New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Nanomaterials Synthesis and Design

by: Dr. Kelton Rau

Nanomaterials Synthesis and Design MSE 4240

Dr. Kelton Rau
GPA 3.88

Puxian Gao

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Puxian Gao
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Material Science and Engineering

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Kelton Rau on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MSE 4240 at University of Connecticut taught by Puxian Gao in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/205837/mse-4240-university-of-connecticut in Material Science and Engineering at University of Connecticut.

Popular in Material Science and Engineering


Reviews for Nanomaterials Synthesis and Design


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/17/15
LECTURE 6 Nanoparticles and Nanotubes Professor Pu Xian Gao Department of Chemical Materials and Biomolecular Engineering Institute of Materials Science 09282009 I Nanoparticles Outline What is nanoparticle Characteristics of nanoparticle Synthesis methods of nanoparticles Some examples 1 Metallic nanoparticle 2 Semiconductor nanoparticle 3 Oxide nanoparticle 4 Polymeric nanoparticle Small is Beautiful 112 C02 molecules on Cu 99 Fe atoms on Cu Scanning tunneling microscopy STM probes manipulated atoms and molecules into Chinese and English characters respectively 3 What is Nanoparticle 1 Universal definition objects having one or more dimensions in the order of 100nm or less 2 Our definition objects having all three dimensions in the order of 100 nm or less Dispersion of Nanoparticles Dispersion D Total of Surface Atoms Total of Atoms 4 Atoms D 1 309 Atoms D 052 SO FOR ONE UNIT CELL OF BCC FCC or HCP metal crystal D The D of a nanoparticle describes the nature of its nanocomponents D can be determined by using absorption such as BET surface area measurement method or other characterization techniques The Wulff Construction on Equilibrium Crystal Shape The equilibrium shape of a crystal is obtained by the Wulff construction year 1901 quotThe ratio of the surface specific free energies divided by the corresponding central distances is a constant For FCC crystals and with a broken bond model with pairwise interaction the equilibrium shape at 0K is a truncated octohedron named Wulff polyhedron DOES THIS APPLY to NANOCRYSTALS Shell model of Free nanoclusters Colors of Quantum Dots Small metal clusters can behave similar to that of a small liquid droplets their electronic structure resembles that due to a smooth spherical confining potential spherical shell model Formation of new periodic tables ie electronic periodic tables for small clusters open shells closed shells and reactivity Mackay icosahedron with K shells has a total of atoms N 10KA3 15KA2 11K 33 atoms 100nm AgT 100nm AuS 50nm AuS 90nm AgS 411nm AgS 4 01 Light scattering from different metal nanoparticles 7 E Nanoparticles Made from Different Materials Nanoparticles Synthesis Metallic nanoparticles 1 Solution phase methods Metals Au Pt Pd Rh Ru a Reduction of metal complexes Alloys AuPd PtSn PtRu PtRh CoFe PdNiCu b Co precipitation c Hydro solvatherma1 Semiconductor nanoparticles d Gaping agent Compounds ZnO CdSe ZnS AgZS GaAs Elements Si Ge 9 SOl39gel Alloy compounds CdZnS CdMnS 2 Vapor phase methodsZ Ceramic nanoparticles a Physical Vapor Deposition PVD Metal oxides T10 V203 R303 b Chemical Vapor Depos1t1on CVD Semiconducting oxides TiOZ 11203 SnOZ ZnO NiO M hard all attriti n Insulating oxides MgO CaO SiOZ A1203 S eC C 1 i O Carbides and nitrides SiC SiN pray pyro YSIS 5 Energybeam irradiations Other nanoparticles Organicbiological protein chromatin plastids micelles 9 Nanoparticles in Catalysis Band Structure of Nanoparticles Nanoparticles have been used in CATALYSIS for 200 year High specific surface area surfacearea per unit volume High dispersion of nanoparticle Wet chemistry synthesis for scaleup commercial use Example Active metal nanoparticles 9 100 mAZg A commercial reactor 100 000 Kg 9 10000 KmAZ metal surfaces EHOMO EF EF An old and new challenge How to make high surface area nanoparticles without aggregation at higher temperature and to be used for many years Molecular State Nanoparticle Bulk Material 0055 DOSEl 0055 The band structure of a nanoparticle depends on its size shape and the arrangement of its surface atoms Melting Point of Metallic Nanoparticles Nanoparticles melt below their corresponding bulk melting temperatures Thermodynamic predictions of melting Surface Melting Temperature Change N 2T06 pm 039 Surface tension coef cient for a liquid solid interface ATT0 T L latent heat of fusion p density of the material R radius of the nanoparticle Equilibrium Shape of Metallic Nanoparticles Decahed ron Icosahedron The decahedron consists The icosahedron consists of five tetrahedra of twenty tetrahedral Geometerical shapes of cubooctahedral nanoparticle Fl115 Fi173 a VA W W a Geometrical shapes of cubooctahedral nanocrystals as a function of the ratio R of the growth rate along the lt100gt to that of the lt111gt b Evolution in shapes of a series of 111 based nanoparticles as the ratio of 111 to 100 increases The beginning particle is bounded by three 100 facets and a 111 base while the nal one is a 111 bounded tetrahedron c Geometrical shapes of multiply twinned 15 decahedral and icosahedral particles SEM Image of Au Nanoparticles Nonequilibrium Shapes of Pt Nanoparticle HRTEM images of cubic Pt nanocrystals oriented along a 001 and b 110 showing surface stepsledges and the thermodynamically nonequilibrium shapes 17 10 MINUTES BREAK II Nanotubes Outline What is Nanotube What is nanotube 1 Definition objects with hollow core having two dimensions crosssection in the order of 100 nm or less the third dimension length in the order Synthesis methods of nanotube of 1000 nm or more Classification of nanotubes Some examples 1 Carbonbased nanotube 2 Metal nanotube 3 Inorganic nanotube 4 Polymeric nanotube 20 Single Crystal ZI IO NanOtube Classification of Nanotubes 1 Noncarbon based nanotubes a Inorganic nanotubes ZnO SnOz GaN etc b Polymeric nanotubes c Metal nanotubes d 2 Carbonbased nanotubes a Carbon nanotube CNT b Carbonrelated nanotube CN BC etc c 3 21 22 Carbon Nanotube A Nickname Nanotubes Synthes1s Buckytubes 1 Solution phase methods a Hydro solvathermal b Solgel c CIENTIFIC RESEA 2 Vapor phase methods a Physical Vapor Deposition PVD b Chemical Vapor Deposition CVD 3 Templatebased synthesis 4 Lithography based fabrication 5 i 23 E CNT Luminescence What is Buckytube BUCKY TUBES A new promising form of carbon based fullerenes fullerenes molecule with 60 carbon atoms C60 and with an icosahedral symmetry also includes larger molecular weight fullerenes Cn n larger than 60 they are based 011 elongated pipelines of hexagonal carbon faces capped at both ends with 12 carbon pentagons needed for curvature to cap o the ends U A 25 Formation of Buckytube 26 Molecular Perfection The Fullerene Ideal 39 The Strongest fiber that will ever be made lt Electrical Conductivity of Copper or Silicon Thermal Conductivity of Diamond The Chemistry of Carbon The of DNA Molecular Pefection The Fullerene Ideal Pbfilled tubes as superconducting wires lt 7 K Pb becomes superconducting Metalproteinfilled tubes as catalysts nanothermometer and nanobio probes 28 Constructing Nanotubes from a Graphene Sheet Important parameters Chiral angle Rollup vector nm Typical termination CNT zigzag n0 armchair n n 29 Band structures dependent on chiral angle and rollup vector diameter Variable Band Structures of CNT 332 a 0 ll 9 I name a u gz E gr quot 4 v A IN v 3 l r 1 DN A Ann N NNK k I it quot 44 Energy eV Coria39ao rooo n 3a 00 arkEa From Metallic CNT armchair to semiconductor CNT with small band gap to semiconductor with moderate band gap 30 High Strength of CNT Predicted Tensile Strength of singlewall Nanotubes gt100 GPa gt30 strain to failure Yakobson et al 1997 Twisted Tubes Don t Break Nearinfrared photoluminescence from singlewall carbon nanotubes 32 Yakobson et al 1996 Excitation 661 nm Emission gt 850 nm 33 CNTs Cloning Project Cut to short lengths lt 20 nm Purify Sort by end and side chemistry Attach catalyst Inject into reactor and grow clone Cut to desired length Purify Season to taste 00lOUlIgtUJIgt t Same old chemistry t 9 But these organic molecules nm conduct electricity 1000 times larger current density than Cu SWNT reinforced nanocornposite 39 F10421 ISTDEiLiAQ 10 SWNT Neat Fiber quot4quot From 125 pm Needle Orifice 77ng 100132vol 50 125 2 19 void Homework 1 Discussions 36 NEXT CLASS I Lecture 7 Nanawires and Nanabelts Octaber 5


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.