The City in the Western Tradition
The City in the Western Tradition URBN 1200
Popular in Course
Popular in Urban & Community Studies
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elisa Schoen on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to URBN 1200 at University of Connecticut taught by Brandon Cramer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/205793/urbn-1200-university-of-connecticut in Urban & Community Studies at University of Connecticut.
Reviews for The City in the Western Tradition
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/17/15
The City in Western Tradition 1142010 71300 PM Colonial Models French and British North America 16001800 Appalachian Mountains split French and British Territory French Colonies St Lawrence Valley Lower Mississippi River 1673 Marquette Priest and Joliet Fur Trader 0 went around NA and claimed land for France 0 first people to travel great lakes Robert La Salle 1682 Traveled and claimed Mississippi delta Voyageurs fur traders use river system to trade between tribes Detroit connected upper great lakes to lower great lakes 0 France created military and trading posts 0 Small fort high walls wood Long lots farms access to the water Quebec City Colonial Capital largest city 0 1740 population 4600 St Louis one of the last cities to be built French Model work trade and get along with the Native Americans French colonies in NA thinly populated population 150000 1754 1763 Decline French amp Indian War 0 French vs British over territory in NA Midwestern US Part of Seven Years war 0 France loses Britain takes over NA colonies Cajuns French in Louisiana Acadians Nova Scotia British Colonies British Model Encourage settlement of colonists produce and gather resources Jamestown first permanent settlement 1607 British got no local help often had conflicts with locals Population 15 million colonists in 13 colonies Previous to Revolutionary war 1142010 71300 PM Manchester England Impact of industry on the City o 1 Natural Environment o 2 Health o 3 Structure of the City o Natural Environment 0 Waste dumped in rivers 0 Air Pollution early 1800s 0 No regulation for population 0 Called Dark Satanic Mills 0 High Infant Mortality o Housing slums developed 0 Low cost small area crowded unsanitary 0 Infectious disease Friedrich Engels German Reporter Went to examine Manchester daily life 0 Inspired Karl Marx to create Marxism Communism and to tell workers to rise up to owners 0 Helped to influence limit on population and housing 0 o 1840s Government stepped in o restrictions on air pollution and tried to improve sanitation and worker housing o Structure of City Reversed o PreIndustrial City Center Government Commercial Religious Wealthy people lived close 0 Industrial City Center Now has factories Poor live close to work in factories and wealthy moved away to escape poor environment Industrialization of the US Started in Northeastern US Eli Whitney Cotton Gin 1794 Slater Mill Rhode Island 1793 Francis Lowell 1810 brought improved textile machine design to US 1790 4 urban areas 1860 18 1920 47 Largest Growth in NE and Midwest New York City 1624 Dutch founded NY called it New Amsterdam Small neglected Population 300 Hudson River Fur trade used to transfer goods Large harbor made a great port 1664 England Invades New Amsterdam 1667 Treaty NYC England Dutch Suriname 1690 4000 Rapid Growth 1770 25000 1142010 71300 PM Revolutionary War population declined Almost half after Britain took over 17851790 Capital of USA population of 30000 1810 Rapid increase in population 100000 made it largest city in USA Prepare city for rapid growth 1807 New planning commission create grid for rest of Manhattan o infilling swamps and streams to create perfectly even layout 1825 Erie canal linked NYC to Midwest to bring grain to east coast and to Europe o Helped city become major trading center Lack of open space Central Park 1857 700 acres edge of the city o Greensward Plan Frederick Olmstead amp Calvert Vaux o Modeled after rural England o Roadways lowered Keep out noise o Became designer of many parks across the USA Parks Movement copied by other US cities 1875 1 million new immigrants NYC Manhattan Brooklyn 400000 1898 5 boroughs merge Brooklyn Bridge 1883 links Manhattan to Brooklyn Late 18005 Tenements 45 story brick apartments similar to Roman insula o Overcrowded little light and fresh air 18605 and 1870s Tenement Housing Acts o each room must have access to light and fresh air 0 Dumbbell Tenements Each room had window Air shaft 18805 Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives o Lower East Side o Street Arabs Homeless children wandering for survival 1142010 71300 PM Industrial Revolution Increasing population amount of people moving to the city o Increasing demand for land 0 Build upward o Late 1800s Rise of Skyscraper o Two things needed for skyscrapers o 1 Steel cage construction strong and relatively light material Bessemer process allowed large scale steel production Curtin wall glass 0 2 Elevators 1853 Otis elevator Elisha Otis safety break o 1St Skyscrapers o Equitable Life Building NYC 1870 8 stories 0 Home Insurance Building Chicago 1885 o Early 1900s Skscrapedrs show up in Financial District o 1920s and 19305 moved to Midtown Manhattan 0 Chrysler Building 0 Empire State Building o Manufacturing 1800s early 1900s o Services Mid 1900s present o Employment went from factories to offices o Burj Khalifa Dubai tallest building 2009 The Suburbs Charles Colby o Centripetal Force Force attracts people and economic activity to the city 0 Industrial Revolution Factories attract 0 Post IR Attracted to Office buildings and skyscrapers o Centrifugal Force Force attracting people and economic activity away from the city 0 Pollution o Crowding Suburbanization Mid 18005 Cities were very densely populated o pedestrian scale 0 Diameter 45 miles across 0 Wealthy on edges Late 1800s city expands o 1 Trolley Car Light rail 18901930 inexpensive o 2 Mid 19005 Balloon Frame Construction Post and Beam expensive and complicated 2 by 4s Wooden frame for home Nails Inexpensive Homes built fast for low cost 0 3 Automobiles and the interstate highway system Automobile increase speed and transport from anywhere Interstate highway system a Defense a Safety n Faster transport Suburban Community 1 Little pollution and low population density 2 Low cost land at the edge of the city people have larger yards 3 Accessible to the city highways 4 Single family homes mass produced inexpensive 0 New homes built 1944 144000 0 1950 17 million 0 Government subsidies 5 Racially and economically homogenenous Middle class White 1142010 71300 PM Suburbanization Levittown NY 1947 Maior Effects of Suburbanization o 1 Decline of the central city 0 African Americans were stuck in central city 0 Concentration of poverty in central city 0 Landlords in cities lower rent Decreasing maintenance on buildings 0 Fewer Tax dollars decreasing infrastructure and government functions 0 Redlining 19305 amp 19405 Refusal to grant loans or insurance in certain areas Racist o 2 Automobile dependence o 3 Businesses move out of the central city 1142010 71300 PM City Structures 1 Ooncentric Ring Industrial Revolution Pre1920s From center of city out Central Business District Manufacturing and Warehousing Innercity Residential land areas poor Innerring suburbs first suburbs middleclass Outerring suburb wealthy 2 Sector Model ex Chicago Hoyt Sector Model Key CBD I FactoriesIndustry I Low class residential I Middle class residential I High class residential 3 Multiple Nuclei Model developed after the automobile became widesprEd exLos Angeles Phoenix Az Central business district can Wholesale light manufacturing Low class residential Medium class reside ti High class residen I Heavy manufacturing I Ou ying business district U Residential suburb I Industrial suburb Harris amp Ullman s Multiple Nuclei Model People have been moving from NE and MW to South and West Largest Growing Places Florida Texas California 0 1 Climate warm coastlines and mountains o 2 Employment rapid economic growth 1142010 71300 PM Edge Cities By Joel Garreau 1991 19705 Employers an businesses move to suburbs o more space to expand o closer to employees Edge City Suburbs that develops its own economic and commercial activity urban subcenter Employment Center o independent of central city o 5 Requirements By Joel Garreau o 1 At least 5 million square feet of office space 2 At least 600000 square feet of retail space 3 More jobs than bedrooms 4 End destination jobs shopping entertainment 5 No urban characteristics 30 years before 0 Office Not industry Ex Tyson s Corner Bellevue Washington Irvine California 0 O O O Urban SQrawl dispersed suburban development outside of compact urban centers o Low Population density o Low level of Land use mix homes and businesses not close to one another o Low connectivity streets do not link together well windy roads cul de sacs and dead ends o Automobile dependence o Mass produced similar housing income homogeneity Problems o Traffic 0 Continued fossil fuel consumption 0 Pollution 0 Carbon dioxide emissions o Segregation o Destroys farmland and natural habitat o Higher cost for infrastructure roads sewers water pipes o Health 0 Obesity 0 Automobile related fatality Smart Growth antisprawl development that attempts to build communities which are c Dense and compact o Mixed Land use o Walkable Smart growth also attempts to o Make public transit accessible o Preserve farmland and natural habitat o Encourage development toward existing communities o Range of Housing choices Ex Seaside Florida 1981
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'