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soc 108

by: Briana montgomery
Briana montgomery

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chapter 5
Intro to Sociology
Gregory Maddox
Class Notes
SOC 108
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana montgomery on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 108 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Gregory Maddox in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.


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Date Created: 03/09/16
Chapter5;socialstructure Engage In patterned social relationships within group without personal embarrassment or social disruption. (example, the mental maps of social structure are not part of our genetic heritage they must be learned from others) Status A position a person occupies within a social structure.( for example, a newly born female instantly becomes a child and a daughter) Two basic types of social status; Ascribed status Is neither earned nor chosen, it is assigned to us( born into lower class home in india,you would not be permitted to rise to higher social class) Achieved status Is earned or chosen because people have some degree of control and choice( occupations are also achieved statuses in modern societies people have attitude to choose their work ,like plumber, electricians) Status set Is all of the statuses that an individual occupies at any particular time. Master statuses Are important because they influence most other aspects of a person's life (criminal can be an achieved master status because its effects permeate the rest of that person's life) Roles Are the culturally defined rights and obligations attached to a status they indicate the behavior expected of an individual holding that particular status( the of a modern doctor include keeping abreast of new medical development, scheduling office appointments, diagnosing illnesses and prescribing treatment) Rights Inform individuals of behavior they can expect from others Obligations Inform individuals of the behavior other expect from them (doctors are obligated to diagnose their parents illnesses) Role performance Is the actual conduct or behavior activating a role (although some role performance can occur in isolation as when a student studies alone for an examination most of it involves social interaction) Social interaction Is process of two or more person influencing each other's behavior(before two boys begin to fight they have probably gone through a process of insult counter insult and challenge) Role conflict Occur when the performance of a role in one status clashes with that in another status.( college student who hold the status of student and employee often find it difficult to balance study and work demands) Role stain Occur when some of the roles of a single status clash (college basketball coaches recruit for the next season while attempting to win games in the current season) Society Is composed of people living within defined territorial borders ,sharing a common culture( family ,economy, government, religion) Hunting and gathering social Survives by hunting animals and gathering edible foods such as wild fruits and vegetables(tends to be small) Horticultural societies Solved the subsistence problem primarily through the domestication of plants. Pastoral societies Food is obtained primarily by raising and caring for domesticated animals(cattle, camel, goat, and sheep ,all which provide can react strongly to disruption in social harmony) Agricultural society Society whose subsistence relies primarily on the cultivation of crops with plows drawn by animals(made possible largely through the invention of the plow) Industrial society A society whose subsistence based primarily on the application of science and technology to the production of goods and services Structural differentiation Occurs when a single social structure divides into two or more social structure(under the domestic form of production ,the family performs a variety of economic roles) Gemeinschaft German for community Gesellschaft German for society(society based on tradition, kinship, and intimate social relationship) Mechanical solidarity Is the foundation for social unity(people tend to behave think and feel in the same ways -emphasize tradition and family) Organic solidarity Social unity based on a complex of highly specialized roles that makes members of a society dependent on one another(interdependence among members of a society) Folking society Rest on tradition, culture and social consensus ,family ,personalities, little division of labor and an emphasis on the sacred Urban society Society relationship are impersonal and contractual, importance of the family declines, cultural and social consensus diminishes economic specialization becomes even more complex and secular concerns outweigh seared ones Postindustrial society Based is grounded more in service industries than in manufacturing, industries relies on expertise in production, consumption and government Modernization Entails the broader social changes there are a host of them that accompany economic development based on industrialization Modernization theory The changes associated with modernization are the result of an evolutionary process by which societies become increasingly complex Convergence Foresee the development of social and cultural similarity among modernizing nations Global culture A homogenized way of life spread across the globe (can be read into the television coverage of the 2000 millennium celebration) Divergence The persistence of cultural difference in modernizing societies as a result of intervening idiosyncratic social and cultural forces Globalization The process by which increasingly permeable geographical boundaries lead different societies to share in common some economic ,political and social arrangements World system theory The pattern of a nation's development hinges on it places in the world economy(world economy is divided into segments core and peripheral nations such as burma and kenya) What are the consequences of the world system arrangement? 1 Core nations whose skilled workers operate in free labor market 2 Workers in peripheral nations provide unskilled coerced labor and suffer a low standard of living 3 Peripheral nations do not develop as much as they could if they were not dominated and exploited by the core nation


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