The Press in America
The Press in America JOUR 1002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jonas Howe on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JOUR 1002 at University of Connecticut taught by Timothy Kenny in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see /class/205842/jour-1002-university-of-connecticut in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
12012009 notes Chapter 18 Radio comes of Age 1900 present Primary use carsiportable passive hear while you re doing other things a Community building establishes identities Satellite Radio luresattracts readers but can t pay salary for high priced entertainment 0 Alternative to ordinary radio 0 XM and Sirius merged in July 2008 Delivers radio through satellites and a special receiver charges monthly fee a Niche oriented 0 Conservative Channels Patriot Channels Liberal Sirius Left Local Radio 90 s local markets couldn t combined various stations into singlemarket operation 0 Companies couldn t buy local radio stations 0 Ban lifted eventually restrict locality Clearchannel owns the most radio stations 0 Fewer stations owned by people who want to make a difference Turnkey Operations Engineers turn key and start prerecorded day s programming a Radio done ahead of time Establishing substations new digital stations that act like local radio stations Origins of Radio Known in beginning as wireless telegraphy Samuel Morris Hertz Nikola Tesla produced Tesla Oscillator 7 system that allowed radio signals to be sent farther a Used by Marconi Thomas Edison Guglielmo Marconi Italian engineer established rst practical radio system in 1894 0 1896sends 1St wireless message in Italy using Morse code a 1897wins British patent for sending and receiving radio signals 0 Established himself at forefront of radio business I Wireless Telegraph Trading Signal Company 1897 1St company 0 Sent 1st wireless signal across Atlantic in 1901 I 1907established reliable TransAtlantic communication 0 Established business model that made him a commercial success and brought radio to public 0 Developed ls t practical model of radio Reginald Fessendon added voice to radio in 1906 father of radio Nathan Stubble eld demonstrated wireless telephone in 1890 in KY 0 Never patented system for 16 yrs lost fortune 0 inventor of radio Pioneers of Broadcasting NBC lst radio network 0 Nov 15m 1926 from Waldorf Hotel in Astoria 1St broadcast 0 50000 entertainment show 0 David Sarnoff NBC part of RCA electronics manufacturer that made radiotv sets 0 RCA saw marketing value would sell more with physical radio sets Nov 1926 RCA produces NBC Red Network and NBC Blue Network 1943 gov t says system was too successful and was dominating markets 0 Governments make RCA give up one of two networks sells Blue Network becomes ABC CBS Radio 1928 William S Paley 0 Created Columbia Broadcasting System CBS I Leader in broadcast news business 0 Edward R Murrow Lowell Thomas HB Kaltenbom Mutual Broadcasting System based in Midwest Texas Lone Ranger Murrow King of Airwaves CBS 1940 Blitz in London reported from London as it was occurring 0 1938 9 out of 10 American homes have radio 0 Hear orally what was going on to help understanding of events 0 Murrow Boys Murrow s correspondents a Good writer able to capture people s attention Lowell Thomas hired by CBS as 1St news commentator in 1930 0 Gave opinions on news later makes transition to TV William Shirer covered WWII from Berlin Rise and Fall of Third Right 1920 s clear there had to be regulation of airwaves I Interferencesoverlapping stationssharing of bandwidths 1927 Radio Act of 1927 establishes basic principles of industry 1 Radio waves belong to people 2 broadcasting is a service unlike other services 3 Radio service must be distributed equally in the country all listeners have a chance to hear radio and not just ppl in big citiesmarkets a Equality of radio city distribution 4 Not everyone can own or operate a radio channel 5 Form of free speech protected by lst amendment like print word 6 Government has regulatory powers discretionary a Government has authority to revoke a radio license if broadcaster doesn t live up to standards established 7 Government powers in this regard were not absolute can t establish gov t run radio system Federal Radio Commission becomes FCC Federal Communications Commission I Expands into seven members ve members today a Only three members can be from same political party Sinking of Titanic Regulation of radio established April 1912 I 1500 passengers dead not enough lifeboats o Titanic sending out Morse Code distress signal using radio signals I Press coverage focuses on SOS Signal and effectiveness of it o 1912 Radio Act of 1912 True Regulation of Radio in 1927 WWI Regulation of Radio Radio s use llness shifts towards wartime footage I Gov t takes control of patents and footage of radio a Postwar gov t releases all info it obtainedcontrolled during war I Private enterprises improve quality of radio more competition 1930 s Biggest radio boost during depression 0 Established sense of community I Listnership soaring Roosevelt s Fireside Chats c 19291948 Golden Age of Radio more useful than TV News Programs took awhile to develop radio producers came from newspapers I Broadcasters read short news items produced by AP 0 Local stations did not have own newstaff news not as valued as entertainment I News programs infrequent Entertainment helped people through depression War of the Worlds demonstrated power of radio produced by Orson Wells 0 1938 confused people and eventually considered a public nuisance Sports major part of coverage 1St World Series Baseball Game 1921 I NY series San Francisco Giants vs Yankees 0 KDKAPittsburgh lst playbyplay and lst broadcast of football game in 1921 Religious Broadcasting big in 20s and 30s when times were tough a Father Coughlin Michigan pastor of Shrine of Little Flower o Controversial antiSemitic Radio airs rst income producing program in 1922 WEAF in NY I 50 dollars to air 10 minutes commercial about selling apartments in NY a Radio eventually sells commercial airtime
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