Race, Class, and Gender
Race, Class, and Gender SOCI 1501
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Mr. Carson Boyer
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This 64 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Carson Boyer on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 1501 at University of Connecticut taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/205796/soci-1501-university-of-connecticut in Sociology at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
SOCIETY o A large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations 0 We are currently all affected by global interdependence SOCIETY 0 Organic perpetually changing o Entity to which all of us belong which is bigger than us 0 EX UConn we re a part of it during this passing moment 0 Are you still the same person as you are now if you went to different college POVERTY BY ETHNICITY o httpwwwcensusgovmsoWWWpres lib02k Dov 800X600slid916htm1 HOW IS YOUR LIFE THE RESULT OF HISTORY AND SOCIAL FORCES o What has been the place of people like you historically o Is your group dominant in American society 0 How does it matter that the US is powerful o What if your parents were Mr amp Mrs Gates Mr amp Mrs Bush Ms Oprah Winfrey Single parent with 4 kids WHY STUDY SOCIOLOGY o Helps us gain a better understanding of ourselves and our social world 0 Helps us see how behavior is shaped by the groups to which we belong and our society 0 Promotes understanding and tolerance by helping us look beyond personal eXperiences and gain insight into the larger world order THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION o The ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society 0 Impact of social forces on individuals private lives 0 Distinguishes between personal troubles and social issues 0 Debunking attempt to eXplain what is beyond the facades of social life 0 Unemployment personal troubles or social issue SUICIDE ANOTHER EXAMPLE 0 As a Personal Trouble 0 Many people consider suicide to be the result of personal problems 0 As a Public Issue 0 Sociologist Emile Durkheim related suicide to the issue of cohesiveness in society instead of Viewing it as an isolated act that could be understood by studying individual personalities or inherited tendencies SUICIDE RATES BY RACE AND SEX 0 Rates indicate the number of deaths by suicide for every 100000 people in each category for 2001 I f I I I I All Races Native American African American Asian American Whites I Maia l Female MORE ON SUICIDE IN US 0 More men than women die by suicide 0 73 of all suicide deaths are white males 0 80 of all firearm suicide deaths are white males 0 Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people 15 to 24 years of age 0 What are some eXplanations for these patterns CREDIT CARD OVERSPENDING Social Issues Instant gratification Credit card companies Standard we have to have this Inequality in wages 0 Personal Troubles 0 Spend too much 0 Selfcontrol Bankruptcies 14 out of 280 million people 1998 COMMON SENSE VS SOCIOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE 9 1 Av 2 mOW edhwe I L 149 be Subjectiveinaccur Objectiveaccurate ate based on empirical evidence Inconmstent o C0n81stent Over generalizing THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES 0 Theoretical perspectives are based on ideas about how social life is organized 0 Theory 0 Lens through which to see how society works FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVES Society composed of interrelated parts working to maintain order Manifest function intendedovertly recognized Latent function unintendedhidden and remain unacknowledged Level of analysis Macro whole societies large scale social structures and social systems FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVES o What is the function of crime 0 What is the function of college CONFLICT PERSPECTIVES 0 Groups in society are engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources power prestige and wealth 0 Systems of inequality produce outcomes that are contrary to social order 0 Level of Analysis Macro CONFLICT PERSPECTIVES o Inequality and competition between powerful groups and powerless groups 0 Con ict is to be expected as groups or classes holding little power or privilege struggle to improve their lot and the advantaged strive to protect what they have 0 The Fword the feminist approach 0 Martin Luther King Jr Freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVES 0 Society is the sum of the interactions of individuals and groups 0 We construct reality in our interactions through symbols signs gestures written language and shared values etc 0 People act toward things based on the meaning those things have for them and these meanings are derived from social interaction and modified through interpretation SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVES o Level of Analysis Micro focuses on small groups rather than largescale social structures 0 Behavior is learned in interaction with other people 0 Try to understand the meanings of symbols exchanged in particular social settings 0 EX Suicide attempt a move toward other people not death MAJOR THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES View oi society Composed of interrelated parts Functionalist that work together to maintain stability Society is characterized by Conflict social inequality social life is a struggle for scarce resources MAJOR THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES 39Ti imegtltegy 39 gcexetiei ty Behavior is learned in interaction with other people Symbolic Interactionist SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND INTERACTION 0 Social structure is the framework of societal institutions and social practices that make up a society and establish limits on behavior 0 Social interaction is the process by which people act toward or respond to other people and is the foundation for all relationships and groups in society SOCIAL STRUCTU RE F RAM EWO RK SOCIETY 500ml Institutions Social Groups S hools Churches Garmrafiun39s Statuses and Roles COMPONENTS OF SOCIAL STRUCTURE OStatus OROIes OGroups OSOcial Institutions STATUS oA socially defined position in society characterized by certain expectations rights and duties oStatuses are occupied Positions 0 Locations in society you occupy oStatus set STATUS oAscribed status 0 Social position based on attributes over which the individual has little or no control such as raceethnicity age and gender oAchieved status 0 Social position that a person assumes as a result of personal choice merit or direct effort STATUS oMaster status is one status that overrides all others thus dictating how a person is treated Who gets to define Dominant groups characteristics often become quotnaturalizedquot andor quotnormalquot oStatus symbols are material signs that inform others of a person s specific status 0 Example oWearing a wedding ring proclaims that a person is married ROLES oRoIes are played a set of different expectations associated with specific status Student Attend class study pass exams graduate Parent Take care of children feed discipline provide material necessities Police Officer Protect civilians ROLES 0 Role Expectation o A group or society s definition of the way a specific role ought to be played SOCIAL G ROU PS oA social group consists of two or more people who interact frequently and share a common identity and a feeling of interdependence oPrimary groups Family close friends school or work related peer groups oSecondary Schools churches corporations SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS oA social institution is a set of organized beliefs and rules that establishes how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs BASIC SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS oFamin oReligion oEducation oEconomy oGovernment or politics oMedia FUNCTIONALISTSZ FIVE TASKS OF SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS 1 Replacing members 2 Teaching new members 3 Producing distributing and consuming goods and services 4 Preserving order 5 Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose lVlACROLEVEL SOCIAL STRUCTURE CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE oSocial structure reflects a system of relationships of domination among categories of people oUnless the powerless group wins the conflict the structure works to maintainreproduce the dominance 0 Example class gender raceethnicity heteronormativity etc SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF REALITY oThe process by which our perception of reality is largely shaped by the subjective meaning that we give to an experience oThis meaning strongly influences what we see and how we respond to situations oThe meaning of symbols become institutionalized SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF REALITY oDefinition ofthe situation 0 We analyze a social context in which we find ourselves determine what is in our best interest and adjust our attitudes and actions accordingly oSelf fulfilling prophecy o A false belief or prediction that produces behavior that makes the original false belief come true CATEGORIES OF DIFFERENCE P 8 9 IN THE TEXT o The categories of race class gender and sexuality are socially constructed and transformed into systems of inequality 0 The result of human activity guided by the values of our culture ideas about What should be like 0 Categories of difference become institutionalized passed down to new members of society 0 individuals contribute to the maintenance of categories of difference 0 Interpersonal context use norms and stereotypes to understand and define situations 0 Internal context internalizing the values and beliefs and conformperpetuate the categories of difference SOCIAL STRATIFICATION o Hierarchy of social groups based on control over resources 0 DavisMoore thesis inevitable due to different levels of importance in tasks that need to be performed in society Doctors vs workers at McDonald s but is the ground equal 0 Exploitation of the subordinate for the systematic benefit of dominant legitimized by categorizing people differently 0 Pay attention to 0 Structural inequality vs individual discrimination o ideologies ETHNOMETHODOLOGY DOING GENDER o The study of the commonsense knowledge people use to understand situations 0 Sociologist Harold Garfinkel 1967 initiated this approach and coined the term 0 ethno for quotpeoplequot and methodology for quota system of methods 0 He was critical of mainstream sociology for not recognizing the ongoing ways in which people create reality and produce their own world tion Since the mid 1990s media scholars have shown how or federal funding determines and limits public television programming Hoynes 1994 Bennett 1997 Dornfeld 1998 Stavistky 1998 Witherspoon et al 2000 By threatening to remove future funding or by choosing not to fund program proposals federal and corporate funding sources successfully deter public television stations from producing or airing programs that are politically socially and economically controversial However public television stations also generate a substantial amount of their annual funds from viewers during pledge drives Indeed pledge drives have become increasingly important as corporate support has dwindled over the past decade and federal appropriations have come under attack Witherspoon et al 2000 Hoynes 2003 To date research examining the public television viewer s role in determining and informing public television programming is rather underdeveloped Given the decline in corporate and federal funding this public television s position and services in the larger social and cultura environments EAESA CITATION REFERENCE Becker Howard 1986 Writing for Social Scientists How to Start and Finish Your Thesis Book or Article Chicago University of Chicago Press Edited Book DiMaggio Paul 1991 Constructing an Organizational Field as Professional Project Pp 26792 in The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis edited by W W Powell and P J DiMaggio Chicago University of Chicago Press Journal Article Kuipers Giselinde 2006 Television and Taste Hierarchy The Case of Dutch Television Comedy Media Culture and Society 283 359378 Internet From an Organization Billings Charles 1998 Incident Reporting Systems in Medicine and Experience with the Aviation Safety Reporting System Report from NPSF Workshop on Assembling the Scienti c Basis for Progress on Patient Safety Chicago IL American Medical Association Retrieved June 5 2005 httpwwwnpsforgexecbillingshtml From a University Research Center Bosk Charles L 2005 Continuity and Change in the Study of Medical Error The Culture of Safety on the Shop Floor Occasional Paper School of Social Science Princeton NJ lnstit for Advanced Study Retrieved June 15 2005 httpwwwsssiasedupublicationspaperspaper20pdf ASA CITATION IN TEXT o Bourdieu 1991 argued o Feagin 2000 o Altheide and Coyle 2006 o The impact of the postmodern turn on American social science has generated much controversy Dotter 2001 420 As Dotter 2001 420 states The impact of the postmodern turn on American social science has generated much controversy STRONG STATEMENTS 0 Active and Passive Voice 0 Example 0 Passive Voice The Sociological Imagination is a term that was coined by C Wright Mills 0 Active Voice C Wright Mills coined the term sociological imagination 0 Be direct use proper verbs etc treat each sentence as a statement 0 Example 0 lwata 2009 talks about the issue of global inequality especially in terms of exploitation of the poor by the rich countries 0 lwata 2009 contends that exploitation of the poor by the rich countries are responsible for the current state of global inequality WRITING TIPS PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE 0 Topic sentence begin each paragraph with a statement on what the paragraph is about 0 Example The pattern of Japanese women s labor participation by age has been characterized as bimodal M shape since the 1960s Kimoto amp Fukazawa 2004 Broadbent 2002 Shirahase 2001 Kanai 1996 0 Then I will discuss details of what this means in the following 0 End by relating what you discussed in the paragraph to the main theme of your papersection Example Thus persistent pattern of the Mshape represents low status of women s paid labor in society Kimoto amp Fukuzawa 2004 0 Or connect with your next paragraph 0 One paragraph one major point WHAT ARE PEERREVIEW ARTICLES 0 One article contains one major findingtheme plus some minorrelated findings 0 Do not cite what the authors is citing go to the original source and cite them 0 Beginning of the article literature review of the authors which informs the hypothesesresearch questions that they formulate 0 Your use of articles should only focus on the authors original research not what they cite WHAT TO AVOID 0 Making absolute statements there may be exceptions o Telling readers what to think 0 Using ambiguous terms or words that connote emotional tone feelings such as amazing incredible 0 Long compounded sentences split them up into two or three simple and straight forward sentences 0 DIRECT QUOTES Unless effectivecrucial statement Summarize or paraphrase in your words 0 Personal statements each statement needs to be coming from resources you cite or informed by the Sociology Social Science m GOOD PRACTICE 0 Define key terms such as social problems or problem that you are focusing on 0 Use definitions that are being used by scholars instead of making one up yourself 0 Check our textbook for resources definitions who are they citing Solution chapter etc 0 Make sure you are citing academicscholarly work or if using nonempirical work who the author is some scholars are heavily biased Harvard Psychologist wrote the Bell Curve 0 Peerreview ask someone else to proof read your paper THE SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH PROCESS 0 Research is the process of systematically collecting information for the purpose of testing an existing theory or generating a new one 0 Collect and analyze data 0 Theory and research as a continuous cycle THEORY AND RESEARCH CYCLE m Theories Genera izations Hypotheses Observations CONVENTIONAL RESEARCH MODEL 1 lo 539 Select and define social phenomenon of interest Review previous research Formulate the hypothesis Develop the research design Collect and analyze the data Draw conclusions and report the findings VARIABLES 0 Variable any concept with measurable traits or characteristics that can change or vary from one person time situation or society to another 0 Independent Variable the variable assumed to be the cause or in uential factor of the relationship between variables 0 Dependent Variable the variable assumed to be affectedcaused by the lVs HYPOTHESIS o A statement of the expected relationship between two or more variables 0 expected answers for Research questions HYPOTHESIZED RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN VARIABLES CAUSAL Suicide rate Depression Depression causes suicidequot HYPOTHESIZED RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN VARIABLES INVERSE CAUSAL 39 Suicide Encial ratE intagmatian Th3 lack D11quot SEEial i ntegrati n causes suicidequot HYPOTHESIZED RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN VARIABLES MULTIPLE CAUSE Hate of social change Suicide rate Religiosity Many factors interact to cause suicidequot QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 0 Quantitative research focuses on data that can be measured numerically 0 Example comparing rates of suicide 0 Qualitative research focuses on interpretive description rather than statistics to analyze underlying meanings and patterns of social relationships Example analysis of suicide notes RESEARCH METHODS SURVEY RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE o Describes a population without interviewing each individual sampling amp inferrence o Standardized questions force respondents into categories 0 Relies on selfreported information and some people may not be truthful 0 Cause IV Effect DV 0 EX Education lncome RESEARCH METHODS ANALYSIS OF EXISTING DATA 0 Secondary analysis public records official reports 0 Content analysis 0 books diaries poems and graffiti 0 movies television Shows advertisements greeting cards 0 music art and even garbage 0 Both Quantitative numbers and Qualitative RESEARCH METHODS FIELD RESEARCH 0 Study of social life in its natural setting 0 Observing and interviewing people where they live work and play APPROACHES TO FIELD RESEARCH o Ethnography Detailed study of the life and activities of a group of people over a period of time 0 Participant observation 0 Collecting observations While part of the activities of the social group being studied 0 Become a member of the group understand the social meanings shared among the particular group RESEARCH METHODS EXPERIMENTS 0 Study the impact of certain variables on subjects attitudes or behavior 0 Experimental group and control group 0 Used to demonstrate a causeandeffect relationship between variables ASA CODE OF ETHICS 1 Disclose research findings in full and include all possible interpretations of the data to Safeguard the participants right to privacy and dignity while protecting them from harm ASA CODE OF ETHICS 3 Protect confidential information provided by participants 4 Acknowledge research collaboration and disclose all financial support INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD IRB o The IRB seeks to create a collaborative relationship with the research community to assure that research with human subjects is conducted in accordance with legal requirements and ethical principles of Respect for Persons Beneficence and Justice These principles require the balancing of risks to subjects against the scientific knowledge to be gained and the potential benefits to subjects and society The IRB also focuses on the informed consent process to assure that subject participation in research is voluntary UNETHI CAL RESEARCH o Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male 0 httpenwikipediaorgWikiTuskegeeStudy0f UntreatedSyphilisintheNegroMale
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