The Press in America
The Press in America JOUR 1002
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Date Created: 09/17/15
102209 notes Chapter 15 continued George Gallup invented scienti c polling 0 Journalism teacher Iowa State University 0 Research in 1930 s 0 Polled people on what they liked about newspaperschanged how paper looked o Alf Landon V F Roosevelt Literary Digest Poll asked who they would vote for 1936 0 Poll said Landon was in lead 0 Gallup s Poll 50000 ppl said Roosevelt would win election I Gallup took random sample Digest took biased ppl on newsletter lists Harold Lasswell Political scientist at UChicago 0 Content analysis on mass communication 0 Believed higher educated ppl should be offering advice to less educated 0 Keep uninformed citizens in loop 0 Who sends what to whom through in what channel to what effect basis of research News Magazines created because busy ppl couldn t sit down and read paper everyday o Ppl could look at week s events in one sitting 0 Henry Luce and Brit Hadden started Time Magazine in 1923 0 Immediately huge success 0 Brightly written compartmentalized comprehensive and understandable o 1936 Life Good Pictures sold 6 million copies a week 0 1937 LookRival o l933Newsweek Radio Newspapers 1896 o Guglielmo Marconi sends first wireless message in Italy in 1896 o 1920 First Radio Station KDKAPittsburg PA 0 two years later 576 radio stations 0 fewer newspapers after depression radio picks up 0 Radio allows mind to wander o Immediacy ability to fill in visual blanks Radio Problems 0 AP did not sell stories to any stations 0 Had to expand stories themselves 0 l934Wire Service for radio clients service appears 1940 o WWII radio more useful and viable deliverer of news Newsreels short films 510 minutes191 ll960 s 0 Government employed newsreelspropagandistic o Tried to develop support for WWII 0 Crash of the Hindenburg coverage airship lled with hydrogen 0 Burst into ames over NJ 35 ppl died 0 Herb Morrisonbroadcaster who covered event African American press 18271945 Ally of abolitionist press determined to make better life for AfricanAmericans o Founded because Black Americans were denied access to White Press 0 NY Sun1847 Willis Hodges Black men had to own 250 worth of land 0 Willis writes letter to editor to pass law in favor of law Charges Hodges 15 to run letter Ran it in classi ed ad section of paper Hodges complains to editor editor says Sun shines for all but only if they re 000 white men I Hodges starts Ram s Horn in 1847 I Lasted 18 mo 0 Freedom 3 Journal 1827 lasted until 1830 in NYC 0 Samuel Cornish and John Russwurm without newspapers we black ppl cannot live in America Stressed self help education and equality for African Americans Staunchly opposed establishments of colonies for former slaves We wish to plead our own cause Set tone for AfricanAmerican Press Sounded like antebellum cousins pages lled with news anecdotes etc I Directly related to Black Community Cost 3year circulated in 11 states Cornish favors emancipation and against colonization Russwurm believes in 00000 O colonization I Russwurmone of lst black college gradsBowdoin College I Thinks blacks should free and go to Liberia I Cornish leaves to resume duties w churchRusswurm turns paper into more radical version moves to Africa in 1829 o 1829Comish returns changes name of paper to The Rights of All 0 Also created ColoredAmerz39can in 1837 Cornish o Stays in effect for 5 years 0 Advice on how to live in community 0 North Star Frederick Douglass 1847 Weekly Rochester NY 0 Most in uential newspaper published before civil war 0 Alternative to The Liberator by William Lloyd Garrison o Douglass wanted to publish own views wanted to attack slavery in all forms advocate universal emancipation promote moral and intellectual improvement of colored people 0 51 White to Black Readers Frederick Douglass PaperMerged from North Star in another paper started in 1851 Douglass writes own autobiography ees to England after getting death threats 0 Raises money and buys freedom 0 Forced to discontinue paper by 1863 0 Published National Era dies in 1895 40 black papers before start of civil war mostly in North and Midwest 1855eXtends to Canada and San Francisco 0 Celebrated achievements of black intellectuals 0 Created a sense of bonding in black community Provincial Freeman Windsor Ontario 1853 o Maryanne Chad1st woman to have a newspaper in North America 0 lst African american woman to practice Law in US Howard Graduate New Orleans Tribune1864 1st Black Owned Daily Newspaper 0 Initially written in French and English Richmond Planet 1883 1938 largest weekly in the South All papers originally supported Republican Party End of Reconstruction in 1870 s ends hope of blacks for equality o KKK campaign against black civil rights in South when fed troops leave 0 In ux of AfricanAmericans to North Immigrants angry since they took jobs Black Press closely connected to religion 0 Provides built in audienceChurches finance newspaper 0 Christian Recorder 1846 founded by African Methodist Episcopal Church o Oldest still published paper T Thomas Fortune famous 19Lh century black American newspaper man 0 1884New York Freeman changed to New YorkAge in 1888 o speaks freely for concerns of blacks 0 Black editors generally very cautious Memphis Free Speech Newspaper1892paper completely destroyed by white mob 0 White violence towards black free speech picks up towards end of 19Lh century and beginning of 20Lh century 0 Growing division in opinion among leaders of Black communities 0 Booker T Washington V WEB DuBois n I 39 NA 1 39 W 1 1 39 1 v and o to will of white majority I Don t push too hard I Earns Uncle Tom nickname o DuBoisfounder of NAACP more radical I PHD in Sociology from Harvard in 1896 0 William Trotter disagreed with Washington also intellectual like DuBois 0 Boston Guardian founder Harvard Graduate Blacks in WWII black newspapers emphasized hypocrisy of blacks not haVing combat roles 10292009 notes Muckrakers Continued 1900 1917 1906peak of Muckraker period Attention of American focus eventually turns to war Changed idea of joumalismfact based stories and not sensational raised standard of writing Journalism changing as more collegeeducated ppl enter business 0 Shift in what people pay attention to Charles Edward Russell 1908 story Tenants of Trinity Church 0 Story exposed how church was taking money from tenants 0 Social civic virtue David Graham Phillips wrote for Cosmopolitan 1906 Treason of Senate 0 Prompted Roosevelt s muckraking speech 0 Exposed corruption of senate and Aldrich 0 Story led to change in constitutionpassage of 17Lh amendment direct election of senators Series American Newspaper Will Irwin o Wrote how newspapers enrich themselves through advertising in 1911 in Collier 3 Magazine 0 15 part series newspapers writing positive stories about business execs 0 Exposed newspapers getting extra money from bank to advertise businesses hidden advertising 0 Wrote about AP Harper 3 Weekly in 1914 coverage of corruption of newspapers 0 AP only allowed membership in communities from one outlet at a time Samuel Hopkins Adams Collier 3 Magazine 1905 series that exposed path of medicine fraud Great American Fraud 0 Outlined dangers of patent medicines laced with alcohol and opium Ladies Home Journal set initiative to look at advertisements and judge whether they were inappropriate to run in magazine 0 1883 Edward Bok forgoes money from advertising medicines to expose corruption Ray Stannard Baker wrote about railroad in McClure 3 Magazine in 1906 Railroads on Trial 0 Prompted federal gov t to tighten regulations on railroads The Jungle by Upton Sinclair 1906 0 Exposed meatpacking industry 0 1906Meat Inspection Act Frank Norris The Octopus 1901 o Wrote about unethical practices of railroads o McTeague about slums in Chicago Books eventually replace magazines Legislative Changes due to articles Hepburn Act 1906 authorized interstate commerce commission to have more authority of railroads Meat Inspection Act 1906 followed publication of jungle Pure Food and Drug Act of 1907 Samuel Hopkins Adams s series on patent medicine Mann Act of 1909 prohibited transportation of women across state lines for immoral purposes following a series in McClure s in 1907 Chapter 17 Media and National Crisis 19171945 Censorship directly by gov t and selfcensorship pose problems 0 Press handling morality of reporting truth and fending off selfcensorship WWI summer of 1914 Gavrilo Princep kills archduke of AustriaHungarian empire Franz Ferdinand 0 Serbia doesn t reunite with Bosnia even though he hoped they would 0 Americans neutral in the beginning serbians try to convince Americans joining war is a bad idea 0 Role of censorshipcut cable that connected US to Britain to get information 0 Behind the scenes campaigns to stop American Involvement Sinking Of Lucitania passenger ship that went down in 1915 1200 people dead 128 Americans 0 War starts to get American attentions o Zimmerman Telegram German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmerman o Tells Ambassador of Mexico to tell Mexicans to join their side and they will get all land lost to Americans 0 Secretary of State gets note leaked to him tuming point Germans sinking American merchant ships I 1917 AprilAmerica enters war Important War Correspondents Reporting on trench warfare poison gas etc Richard Harding Davis America s best known reporter 0 Wheeler 3 Syndicate covered WWI Walter Turanty New York Times Frederick Palmer New York H erald Floyd Gibbons Chicago Tribune Peggy Holly among 1St women war corr covered Americans landing in Siberia Rheta Childe Door covered Russia for NY newspapers mostly for New Y orkM ail Most ppl still isolationists no interest in going to war General Pershing leader of war overseas 1917 convinces Palmer to be sensor for military operations 0 Wanted Palmer to keep reporters under control 0 Palmerallowed only 12 reporters to accompany Pershing needed credentials 0 Must le bonds of 2000 for own food and shelter 0 Had to wear uniforms 0 Couldn t write anything that would be detrimental to troops George Creel headed Committee on Public Information censorship operation of WWI 0 Daily handouts and newspaper O icial Bulletin 0 ISI gov t funded newspaper o Asked people to be voluntarily selfcensored o Espionage Act 1917 gives gov t power to investigate newspapers I Socialist publications targeted I 50 publications lose mailing privileges o Sedition Act of 1918 crime to show disrespect to gov t ag etc o Controlled telegraph lines o Reporters careful not to be critical of gov t fear of being shut down Four Minute Men 75000 men who give 4 minute patriotic citizens encouraging ppl to support war Post War ave of strikes dissent and uneven social behavior as country changes communist leanings John Reed strong socialist agenda Walter Duranty 1932 wins Pulitzer prize for coverage of Stalin and Soviet Revolution 0 Complimentary of revolution 0 You can t make an omelet without breaking eggs 0 NY Times eventually acknowledges he was wrong Press becoming more interested in foreign affairs Depression l932Industrial Production cut in half depression in full swing 13 million ppl out of work 0 Press not writing about bad economic situation lack of investigative work 0 Failure to link economy to politics didn t write positively about unionism Election of FDR9 New Deal efforts to pull country out of depression 1932 o Press secretary Stephen Early kept reporters updated on what administration was doing 0 Early let reporters talk to people in administration 0 Re ected nature of FDR open and friendly FDR utilized radio explored press directly spoke to people o l938 Fireside Chats speaks to American public in new way 0 Holds 30 evening radio broadcasts 1000 press conferences WWII Reporters taking note of international aggression Hitler invades Poland war inevitable Edward R Murrow works for CBS dean of American Broadcasters War Coverage 1600 American reporters covering war 37 died 112 wounded 0 Censorship restrictions from WWI not nearly as much of a problem in WWII 0 Voluntary censorship government censorship office 0 Office of War Information had own press officers and own ability to connect reporters to what they were doing 0 Code of Wartime Practices journalists agreed to asked reporters not to report things that would not be bene cial to efforts 0 press racist towards JapaneseAmericans 0 little criticism of Truman and bombing of Japan in 1945 Press learning that world is more complicated than before September 8 2009 John Milton 0 Socially out of the norm 0 Asked people to discover truth for themselves Beheading of Charles IV 0 Crime covered with eyewitness accounts 0 Newspaper appear in greater numbers 0 l695end of censorship and Licensing in England 0 Stamp Act1712Englandway to control printers Enlightenment 0 Focus on scienti c ways and individual success 0 John Lockeempirical philosophy introduce values and importance of individual in society 0 Limited gov t was best gov t Newsplay 0 Newspapers giving different value to different stories based upon where it happenswho nds it important 0 Journalism re ects societyhow we want our journalism to behave 0 Relative based upon region 0 Constant cycle of news 0 Depends on who you are where you are and what you nd important Printing in America 1600 1690 0 Unlike Europe America was founded using printing press as part of what it was from the beginning Europeans had to integrate and get used to printing press Printing press coaxed people who could read into thinkinglinked them back to where they came from 0 Established true identity of America American identity sense of pragmatismstrives for resultsstrives for accomplishment of things useful to men 0 Race for what is new and valuableuseful Jean Ribault1562lSt public relations effort 0 Aroused interest of England to colonize England Richard Haklu Promoted new country of America in print 0 lure people to convince them America would be useful 0 literate people lured by printed word 0 told they would not be restricted by class like they were in England 0 land of economic opportunity 0 Puritansl638lst printing press brought to America 0 Harvard College 0 John EliotPrinted rst book in America Bible 0 Translated into Algonquin Indian Language1661 Early Printed Word 0 Used by MA Bay Colony to counter info they thought was against their best interest 0 Used printing press as propagandabest interests 0 Places where people could discuss ideas 0 Idea that there is truth in joumalismprinted word 0 Maintain control over any society 0 Launch discussions that become democracy 0 Publick Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestick 0 Boston Benjamin Harris 0 lst newspaper printed o lst edition stories about atrocities of Indians claimed King had slept with son s wife 0 Shut down after one issue 0 Boston NewsletterJohn Campbell1704 o Press is believable o Marketplace of ideas demonstrated by colonial press 0 1 American society used newspapers to discuss compleX issues taxes etc vehicle for lengthy discussions 0 2 Gov t seen as independent and separate from church Church vs State 0 3 Few regulations of pressStamp Act did not apply to Americans 0 S Newspapers in Boston 0 Notion of tolerance established by mediaForum for discussion 0 Not wedded to idea of class but what you can do for your country Colonial Press 1690 1765 0 Religious news social issues births deaths politics all important and relevant info 0 Boston NewsletterJohn CampbelllSt continuously published newsletter o Campbellpostmastercould exchange and print freely 0 Of cial gov t approvalsuccess of newspaper 0 Little local news mostly foreign o 18Lh centurymore wealth emerging classes growing towns o l7l9Boston Gazette2 Boston Newspaper 0 James Franklin 0 William Brooker hired as new postmaster after Campbell red I Campbell kept lst newspaper I Brooker launches Boston Gazette New England Courant 1 721James Franklin 0 Published articles about lives against the authorities Smallpox outbreakshowed difficult and contentious discussions in paper 0 Franklindiscussed issues without fear or interference from authorities Ben Franklinworked for Jameswrote column with character Silence Dogood o l722satirical column written as middle aged man living in country 0 Eventually goes to Philadelphia l764Hartford Courant 18Lh centuryno true regulation of presslicensing but not nearly as severe o Allows American press to establish itself 090309 Notes Timothy Kenny 4864865 Formation of language writing and printing 0 News Prized commodity o l700 sFurious itch of novelty o Websterreport of recent events and previously unknown info 0 Everyone curious about what other ppl know 0 NEWS events and occurrences that are 1 Timely 2 Unusual 3 Prominent 4 Consequence I Frequently involves important people I Historic or important must be interesting to some portion of public I Niche newssome interest to some people 0 Examples Oprah Winfrey Entertainment Tonight etc 0 Sources of news television radio newspapers intemet o Nontraditional sources Jon Stewart blogs Arrival of News 0 10000015000 years agoarrival of modern man 0 ISI evidence of modern ppl in Europe500000 yrs ago 0 Neanderthals dominate Europe I Large brains civilized culture crude stone tools I Question over existence of language I Couldn t sh 0 Language key factor to establish true culture and establish society 0 CroMagnons appearance in Europe ends Neanderthals I Harpoons spears bows and arrows I Voice box perfected larynx bigger evidence of language SumeriansMesopotamiainvent writing in 3000 BC Prewriting symbolicPictographs Ideographs symbols with larger meaning than what you are looking at Phonetic Writing Alphabetsingle sign represents single 0 sound 0 Cuneiformform of writing Sumerians usedstood for larger ideas 0 Invented phonetic representationlinks spoken word to written piece of paper MiddleAges MiddleEast1800 BC True Alphabet develops o Canaanitesdevelop alphabet Roman Alphabetlargely same alphabet we use today Chinainvented page 105 AD 0 Superintendant of weapons factory invented paper 0 By 750 AD paper factories develop 0 1100 AD paper arrives in Europe 0 Chinese also invented PRINTING PRESS wood blocks covered in ink pressed onto paper to create an image Evolution of News and its delivery 0 RomeRoman Senate had congressional recordSenate ACTS actus senatus450 BC 0 Guidelines for literate to tell Roman world what senate had done 0 Newsletters compiled by scribes 0 Julius Cesar Daily Acts used to control populous 60 BC I Let people know what he wanted them to know 0 476 AD Roman Empire FallsWord of mouth for news travel during dark ages 0 Middle agesEnd of Roman Empire for 1000 yrs 0 Johan Gutenberg 1450 Produced new printing system 0 Using paper creates individual metal letters 0 1455 creates printed Bible lst communications revolution 0 within 50 years every Greek and Roman work had been printed and distributed across Europe 0 Gutenberg changed info technology and economic organization of society 0 Manuscripts obsolete o l470Cost of producing printed piece of material 80 less than producing a manuscript 0 William Kaxton 1460 publishes rst book in English History of T ray 0 l476sets up printing shop in England 0 Martin Luther1st true example of mass communication 0 1517 95 Theses for denouncing Catholic Church o Posted on door of Gutenberg Cathedral 0 Document transcribed and printed Rise of the European Newspaper o 15Lh centuryl Gazette 2 Printed Ballads 3 Broadsheets 4 Newsbooks 5 Corantos o Precursors to newspapersdidn t occur regularly enough to be called newspapers 0 To be a newspaper must I be a newssheet printed under same name be printed and dated I cover more than one topic in its cadence I appears on a regular basis 0 GazettesVenice l6Lh century handwritten weekly newssheets sold separately 0 Printed BalladsSongs ways to entertain and provide info 0 Broadsheetssimilar to printed ballads about topics of interest 1 subject matter 0 Newsbooksbooks lled with news loose leaf info 0 Corantos currents of news but not printed on regular and speci c basis often about business 0 Dutch print rst English language newspaper 0 Thomas Archer prints rst English language newspaper in England1621 I Oldest surviving example of a newspaper in English The Archer The First True English Newspaper 0 Oxford GazetteNovember 16gmComes out every other week 0 Moves to London in 1666 becomes London Gazette 0 First Dailv 1 Dailv Courant 0 Elizabeth Mallett Founder 1702 Historical Changes once people start getting daily information 0 Modern Newspaper forms 0 Censorship beginsCatholic church institutes rules 0 Switzerland1467special permits to produce a newspaper o 1543Catholic church bans all books except those that have been approved 0 1559establishes rst index of forbidden books 0 Henry VIIIEstablishes system of licensing to control press 1538 o Continues until 1695 0 Foreign news always allowed The Changing Press in England 0 1649Record beheading of King Charles I 0 Free press of royal events 0 Following civil warmiddle 17Lh century 0 John MiltonArea Pagitica 1644 I Denounced licensing of printers argues for free expression I Gov t has no write to censor printerswants Open Marketplace of Ideas I Considered most rational argument of free press in English language I Freedom of expression bene ts society and necessary for printers to make more money Freedom Housesurveys 195 countries to determine freedom of press 0 36 of countries had free press 0 31 partly free 0 33 not free I Only 17 of world s population lives in free press country 1082009 notes War Correspondents Continued 0 Hiram Johnson California Senator o Isolationist The first casualty of war is trut 0 Journalism most open warVietnammost coverage 0 Journalists given wide access to all fronts o lst time widespread access given to journalists 2quotd half of 20Lh century 160 wars 130 not classic wars War corresponding enables society to make decisions about what s going on that would not be possible otherwise 0 Only vehicle for reporting for wars in Iraq and Afghanistan 0 Iraq embedding journalists to allow them to cover war and allow gov t to circumscribe circumstances I Journalists have to be with troops to protect them I Constant battle of self censorship and lying by omission I Leave out usefulrelevant info because of social problems involved Dexter Filkins writer for New York Times reporting from Iraq since 2003 Fixers people who take care of things when you travel ie Travel Transport speak the language 0 Essential to journalists who travel to foreign countries to report Stringers largely reporters only do legwork Chapter 11 Press and Industrial America 18651883 Post civil war era American society changing due to technology Change in mentality America becomes an is not an are 0 United states is instead of United States are Seen as collective entity disintegration of language connection with British no longer seen as a struggling confederation 600000 Americans killed in Civil War Newspapers Role in Social Changes 0 Editors separated from political press completely Important Points 0 1 Local news in newspapers used on more consistent basis 0 2 Increase in news statistics 0 3 News in regular news columns in uenced society more than editorials 0 Local news stories had more value to change people s ideas than editorials o Editorials previously how newspapers exerted in uence o 4 Literacy remains high 1870 80 of all white citizens could read 0 Native born 92 o 5 1866TransAtlantic Cable laid quotv o Carried content from Europe to US 0 Expensive tool 0 6 Immigration picks up circulation for newspapers rising 0 Advertising increases viable and important part of newspaper business 0 Money making engine that drove newspaper market 0 7 Railroad across country by 1869 Indian territories subdued settlers arrived by 1880 s American Cultural Inventions o Circus dime novels 0 Catalogs buying things through magazines State of South 0 Divided into ve military districts after civil war 0 Ruled by federal troops revenge political outcome 0 Confusion about direction of country Independent editors and changes they made Embraced changed adventurous 1062009 notes Rise of the War Correspondent 1854 present frequently wrong and record has to be corrected 0 Before war corr relied on soldiers in ghts later interviewed o Biased views perspective of what side soldier was on 0 18981900 Winston Churchilleventually becomes member of Parliament there is nothing more exhilarating than being shot at without resul 0 William Howard Russell 1St civilian war correspondent 0 Personal observation 0 18531855 went with troops to write coverage for civilian population 0 Noticed British army lacked supplies and leadership I Felt obligated to write what he saw Journalistic independence Writes about disastrous Charge of Light Brigade 1854 I Only 200 people returned after failed battle Correspondent for Civil War Union troops disliked what he wrote 0 O O I Returns to England after writing unbiased accounts of civil war Gladstone gov t collapses because of what Russell wrote about bad leadership of British army Richard Harding Davis 1898Spanish American War established rep as war corr New York Herald 0 Followed exploits of Teddy Roosevelt o Fancy uniform but good reporters1900 Bore War in Africa 0 WWI dies during coveage 0 Set tone for American War correspondents John Reed covered WWI in Europe leftwing interested in Russia antiwar 0 Charged for breaking sedition laws in effect during WWI o 1917Eyewitness to Bolshevik Revolution writes Ten Days That Shook the World I His account of revolution 0 Good at adding detail to bring real sense of action write in first person 0 Dies of typhus in 1920 in Russia Edward R Murrow king of news division of CBS 0 1930 s sent to London to establish network of stringers o 1937 stringers established war begins in 1939 Murrow reports from radio clips World War I 1914 1918 World War II 1939 1945 0 Pearl harbor 1941 Ernie Pyle writer and war correspondent for common man Washington Daily News 0 Wins Pulitzer prize in 1944 praised by Eleanor Roosevelt o Wrote about common ordinary soldier o Writes about war in Europe until it ends goes to war in Paci c I Shot and killed in 1945 by Japanese machine gun o Wrote about misery of war not of details of battle I New context to war 0 Robert Capa Falling Soldier took photograph when he was 23 during Spanish Civil War in 1936 o Depicts Loyalist soldier being shot to death Controversy over photograph over accuracy of photograph Becomes famous for war correspondence 000 If your pictures aren t good you re not close enough I Encourages photographers to get closer to action International Center of Photography of Manhattan now owns photograph 0 Also famous for photographs shot during WWII O I Shot Normandy invasion only 11 photos came out Life Magazine 1944 invasion of Omaha Beach on DDay I Blurry images because he was shaky and couldn t control camera 0 Leading war photographer of 20Lh century 0 o 1954covers emerging Vietnam war in China steps on land mine and killed 0 War photography illustrated magazines and newspapers 0 Grundisen 0 Henry Crabbe Robinson 1807 Times of London 0 Covered Napoleonic Wars 0 English Newspapers better war coverage than American newspapers 0 Had daily newspaper 80 yrs before America 0 Philly v London 89000 ppl vs 500000 In uential Moment of War Reporting 0 Walter Cronkite 1968 covering Tet Offensive in Vietnam CBS anchorman 0 Most respected and in uential news anchor of era 0 Reported on war that it would end in stalemate 0 Johnson comments that losing Cronkite is losing middle America I Decides not to run for reelection 1969 o Sociological standpoint one comment from one man can have huge impact on nation Types of War Reports 0 Today instantaneous accounts started in Persian Gulf War 1994 0 CNN telecasting war Rooftop Journalism I Stand on rooftops and discuss action as it went on behind them 0 Peter Arnett reported coalition in Gulf War bombed a baby formula factory o Called atraitor since ppl though it was really a bomb factory 0 Turned out to actually be a baby formula plant September 10 2009 Continuing chapter 3 Why the American press evolved as it did 0 Establishment of postal systemordinary people could not use postal system 0 Official use only 0 Later news delivered orally 0 MA l639first postal system Richard Fairbanks oversees letters I Postmaster 0 Common SchoolMA Bay Colony required each family to teach children to learn to read 0 1647All children must be literate o Freeman s Oath 1 pg document 1638 I lSt printed document in New World I Gave Free Men 21 men not slaves given right to participate in gov t o 1715 MA Assembly publishing debates and votes in assembly 0 1720 Competition in press 0 Emergence of regular public debate 0 1765 Newspapers in political con ict for first time Cities and Newspapers Philadelphia Biggest city in country by 1700 s 0 2 Newspapers American Weeklv MercurV Andrew Bradford 0 Universal Instructor in All Arts and Sciences Pennsylvania Gazette Daniel Keimer 0 Ben Franklin Purchases Penn Gazette from Keimer 0 Franklin eventually becomes Postmaster of region 0 1750 paper doing well and later takes on postmaster 0 First Dailv N 39 1783 Pennsvlvania Evening Post and Daily Advertisement 0 Philadelphia 1783 Benjamin Towne Free Press 0 William Bradford 1725 establishes first newspaper in NY New York Gazette 0 John Peter Zenger Printer who runs New York Weekly Journal 1733 0 Competition over interim governor in NY publishers split over issue between both papers 0 Zenger in court lawyer proved printed material was accurate and true I Conclusion Truth is a defense against libel I Decide what is true and not true expanded notion of freedom of press I Could criticize gov t 0 1750 s growing country French and Indian War 1754 1764 o Columnists will emerging colonies maintain themselves 0 More newspapers emerging with expanding country 0 Britain wants payment for colonies Stamp Act 1765 not English stamp act of 1712 I Printers merchants lawyers most affected I Taxed people who had too much power I Obvious source of lost revenue for British 0 Sons of Liberty opposition to Stamp Act 0 Suppressed speech of Tories o Riots and protests due to stamp act 0 English Parliament repeals Stamp Act in 1766 1660 Male Literacy 60 in New England 1710 Risen to 70 1700 s Female population 40 1760 85 for men 60 for women Virginia Male literacy62 by 1700 literacy rate Chesapeake Bay Pregutenberg societies spoken word was largely means of communication Chapter 4 Revolutionary Press 17651783 Post Revolutionary War Democracy used on widespread basis 0 De ned culture that we can all voice our concerns 0 Constitutional Rights Enlightenment o Focused on reason and empirical observation to arrive at the truth 0 Science based reasoning through 18Lh century 0 Thomas Hobbes 17 11 century philosopher o All human law derives from natural law and not from the kingchurch o Monarchs rule not by consent of heaven but by consent of the people I Conclusion natural law is what organizes us and puts ppl into power 0 Focus from God man 0 John Locke Took Hobbes work and expanded ideas 0 Individuals had the right to determine the nature of gov t 0 Right to pursue liberty and equality in gov t any good gov t should supply those rights Pursuit of happiness 0 o The people in charge of our lives in gov t are supposed to be stewards 0 Suggested people had right to replace governors not following natural law I Social contract they must follow 0 Rationalism effected framers of Constitution 0 Framed American Exceptionalism o Townshend Acts various ways of Britain gaining revenue in 1767 0 Tea Tax Boston Tea Party Radicalization of newspapers I Bejamin Edes John Gills owned Boston Gazette led tea party 0 Resistance to taxes grow the more they are imposed increased resentment against British 0 Tea Act 1773 o 1012009 notes The Frontier Press 1800 1950 Desire to move west takes shape originally afraid of Indians in 1763 West of Appalachian mountains bad territory Americans always have desire to be mobile seek something newer and better other culturessee new things as losing cultural value don t like modernizing Frontier Press Lively shaped view of what west is and will become9shaped what we though America would become 0 Notions of risktakers Manifest Destiny Driving force behind expansion to the west 0 Coined by United States Magazine anal Democratic Review editor 0 John O Sullivan 1845 US will be a nation that expands from sea to sea 0 Will of God to expand across entire area 0 In amed imaginations of ppl who wanted to travel west Land gains that contributed to Manifest Destiny 0 1803Jefferson makes Louisiana purchase from French for 15 million 0 New land west of Mississippi 13 states result from it doubles size of US 0 War of Mexico18461848 US gets 13 of all land Mexico had previously controlled 0 US wins Texas Arizona New Mexico Nevada 0 Started by Polk to get that land Oregon Territory from British runs up to Alaska gave up in 1848 by British Horace Greeley contributed to westward expansion with slogan Go west young man go west Railroads1869unites country telegraphs along routes News Rise ofPenny Press Federalists disappear after war of 1812 In ux of English speaking immigrants 0 Newspaper follow settlers in westward expansion Settlers move to KentuckyKentucky Gazette 1787 Pittsburgh gazette 1786 Northwest Territory in Cincinnati 1793 0 Early editions of newspapers in west 7 weekly s two dailies by 1830 Western Editors 0 Independent minded people Educated icapiicia iavvJ 0 Small businessmen Focus on making money and printing news than an good editorial product Not great writers but raised national education of ppl as westward expansion continued 1849 G01d Rush9more ppl wanting to go west A 1 1 quot ubcu to start newspapers 24 page newspapers local news less foreign news Exchange newspapers enabled ppl in east to nd out info in west and vice versa Editorialized about news gave opinions eastern newspapers less opinionated Strong town boosters chamber of commerce ppl9whatever would economically advance town editors would help 0 Wanted more ppl in town so business would thrive Exaggerated opportunities and possibilities Newspapers became conscience of the community Push for improvements in education Exchange newspapers important vehicle for luring new residents Dependent on local retailers for advertising Forced to re ect only values of community Editors largely racist Writing about Indiansreferred to them as inhuman The Arizonz39anwanted to group Indians together and slaughter them 00000000 The Arizona Citizen187lcommended ppl who killed Indians called them patient I Encouraged massacre of Native American organizers tipped them off 0 Royalty for wolf scalps and why not for Indian scalps o Fell into limited logic of stereotype Editorssupported strong legal system wanted pure vigilantes 0 Would lure more families with kids Legh Freeman Frontier Index edited with brother Fred 1866 0 Nebraska followed construction camps building railroads Put out newspaper in different places Publication dates erratic went from place to place 000 1868editorial about how he hated everyone except whites l Mob smashed his press commercially viable enterprise that went too far bigotry l Social norms dictate what editorials can do 19 h centurywestern newspapers local boosters for business exaggerated facts and independent minded o Racist sometimes factually inaccurate Western society intolerant of everyone but white middle class protestantChristian culture Western press produced Buffalo Bill Wild Bill Hicca George Custad Wyatt Earth 0 Tales exaggerated by writers of Dime Novels 0 Met the men then wrote fanciful stories about them 0 Illustrated magazines also published dime novels Buffalo Bill Cody best at producing public relations image of being larger than life 0 Wild West Show traveling show in 19 11 century 0 The Tombstone Epitaph wrote about gun ght at OK Corral in 1881 0 Holes in account of story so writers lled in the blanks o Became mythic sense of America9 Good guys vs bad guys 0 Dime novelists made it mythical version of actual event Famous Western Writers Mark Twain 0 1860 s 18621864 worked in Nevada at Carson CityPaper 0 Territorial Enterprise in VA City Nevada 0 Reputation enhanced through Exchange Newspapers as a reporter Samuel Langhorn Clemens Spanish Language Press 1535 0 Mexico City New Mexico 0 First Newspaper Mercurio Volante 1693 0 Af liated with political parties owned by wealthy MexicanAmericans who were conservative Indian Newspapers 0 SequoyaCherokee Indian 0 Created symbols for Cherokee language eventually scrapped it for 86 character alphabet 0 Allowed Cherokees to write 0 1828 Cherokee PhoenixlsI Indian newspaper started by Cherokee Nation 0 Georgia 0 Elias Bouinot editor originally meant to spread gospel and message of god to Christian ock o 1829Georgia Legislature strips Cherokee of all legal rights marched them out of Georgia into Oklahoma 0 1838Trail of tears 0 Shawnee Sun Shawnee Kansas by Shawnees in 1835 2quotd Indian Newspaper 0 Church Newspapers Agricultural News 0 The American Farmer 1819 Baltimore agricultural paper 0 Intended for rural people continued until 1834 forged connection with farmers 0 Abraham Lincoln 1862 establishes Department of Agriculture 0 Later land grant colleges Women Editors 0 Legh Freeman s Wife Ada Miller Freeman worked on Frontier Index 0 Took over while husband was not around 0 Jane Grey Swisshelm St Cloud Minnesota 1858 o Abolitionist cause 0 Fired from working with president for being too critical of president w her abolitionist views 10152009 notes Chapter 12 Age of New Journalism The Yellow Press 18831900 product of types of press building on each other to create something new based on what s socially acceptablelimits of tolerancenew technology immediacy important 1500 dailies by 1880 subways quot 2quotd industrial revolutionradio elevators typewriter etc all invented quot 2quotd half 0 19Lh century western Europeans 13 of population living in big cities by 1890 o 19Lh centuryAmerica reinventing itself Sensationalismlarge part of what constituted journalism lack of moralistic integrity New JournalismTechnology ppl who know what it means to be a reporter enough money system that can afford newspapers spotcolor now available9 photographs more reporters more emphasis on specialty reporting business sports etc stunt journalism excesses ofpress re ected in country itself Erwin Wardman coined term yellow journalism in 1896 in New York Press Important Journalists loud brash egotistical helped shaped public policy clean up corrupt gov t Joseph Pulitzer bought New York World in 1883 o Bought world from Jay Gould for 346000 who was making up stories to manipulate stock market 0 Picked up Associated Press franchise in NY with paper St Louis originally from Hungary Started new journalism more creative and improving than Hearst Built own photo engraving plant in 1884 Modern and energetic look to paper seen as a newspaper innovator Believer in Progressive Politics 0 10 line editorial approach in 1883wanted to taX rich 0 Crusaded against things he thought were evilsocial reformer 0 Fave Topics Prostitution and Corrupt politicians I used stunt journalism to reach out to readers believed it was his idea for newspapers to support civic development 0 point out problems in developments 0 Established fundraising campaign for a base of Statue of Liberty on Ellis Island 0 Endowed 2 mil to Columbia University to establish Pulitzer Prize 0 Nelly Bly real nameElizabeth Cochrane hired in 1887 by Pulitzer o Investigator and stunt journalist Wrote about Women s Lunatic Asylumfakes insanity to be admitted Discovers difficult conditions for women there Place changes because of her reportconditions improved Went to sweatshop posed as sweatshop worker and wrote about it to change social behavior 0 Most Famous Report 1872 Around the World in 80 days published I 1889 leaves NY to try and beat Verne around the world I Quits paper when Pulitzer doesn t give her bonus promised 000 0 Keeping an audiencebased on sensationalism o More of a regard for accuracy and truth than Hearst o Invented Sunday Newspapercolorful and ashy look to papers 0 No other paper that used big graphics and detailed stories 0 Only cost a nickel o Wealthy immigrant who understood immigrant process 0 Sense of alienation not fully part of American experience 0 Wrote aimed at immigrant populationkept stories simple 0 Wanted to improve plight of immigrants Hogan s Alley comic Richard Outcault created yellow kid 0 cartoon called Yellow Kid symbol of era1895 first appeared in World 0 about life in the slums William Randolph Hearst 1895 buys New York Journal in 1896 0 Rich smart businessmanwanted to outdo Pulitzer 0 Worked for World first 0 1896Launches Evening Journal 0 Cuts price of paper to 1 cent forces Pulitzer to do the same 0 Hired as many as Pulitzer s guys as he can 0 Hires George Lukes to continue drawing yellow kid 0 Hires entire staff of Pulitzer s Sunday Paper 0 Arthur Brisbane 1897considered top editor at World I Most well paid newsman in entire country 0 Tried to hire wellknown writers and reporters and fiction writers 0 Becomes member of Congress owns 28 major newspaper before depression in 1929 o Owns media empire 0 Published San Francisco Examiner Adolph Ochs o Ran New York Times still runs in familyfirst bought in 1896 o Instills new motto All the news that s fit to print 0 Moralistic notion of what s newsworthy but judges what s important o 1900 82000 in circulation 9X what it was when he bought paper 0 Included foreign coverage avoided sensationalism and selfindulgence of competition 0 Printed ads in different style of type Changes to how newspapers looked o Halftone process adding gray to print photographs 0 New York Graphic printed first halftone photograph in 1880 Color widespread by 1890 s Printing faster circulation improves Ottmar Mergenthaler invents a new typewriter that easily and quickly set movable type 1886 0 line and type machine Robber Barons rich men who were fast and loose with facts to make money 0 Vanderbilt s Rockafellar s etc Excesses in journalism 0 Sinking of The Maine 0 Frederick Remington Richard Harding Davis both covering Cuban crisis 0 Remington tells Hearst there s no war Hearst furnishes a war 0 USS Maine explodes in Havana Harbor in 1898 US at war against Spain 0 Hearst and Pulitzer blow 5 month war out of proportion to sell more papers 0 Claimed Spanish submarine sunk Maine really exploded accidentally on its own 0 America wins Puerto Rico and Guam and buys Philippines from war End of 19th Century 0 Yellow Journalism at its height 0 Pulitzer Dies in 1911papers don t continue at caliber 0 Yellow journalism ends in a few years 0 Investigative reports with less sensationalism result 0 Transitional periodnewspaper create stricter split between editorials and news 0 Instilled by Adolph Ochs 0 Trade groups want factual info in advertising and accurate circulation a o 1887American Publisher s A 39 quot o Instill ethical standards in newspaper o More advertising agencies 10152009 notes Chapter 12 Age of New Journalism The Yellow Press 18831900 product of types of press building on each other to create something new based on what s socially acceptablelimits of tolerancenew technology immediacy important 1500 dailies by 1880 subways quot 2quotd industrial revolutionradio elevators typewriter etc all invented quot 2quotd half 0 19Lh century western Europeans 13 of population living in big cities by 1890 o 19Lh centuryAmerica reinventing itself Sensationalismlarge part of what constituted journalism lack of moralistic integrity New JournalismTechnology ppl who know what it means to be a reporter enough money system that can afford newspapers spotcolor now available9 photographs more reporters more emphasis on specialty reporting business sports etc stunt journalism excesses ofpress re ected in country itself Erwin Wardman coined term yellow journalism in 1896 in New York Press Important Journalists loud brash egotistical helped shaped public policy clean up corrupt gov t Joseph Pulitzer bought New York World in 1883 o Bought world from Jay Gould for 346000 who was making up stories to manipulate stock market 0 Picked up Associated Press franchise in NY with paper St Louis originally from Hungary Started new journalism more creative and improving than Hearst Built own photo engraving plant in 1884 Modern and energetic look to paper seen as a newspaper innovator Believer in Progressive Politics 0 10 line editorial approach in 1883wanted to taX rich 0 Crusaded against things he thought were evilsocial reformer 0 Fave Topics Prostitution and Corrupt politicians I used stunt journalism to reach out to readers believed it was his idea for newspapers to support civic development 0 point out problems in developments 0 Established fundraising campaign for a base of Statue of Liberty on Ellis Island 0 Endowed 2 mil to Columbia University to establish Pulitzer Prize 0 Nelly Bly real nameElizabeth Cochrane hired in 1887 by Pulitzer o Investigator and stunt journalist Wrote about Women s Lunatic Asylumfakes insanity to be admitted Discovers difficult conditions for women there Place changes because of her reportconditions improved Went to sweatshop posed as sweatshop worker and wrote about it to change social behavior 0 Most Famous Report 1872 Around the World in 80 days published I 1889 leaves NY to try and beat Verne around the world I Quits paper when Pulitzer doesn t give her bonus promised 000 0 Keeping an audiencebased on sensationalism o More of a regard for accuracy and truth than Hearst o Invented Sunday Newspapercolorful and ashy look to papers 0 No other paper that used big graphics and detailed stories 0 Only cost a nickel o Wealthy immigrant who understood immigrant process 0 Sense of alienation not fully part of American experience 0 Wrote aimed at immigrant populationkept stories simple 0 Wanted to improve plight of immigrants Hogan s Alley comic Richard Outcault created yellow kid 0 cartoon called Yellow Kid symbol of era1895 first appeared in World 0 about life in the slums William Randolph Hearst 1895 buys New York Journal in 1896 0 Rich smart businessmanwanted to outdo Pulitzer 0 Worked for World first 0 1896Launches Evening Journal 0 Cuts price of paper to 1 cent forces Pulitzer to do the same 0 Hired as many as Pulitzer s guys as he can 0 Hires George Lukes to continue drawing yellow kid 0 Hires entire staff of Pulitzer s Sunday Paper 0 Arthur Brisbane 1897considered top editor at World I Most well paid newsman in entire country 0 Tried to hire wellknown writers and reporters and fiction writers 0 Becomes member of Congress owns 28 major newspaper before depression in 1929 o Owns media empire 0 Published San Francisco Examiner Adolph Ochs o Ran New York Times still runs in familyfirst bought in 1896 o Instills new motto All the news that s fit to print 0 Moralistic notion of what s newsworthy but judges what s important o 1900 82000 in circulation 9X what it was when he bought paper 0 Included foreign coverage avoided sensationalism and selfindulgence of competition 0 Printed ads in different style of type Changes to how newspapers looked o Halftone process adding gray to print photographs 0 New York Graphic printed first halftone photograph in 1880 Color widespread by 1890 s Printing faster circulation improves Ottmar Mergenthaler invents a new typewriter that easily and quickly set movable type 1886 0 line and type machine Robber Barons rich men who were fast and loose with facts to make money 0 Vanderbilt s Rockafellar s etc Excesses in journalism 0 Sinking of The Maine 0 Frederick Remington Richard Harding Davis both covering Cuban crisis 0 Remington tells Hearst there s no war Hearst furnishes a war 0 USS Maine explodes in Havana Harbor in 1898 US at war against Spain 0 Hearst and Pulitzer blow 5 month war out of proportion to sell more papers 0 Claimed Spanish submarine sunk Maine really exploded accidentally on its own 0 America wins Puerto Rico and Guam and buys Philippines from war End of 19th Century 0 Yellow Journalism at its height 0 Pulitzer Dies in 1911papers don t continue at caliber 0 Yellow journalism ends in a few years 0 Investigative reports with less sensationalism result 0 Transitional periodnewspaper create stricter split between editorials and news 0 Instilled by Adolph Ochs 0 Trade groups want factual info in advertising and accurate circulation a o 1887American Publisher s A 39 quot o Instill ethical standards in newspaper o More advertising agencies 10272009 notes African American Press Continued Eras following WWII returning soldiers grow uneasy with new environment of US 0 Facing white racism defrance 19191921Race Riots 0 June 1921300 ppl die in Tulsa OK in race riot white mob Pressure from gov t to promote war in positive way for gov t George Creel gov t sensor in WW1 o Propaganda chief for Wilson calls 31 leading black editors o Wants black editors to support war so readers are behind them 0 DuBoisJuly 1918 editorial Closed Ranks urges black Americans to support war 0 O O Returning S0ider radical position towards rights of African Americans following WWI Comes to believe strongly in black separatism 1961moves to Ghana disillusioned with US joins communist parts renounce US citizenship 1920 s black publishers still conservative but changing attitudes still driven by making money Hundreds of black newspapers establish only 175 by middle of 20Lh century 3 most important black newspapers of early 20th century 0 Chicago Defender 1905 Robert Abbot 0 00000000 Employed yellow press techniques nationally circulated Most in uential black newspaper of all time passalong value more widely read than circulation numbers report 23 of defender s readers came outside Chicago widely popular in South Crimes of seX murder questionably accurate to attract readers Design of paper appealed to large base forced ppl to think about social issues Didn t use words negro or black referred to as the race racemenwomen Enlarged worldview of African Americans and addressed problems Urged readers to leave south and come north Great Migration I 19161918110 thousand black southern Americans move to Chicago and other parts of north I Better chances jobs in north establish a career make more money 7 0 Baltimore Afro American Maryland 1892 0 Pittsburgh Courier 1910 Edwin Harleston O 0000 Urged support of NCAA and Urban League Taught blacks how to save money and build frnancial lives Loud emphatic cheerleaders of black community Got black voters to turn away from Republicans in 1932 14 editions at height of popularity NY to Texas 0 Roy Wilkins urged w courier for blacks to get behind war effort or there would be trouble Double V Campaign 19421943 Victory over our enemies at home and O victory over our enemies on the battle elds abroad I Fight discrimination in this country and ghting for democracy in WWII I Eventually picked up by other publications I Promoted better conditions for black soldiers and sailors o Courier investigated by FBI due to campaign charges dropped eventually 0 One of most widely circulated black papers in America 0 Campaigns laid groundwork for upcoming civil rights movement Rise of Klu Klux Klan o 1866 Polaski TN formers slaves intimidated through violence 0 Burning ofMemphz39s Free Speech in 1892 operated by Ida B Wells 0 Reconstruction Klan goes underground for 45 yrs 0 Movie Birth of A Nation glorifies klan in 1950 resurgence of group Black Press in WWII Early publications changed notion of a viable style of life for African Americans Postwar Black Press Didn t want to push envelope Truman desegregates army in 1948 Separate but equal banned Brown v Topeka o Emergence in white press that segregation is viably important to country Mainstream media report on segregation in 60 s Changes in way newsrooms were made upminority reporters in newsroom Black press starts lacking legitimacy and previous fervor since mainstream media picked up stories Chapter 16 Media and Reform Muckrakers 19001917 Muckrakers investigative reporters novelist journalists critics o T Roosevelt coins term mad journalists kept attacking him 0 Intent to expose problemscorruptions in business and in general Believe they can make a difference social conscience Reform wrongs in American society Work in American newspapers biggest impact in new national magazines Used facts to tell stories that spur change expose corruption Partisan crusaders Railroads and telegraph lines enable muckraker movement to take off fast communication magazines delivered across country 3 mil readers support Begin process of professionalizing journalism 0 Understanding need for factual info not addressed with sensationalism Finley Peter Dunne Job in newspaper is to comfort the af icted and afflict the comfortable 0 not a muckraker but slogan re ects times State of NYCNation NYC lthy slums worst homelessness rampant Ideas of socialists developing sense of fairness more noticeable wide difference in incomes Progressive movements attempt to balance out wealth Many muckrakers were socialist supported Progressive movement quot1913 16th amendment created income taX 17th amendment direct election of US senators 19001910 9 million new immigrants eastern EuropeanRussian Poor housing conditions politicians exploit immigrants Illuminated poverty in society when nation was very wealthy 0 Ida Tarbellexposed standard oil 0 Expose on John Rockefeller one of lst articles to light a fire on investigative journalism 0 Nov 1902 article runs in McClure 3 Magazine Lincoln Steffmswrote about big city politics 0 Good newspaper reporter started 1man crime wave 0 Story of wealthy man who s house was broken into 0 Starts writing on burglaries of the richappeared like there was a crime wave but really just being reported more 0 1904 story about political corruption in San Lucas series The Shame ofthe Cities ran in M cClure s caught attention on political corruption Went from city to city and wrote about corruption as he found it Look for patterns by who controlled money followed money to find corruption Social radical change society through progressive movement 19171919 travels to Russia to see accomplishments of Communism I I ve seen the future and it works reference to Soviet Union 0000 o Upton Sinclairnovelist 0 Jacob Reissfocused on slum conditions in NYC photographed inner city illustrated poverty How the Other Half Lives novel 0 Before muckrakers but led ppl to pay attention to social problems Advent of mass circulating magazines Muckrakers provided with sufficient amt of money and large enough audience to arouse nationwide concern about issues 0 Big business railroads steel companies etc Gilded Age 0 Progressives wanting to make changes in country McClure 3 Magazine Samuel McClure 1893 0 Irish immigrant nished college newspaper syndicate nally own magazine 0 Fought to make American Dream for others Everybody s 1899 John Cosgrave Collier s Robert Collier 1905 M unsey s 1889 Frank Munsey Cosmopolitan 1905 Margaret Sanger Movement supported women s reproductive rights becomes Flamed Parenthood Women s Rebel pushed for women s rights