Notes from 9/10
Notes from 9/10 ATY 253-01
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Scobee on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ATY 253-01 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Charles P. Egeland in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 212 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biological anthropology in Science at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
What is a race and do races exist among humans Why do we look different from each other physically Human variation The race concept lots of definitions does not refer to cultural differences race is based on biological traits biologically distinct human group subspecies The central paradox of race 0 race as biology doesn t really work but 0 race is REALLY important History of the race concept 0 western view of race uncommon prior to age of discovery 0 Johann Blumenbach 1781 geographic location and skull shape I mythology of the beautiful caucasian Why race fails as biology variation 0 do humans differ biologically Of course 0 betweenpopulation polytypic variation 0 withinpopulation polymorphic variation 0 racial classification emphasizes between population variation 0 and minimizes or ignores within population variation 0 implication all africans are the same all asians are the same etc y race fails as biology traits 0 what traits do you use It s totally arbitrary 0 why because many traits do not covary O O y O O O O O O O Wh most traits are continuous gradation over space how do you create discrete groups with traits that vary continuously race fails as biology anywhere from 3 and 100 different races have been proposed How many races No objective scientific answer why the disagreement it s the nature of human variation Wh Patterns of human variation 0 inherited trait that increases chances of survival and reproduction in particular environments trait inherited and nonreversible potential for trait inherited but may or may not be expressed o nongenetic adjustments to environmental conditions Human variation and temperature 0 0 body shape and temperature body build I slender lighter population inhabit warmer climates I extremities decrease in length in colder environments I low surface area mass retains body heat I high surface area mass dissipates body heat nose shape I warm humid climates low wide noses I cool dry climates high narrow noses Human variation and solar radiation 0 O O O pigment melanin protects against UV radiation melanin is transported by melanosomes from melanocytes type of skin cell everyone has same of melanocytes what bad things does UV radiation do I sunburn I damages DNA leads to skin cancer I destroys folate important for DNA reproduction what good things does UV radiation do I synthesizes vitamin D I regulates calcium absorption I lack of vitamin D o rickets I Vitamin D fortified milk I UV radiation and vitamin D synthesis Human variation and altitude O 0000 O insufficient oxygen intense UV radiation cold temperatures dry climates vasodilation increased Red Blood Cell production slower growth and develop larger chest cavities low mortality among low birth weight infants efficient glucose metabolism altitude training Human variation and workload O O skeletal structure Wolff s Law bone mass is produced where it is needed and taken away where it is not The central paradox of race 0 0 race doesn t exist out there in an objective biological sense but race does exist in our heads as a cultural construct