The Press in America
The Press in America JOUR 1002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jonas Howe on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JOUR 1002 at University of Connecticut taught by Timothy Kenny in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/205842/jour-1002-university-of-connecticut in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
11172009 notes 1920 s modern advertising in full swing 0 Radio Radio advertising becoming tailored towards radio 0 Early ads purchased in large blocks of time 0 Companies for major brands sponsored entire radio shows 0 Aimed at women soap ads sponsors Soap Operas o 1970 sshorter 30secminute ads Television king of advertising 1924mechanical version invented 1927e1ectrical version 1950 s major television sponsorships begin 60 s70 s shorter commercials 1960 s brand advertising advent of slogans Winston tastes good like a cigarette should 0 Iconic brands take shape Marlboro Man Texaco Popularly advertised products Cigarette and Alcohol Alcohol selfregulated by advertisers o More judicious in ways they advertise Can only place advertisements where audience base for media is 70 21 Alcohol s creative messaging cannot be designed to appeal to people under 21 Broadcast networks don t advertise certain kinds of alcohol Billboards 1000 feet from where children are Cigarettes broadcast advertising banned 0 Banned from radio and TV since 1971 0 FCC Federal Trade Commission oversees advertising 0 Ads must be accurate ned if proven false Political Advertising Lyndon B Johnson V Goldwater Johnson depicts Goldwater as a hawk scares ppl w political advertisement Internet Advertising 2 Kinds ecommerce sites sites that sell you things and content sites carry advertising 0 1990 s banner ads less successful than expected 0 Aggregators buy empty space to sell to retailers 0 Direct sales ads trying to sell you something they want you to act on immediately 0 Search company pays a search engine to twin your company with keywords of product 2006 17 billion revenue 2007 21 billion 2008 23 billion Advertising issues Hard sell vs so sell Vance Packard 1957 The Hidden Persuaders book argued advertisers use symbols to reach into consumers subconscious to stimulate real reason we buy things 0 Consumers bundles of daydreams Truth in advertising slow progressions Muckrakers major role in clarity of advertising Pure Food and Drug Act etc Federal Trade Commission 1917 larger role in trying to control truthfulness Consumer s Union 1936 magazine Consumer Reports still used 0 Disinterested of all consumer watchdog publications Cell Phones where advertising directly is headed 0 Internet access capacity to reach new information 0 Advanced and large barcodes helps you access information Public Relations 1900present Definition a planned communications campaign designed to project to eh the public a positive image of an organization or an issuepersonproduct 0 System of messaging designed to in uence the way you think about a productperson 0 Advertising largely the same but pays for its content 0 Public relations uses media for free to distribute its message 0 Tries to trade on credibility of media to get its message across 0 Believes that lack ofnews can be a reason to run a story 0 Operates as an advocate for its client not as disinterested party 0 Works to disguise something else no obligation to be fair or impartial o Slides from that point of view to not releasing any bad info about person 0 Public Relations Practitioners best public relations is that which you cannot see 0 If you can t tell the difference between a news story and a public relation campaign it is a good campaign 0 Put across point of view that client wants public to support News stories more reason to be accurate than advertising or public relations 0 Reporters inform readers of what s going on don t protect people Intersection of public relations w news PR can be useful and interesting 0 Giving news to a campaign that benefits the public Origins of Public Relations Became occupation when big business took off at turn of 20Lh century Rise of Unions difference in opinion of how businesses ought to behave o No regulation of big business before 0 Public became more aware of how big business treated employees 0 Business turns to PR to soften image Publicity Bureau Boston 1900 rst PR Agency 0 Garner publicity for ppl 0 Ivy Lee father of public relations in 1904 George Parker as partner 0 took PR to new level used press release to his advantage I brought attention to what business was doing put on press conferences Poison Ivy Ludlowe Massacre 10 days of riots by minors who tried to form a union I 1913Ludlowe CO owned by John D Rockafellar Ivy Lee forced to tell reporters things that didn t actually happen tarnished his own reputation earned Poison Ivy label 0 O 0 Public Relations in Role of Government Gifford Pinchot created first gov t press bureau Woodrow Wilson WWI Committee on Public Information 1917 run by George Creel 0 Created fourminute men who gave PR speeches supporting WWI effort Office of War Information 1942 Edward Bernays nephew of Sigmund Freud taught first PR class at NYU in 1923 o Invented Focus Group showed them a product and changed it based upon what the focus group s view might be 0 Founded public relations industry Lucky Strike Cigarettes gave Bernays money to expand cig interest among women 0 Reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet Aimed at women 0 Easter parade 1929 Bernays hires debutantes to walk down street and smoke Lucky s o Liberating idea selfassured women smoking in public 0 Pics carried in papers across countryshocking performance 0 lst example of widespread national interest in a madeup news stories Video News Release VNR 1 prepackaged video that appears to be a news story 0 Given by PR company on behalf of client 0 Over 80 of stations that use VNR s were owned by large corporations Fox News Sinclair and Clearchannel Internal PR Dept s expand in 1930 s want to stave off potential for union organization so they form their own inhouse PR units eventually plays larger role as counselors in way corp s do work 0 PR takes larger role in companies professionals rely on PR before making image change 0 1897 UMich in house PR office utilized by universities Worst example of PR ExxonValdez Oil Tanker 1989 12 mile oil spill 0 Company stonewalls all inquiry o Inability to control cost millions cleanup cost 7 bil company fined 5 bil o Punitive damages reduced to 500 mil Best Example 7 ppl die in Chicago after taking extrastrength Tylenol laced with cyanide o Publicly stated they weren t responsible but would recall all products 0 Put consumers first not finesse their way out of problem