase in the late 19th century and is projected to keep going up Oxidizing Atmosphere o Atmosphere contained 02 once photosynthetic organisms arrived Coacervate o Stable globular structures of proteins and polysaccharides Protobiont o Coacervate with working enzyme systems Subduction Zone o Edge of one plate is forced under edge of another deep trenches Seafloor Spreading Zone o Volcanic activity causes ocean floor to spread oceanic ridges Plate Tectonics Mass Extinction Criteria for being Alive Anatomy Metabolism Homeostasis o Reaction to stimuli o Growth and development Adaptability o reproduction Textbook pages 52731 THE GENETICS OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE Silentsynonymous Mutation o Does not change the amino acid sequence encoded by a gene Neutral Mutation o Either has little or no phenotypic effect or has no effect on the Darwinian fitness of the individual carrying it Molecular Clock o a technique inmolecular evolution that uses fossil constraints and rates of molecular change to deduce the time in geologic history when two species or other taxa diverged Pseudogene o Genes that no longer appear to have any function Proteome o Protein coding genes of the genome Natural Selection vs Neutral Evolution o Lecture 9 Neutral EvolutionNeutral Genetic Drift o If a gene is not influenced at all by natural selection one would expect silent and nonsilent mutations to accumulate at an equal rate since neither kind of mutation matters to the gene39s function or lack thereof Positive Slection o If a gene product39s function is a little less rigid then mutations may be tolerated resulting in new alleles of that productprotein Some of the nonsilent mutations may result in alleles that function better under certain conditions than other alleles and these will be naturally selected Purifying Selection c When a gene codes for a protein so vital that small changes are lethal only nonlethal mutations will accumulate Silent Mutation o Proteome o Pseudogenes Nonsilent Mutation o Proteome o Pseudogenes FOXP2 o Lecture 9 Gene Duplication c any duplication of a region of m that contains a gm Gene recruitment o Using the duplicate gene for a somewhat changed or entirely new function evolutionary novelties Gene Structure Regulating regions of gene Mutated Regulating regions Central Dogma of Gene expression o Dnaerna protein DNA o deoxyribonucleic acid o genetic material o nucleic acid containing the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms o long chain of components called nucleotides o one of the three majormacromolecules along with M and proteins that are essential for all known forms ofm Transcription Factor o a protein that binds to a specific DNA sequence and controls how that segment of DNA is read o they affect the cell39s ability to transcribe DNA into RNA transcription Codons o sequences of three nucleotides Start Codon o the point sequence at which a ribosome begins to translate a sequence of into amino acids Stop Codon o a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation Positive Control of transcription o enhancers Negative Control of transcription o repressors Apoptosis o cells die via programmed death apoptosis o PCD Programmed Cell Death o Biochemical events lead to characteristic cell changes morphology and death Genetic Toolkit o Every animal embryo has a set of genes that determines body axis morphology segmentation limbs and other features Hox Genes o Determine identity of body segments Level of Gene expression o Change in level of gene sometimes significantly changed phenotype but no mutation Protosomes o Ventral NS dorsal intestine dorsal circulatory systems ex worms Deuterosomes o Dorsal NS ventral intestine ventral circulatory system ex vertebrates Convergent Evolution o Evolution of 2 unrelated lineages towards a similar or parallel form Irreducible Complexity o Species complexity could not be the product of natural selection Biological structures may be irreducibly complex claimed by c Michael Behe Vertebrate Eye o Photoreceptor structures 0 Rod and Cone photoreceptors Rods n contain rhodopsin n confer high sensitivity to light night vision a provide a lowresolution grainy image Cones n contain somewhat different pigments n confer lower sensitivity to light day vision a provide a highresolution sharp image a confer color vision if more than one type of cone is present Lens o composed of proteins called crystallins o transparent o stable cataracts result from crystallins clumping with age o evolved from recruited ancestral genes that coded for heatshock proteins o a heatstressed cell can be protected from death by being stabilized by small heatshock proteins o the lens itself has heatshock protein properties o transparent o stable cataracts result from crystallins clumping with age o evolved from recruited ancestral genes that coded for heatshock proteins o a heatstressed cell can be protected from death by being stabilized by small heatshock proteins o the lens itself has heatshock protein properties Iris controls light levels inside the eye similar to the aperture on a camera Cornea Retina Rhodopsin Cone pigments SYSTEMATICS AND TAXONOMY Why scientific classifications are useful Difference Between Taxonomy and systematics Carl LinneLinnaeus o Invented Systema Naturae o The Earth39s creation is the glory of God as seen from the works of Nature by Man alone Systema Naturae o outlined a new way to classify and name living things that we still use today sometimes referring to it fondly as the Linnaean System of classification o related species are grouped in the same genus plural genera o related genera are grouped in the same family o related families are grouped in the same order o related orders are grouped in the same class o related classes are grouped in the same phylum plural phyla o related phyla are grouped in the same kingdom o related kingdomes are grouped in the same domain ICBN o International Commission on Botanical Nomenclature ICBN ICZN o International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature ICZN Rules for naming species o The CommissionsCodes are independent of one another o A taxon bears only one correct name o No two species or genera within one code may have the same name o However sometimes there is overlap between systems with animal and plant sharing the same or similar generic name o eg Heliconus is a butterfly note that genus name is masculine Helicona is a plant note that genus name is feminine o Note whenever a scientific name has a gender masculine or feminine both genus and species must have the same gender o Masculine ending us o Feminine ending a o and there are many endings which are neither masculine nor feminine o Names must be Latin or Latinized o The accepted name is based upon publication priority o Whoever describes a taxon first gets to name it If two taxa usually species but sometimes higher ranks especially with fossils are discovered to actually be the same taxon it will retain the name of earliest publication The members of the taxon named later are subsumed into the first one o For example Brontosaurus excesus is now Agatosaurus az39ax o For plant families and animal superfamilies the name of the family or superfamin must be based on that of a type genus the first genus ever described in a given family plants or superfamin animals o Examples The Pea Family is named Fabaceae because the very first genus the type genus described member of this family was named Faba by Linnaeus o The Daisy Family is named Asteraceae because the first genus described type genus was Aster Alpha taxonomy o the describing and naming of species Beta taxonomy o arranging species into a system of higher classification genus through Kingdom and Domain Gamma taxonomy o study of the biological aspects of species such as intraspecific variation and the actual mechanisms of speciation Taxon o A taxon bears only one correct name o No two species or genera within one code may have the same name o one or more organisms judged by a systematist to form a unit In modern systematics a taxon is constructed based on evidence of evolutionary descent from a single common ancestor Category 0 very top genera Rank o no true biological significance o It serves only to help the biologist locate the taxon within the hierarchy Common Ancestor o Original ancestor that clades descended from Outgroup o taxon related to the assemblage of interest the ingroup but is not included within it This means that all taxa of the ingroup should share about the same level of evolutionary relationship with the outgroup Parsimony o nonparametric statistical method commonly used in computational phylogeneticsfor estimating phylogenies Sister Taxa c any taxa derived from a common ancestral m Clade o a group consisting of a species extinctor extant and all its descendants Cladogenesis o n evolutionary splitting event in a species in which each branch and its smaller branches forms a quotcladequot an evolutionary mechanism and a process of adaptive evolution that leads to the development of a greater variety of sister species Analogous Character o similarities that are the same but found in different species thought to have arisen from convergent evolution Homologous Character o characters in different organisms that are similar because they were inherited from a common ancestor that also had that characters Homoplasy p 5401 Primitive Character Plesiomorphic Derived Character Apomorphic Symplesiomorophy o shared primitive characters Synapomorphy o shared derived characters Significanceuse in Phylogenies quot Outgroup o species or group of species closely related to but not includedwithin a m quot Ingroup c an exclusive circle of people with a common purpose DKPCOFGS Dumb Kids Playing Cards On Freeway Get Smashed Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Most Inclusive Groups DOMAIN 0 includes the less inclusive groups below it all the way down to species Least Inclusive Groups SPECIES Phylogenic Tree o Endpoints o Branchpoints o EtC Cladistics o httpwwwucmpberkeleyeducladclad1html c Any group of organisms are related by descent from a common ancestor c There is a bifurcating pattern of cladogenesis o Change in characteristics occurs in lineages over time o method of hypothesizing relationships among organism o best method available for phylogenetic analysis for it provides an explicit and testable hypothesis of organismal relationships o the study of the pathways of evolution In other words cladists are interested in such questions as how many branches there are among a group of organisms which branch connects to which other branch and what is the branching sequence A treelike network that expresses such ancestordescendant relationships is called a cladogram Thus acladogram refers to the topology of a rooted phylogenetic tree Phenetics o the study of relationships among a group of organisms on the basis of the degree of similarity between them be that similarity molecular phenotypic or anatomical A treelike network expressing phenetic relationships is called aphenogram Classical evolutionary Taxonomy o Which is most widely used today o Major tenets and strengths o Strengths and weakness of each system Cladogram o a diagram used in cladistics which shows ancestral relations among organisms to represent the evolutionary tree of life Most parsimonious phylogenetic tree o he tree with the fewest steps which is thus the simplest explanation of the evolutionary relationships o ideal way to classify using this method Horizontal Gene Transfer in evolution p 5523 362012 105200 PM 362012 105200 PM


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