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Language and Environment

by: Ena Barton

Language and Environment LING 1020

Marketplace > University of Connecticut > Linguistics > LING 1020 > Language and Environment
Ena Barton
GPA 3.53

Andrea Calabrese

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Andrea Calabrese
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ena Barton on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LING 1020 at University of Connecticut taught by Andrea Calabrese in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/205840/ling-1020-university-of-connecticut in Linguistics at University of Connecticut.


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Date Created: 09/17/15
Study guide Ling1020 Final Exam HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS Historical linguistics concerns the study of language change One of the major aspects of historical linguistic studies is the use Phonological reconstruction Phonological reconstruction looks for systematic sound correspondences between words of the same or similar meaning in two or more languages Comparative method is used to determine the recurrent similarities and differences across languages that are hypothesized to be related Cognates the words that have a historically common origin The scienti c study of IndoEuropean started in 18111 century with the discovery of Sanskrit by Sir William Jones The comparative method and phonological reconstruction made it possible to predict some of the forms in the ProtoIndoEuropean which is assumed to be not actually attested but a form that is reconstructed a common ancestor for all the IndoEuropean languages Rask Grimm and Bopp s studied the phonological correspondences between Indo iEuropean languages Grimm39s law which is the first systematic sound change that was discovered establishes a set of regular correspondences between early Germanic and Indo European languages In particular between Germanic stops and fricatives and the stop consonants of certain other lndo European languages Histogy of English Germanic language that originates from AngloFrisian dialects brought to England by German settlers Old English was a diverse group of dialects re ecting the varied origins of the AngloSaxon Kingdoms of England Old English developed into Middle English after the Norman Conquest of England in 1099 The variety that is called Modern English appears in the XVth century Periods of the English language Old English Vth to Xlth centuries Middle English Xlth to XVth centuries Modern English XVth to the present Modern English vowel alternations are the prominent phonological changes observed Old English was in uenced by two vawes 0f invasions invasion by the speakers of the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic family and by the Normans who developed an English variety called AngloNorman The effect of Danelaw invasion can be seen mostly in the toponyms the location names fauna etc The effect of Norman invasion can be seen in the fauna certain abstract words etc Modern British dialects The major divisions EnglishEnglish Welsh English Scottish English Received Pronunciation used as a model for teaching English to foreign learners Also referred to as Queen s English or Public School English South East England dialects London Cockney rhyming slang tglotallization hdrop and diphthong change are prominent Estuary English has some features both from received pronunciation and Cockney Other dialects of British English West Country East Anglian West Midlands East Midlands Liverpool Wirral etc HISTORY OF AMERICAN ENGLISH Four main migrations of the English speaking people from the British isles during the colonial period that resulted in the main dialectal divisions l The puritans from East Anglia settled in Massachusets 2 The Royalists from south England settled in VirginiaCarolina 3 The Quakers from the midlands of England and Wales settled Delaware 4 The quotScots Irish from North Britain and Northern Ireland settled in the Appalachian backcountry English of the Puritans the major features pronunciation of O in caught and bought nasal twang the use of low fronted a3 instead of back a in father and far rdeletion Etc English of the Royalists the major features drawl aksed instead of asked ain t instead of isn t yall instead of you all English of the Quakers the major features Pronunciation of the back rounded sound a in words caught sawl Pronunciation of e in bad sack Retention of r 1 There is a problem with my IPA symbols please check the original notes from the slides for all of these 2 English of the ScottishIrish 7 mixed with Cherokee and other Native American languages the major features the use of pronouns hisn intead of his hem instead of her Retention of preposition exchangin parts of speech instead of it is a pleasureiit pleasures me etc General American Due to move to the west after the civil war mixture of dialects from the poorer classes along the middle Atlantic British EnglishAmerican English differences The pronunciation of the vowel in words such as bath the glottalization of t in words such as bottle t in words such as butter sitter r deletion word level differences Factors effecting dialect Areas in the USA Dialect of original settlers Geography Urban vs rural Speed and density and direct of population growth North American Englishmai or features merger of the vowels in words such as father and bother merger of the vowels in words such as caught and cot the replacement of lot vowel with strut vowel in words such as was of everybody nobody merger of the vowels in words such as marry merry Mary dropping of j as in new vs nu Etc Southern American Englishmaior features r drop 2 instead of s in words such as greasy past tense forms such as seed instead of saw double modals such as might could instead of might be able to Midlands dialectsmajor features retain diphthong ay 2 instead of s in words such as greasy word level differences blinds for windowshades pronunciation of a in frog pie etc past tense seen instead of saw Each midland city has developed local tendencies but shared only to a limited degree by the hinterland In Philedelphia fronting of uw raising of ahr etc In West midland merger of long and short open o fronting of uw New England dialects major features Eastern New England non rhotic r NorthEastem New England non rhotic r broad A etc SouthEastem New England non rhotic r cotcaught merger Western New England rhotic r raising of ae etc Current vowel shift in American English Northern cities shift change in the short vowels general raising tensing and lengthening of the quotshort aquot that is the vowel of cat a3 cat and that sounds as quotkeeatquot and quottheeatquot Southern cities shift monophthongization The diphthong a1 becomes monophthongized to a1 For instance a1 in nice white rice gets pronounced as quotnahs whaht rahsquot LANGUAGE AND GEOGRAPHICAL BOUNDARIES dialects and regional linguistic variation All languages have dialects and all vary in the same ways phonologically morphologically leXically etc dialect set of variations stable for a group idiolect dialect of an individual accent a variety of a language that differs in pronunciation but not in grammatical ie morphological and syntactic structure For determining dialect areas following are used isogloss 7 boundary separating area of one variable from another isogloss bundle 7 several isoglosses coinciding and de ning a dialect area How do dialects develop settlement history inherent language variation invasions and other localized in uences boundaries7 political geographic transport etc AFRICAN AMERICAN VERNACULAR ENGLISH AAVE is a nonstandard dialect of English Rule governed but not an independent language Where did AAEV come from Southem British dialect Decreolized creole with West African substrate African American Vernacular English characteristics copular deletion he bad no subject and auxiliary inversion in questions what time it is steady as aspect marker negative concord I dialn t see nobody Idsardi et al 1999 study shows that there is a discrimination towards AAVE SOCIOLINGUISTICS Sociolinguistics describes how the social context oflanguage can affect its use Dialect vs accent An accent is a variety of a language that differs in pronunciation but not in grammatical structure Dialect involves variation in prunciation morphology syntax vocabulary etc Idiolect A variety of language unique to an individual Regional alialect a speech variety associated with a geographic area Social alialect a speech variety spoken by a group shaing a social characteristics class age sex ethnicity Linguistic variable a phoneme morpheme or syntactic structure which varies btw speakers or varieties of language Correlation between class socioeconomic status and traditional dialect 7 Lower classes tend to have more regional variation and preserveuse regionalnonstandard variants eg hdeletion in England 7 Why Upper class more likely to move go away to school etc Regional pride the study of Martha s Vineyard William Labov s work in sociolinguistics The study of Martha s Vineyard In the Martha s Vineyard study Labov investigated the centralization of the diphthongs ay and aw Centralization here means that instead of the a sound of the diphthong there is a schwa sound The name for this phenomenon comes from the fact that when we make the schwa sound our tongue is in a more central position inside the mouth compared to when we make the a The centralized vowel in aw in loud about and doubt sounds similar to the way many Canadian speakers pronounce this sound For the wider community in Martha39s Vineyard the prestige pronunciations are uncentralized ay and aw The centralized diphthong is associated with island identity Those who identi ed themselves with the island used the centralized diphthongs The department store study Labov 1966 completed the New York department store study which examined overt prestige involving both class and gender Labov investigated the pronunciation of the r sound in words such as the middle of the word fourth and the end of the word oor Labov carried out his experiment by walking into 3 different department stores in New York representing different social classes being Saks upper class Macy s middle class and S Klein lower class He went on to ask shop assistants where the location of departments were that he knew were on the fourth oor to allow them to spontaneously say the words fourth oor His findings were that the sales assistants from Saks used the r sound most showing that the current overt prestige form in New York was to pronounce the r Those from Klein s used it least as they would have used more covert prestige so would not have pronounced the r sound and said an utterance along the lines of aw Finally those from Macy s showed the greatest upward shift of pronouncing oor rather than aw when they were asked to repeat their utterance Thus Labov found that the pronunciation of r increases as the class of the store increases Also he found that there was an increase of pronunciation of r in careful speech N0 dialect is superior But linguistic variables may be used as a mean to discriminate Nonstandard dialect is usually associated with stupidity lack of education etc Linguistic prestige example Martha s Vineyard study Prestige level of respect accorded to a variety Overt prestige the prestige of standard varieties changes of overt prestige forms are usually spreaded by middle class women Covert prestige choosing not to assimilate to the standard When the speaker wants to gain recognition acceptance solidarity with a specificiand nonprestigiousigroup of people or to signal to other speakers their identification with that group they appeal to covert prestige Linguistics variable can be conditioned or affected by class gender class gender ethnicity etc Trudgill s 1974 study for instance shows that the linguistic variable gerund suffix ing the final consonant in words like walking running can be contioned by both class and gender In standard British English the sound spelled ng is a velar nasal In NorwichEngland however the pronunciation waikin39 talkin is frequently heard as if there was simply 39n39 on the end In all social classes the more careful the speech the more likely people were to say walking rather than walkin The proportion of walkin type forms was higher in lower social classes Both the males and females of the lower working class appealed to this use more often than the middle middle class and the lower middle class people


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