Introduction to Animal Science
Introduction to Animal Science ANSC 1001
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This 32 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claud Tromp on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 1001 at University of Connecticut taught by Michael Darre in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see /class/205847/ansc-1001-university-of-connecticut in Animal Science at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Beef Breeds Types of Cattle Beenype Meatiness Dairy Type 39 Lean angular form well developed mammary system beef from dairy cattle a hamburger most of the fat has been used for milk production fat gives the avor amp juiciness 1822 ideal range for fat prime steak 2530 fat Dual Purpose Intermediate between beef and dairy produce both meat and milk milking shorthorn cattle ABreed a group of animals having a common origin and possessing certain wellfixed and distinctive characteristics not common to other members of the same species these characteristics are uniformly transmitted Why Beef Cattle Meat FurHair Skin Leather skin without the hair Other Products Tanning removes fat removes protein dries removes hair and fat mummifies leather products preservation Beef Jerky dehydrated meat Breed and Breeding System Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia OrderArtiodactyla Family Bovidae Genus Bos Species Bos taurus domesticated andBos1ndicus Brahman Zebu Bos taurus 7 includes the ancestors of the European bree s of cattle and the majority of cattle found in the USA Bos indicus 7 humped back cattle Zebu of India Africa And of the Brahman breed ofAmerica Robert Bakewell 17261795 Was the first major cattle breeder in England Improved the breeds for meat production not just size 7 Cattle were first brought to the Western Hemisphere on Columbus 2nd voyage in 1493 to the West Indies 7 Cortez brought cattle from Spain to Mexico in 1519 7 Colonists brought cattle from England in 1609 numbers grew from there 7 Native cattle buffalobison wiped out by Native Americans39 high demand for meat skin hunting there are buffalo today they have been brought back Factors to Consider in Establishing the Beef Herd Purebred or Commercial Cattle Selection of breed or cross to rear Milking Ability Size of herd Condition Age and longevity Adaptation PR1 CE Selection of Cattle for Breeding Based upon individual characteristics Production Testing Pedigree Show ring winnings Function Scoring System Reproductive Efficiency 20 Muscling 20 Size 15 Freedom from Waste 15 Structural Soundness 15 Breed Type 15 Total Possible 100 Breeding of Cattle Age at puberty 812 months Age to breed Heifers 1314 months 600 7 650 lbs Some at two years Heat periods 1620 hrs 1923 day intervals Gestation period 283 days Mostly spring calving Cross breeding systems 2 or three breed crosses Visual Inspection and Health Management of Beef Cattle Lab 7 Notes Selection of Breeding Stock ogeny Testing Performance Testing A male x B female AB female 4 2 A 2 B crossbred 2 breed cross B male xAB female 4 A B 44 2424 24BABAB AB female x C male 4 AA B 2 C 24 24 44 A A B 2 C B is least related because B male has not actually been bred yet B male xABC female 9 18 A58 B A C 44 A A 24 88 28284848B18A18B14C18A58BC 87 heterosis in a 3 breed cross This is called a 3 breed rotational cross because you continue rotating throughA B C If it were a 3 breed terminal cross it would stop after one rotation OVERVIEW OF DAIRY INDUSTRY US MLK PRODUCTION I Take a look at US milk production for 2009 listed by state I Top 5 California Wisconisn New York Idaho Pennsylvania 55 of US production I Produce how much 189320 billion pounds of milk in the US I What about Top 10 77 of US production Here39s the recenthis of annual US milk production with Top 5 states 20002009 Idaho started in the Top 5in2003 in place of Minnesota 2008 a 2009 the only year that California39s milk production decreased Dain industry is moving West I And here39s what it39s Ll th 19982009 wholesale about 20 7 25 billion dollarsyr value of milk per cwt hundred weight uctuates incredibly it can change a lot not stability in being a dairy farmer it has become more free market in terms of gov39t so more volatile Season affects production Figure 3172 p 605 In the summer time Dairy cows make less milk don39t like hot weather Here39s some morethanrecent history of utilization 19802007 How much of the initial fluid product is turned into different things utilization way back 50 utilization over time last 25 years less is being consumed as uid and more is being turned into other things Over 70 is being turned into something now Finally people continue to eat dairy products because they like them as seen in Table 311 p 609 and in 19752006 utilization data cheese is the savior of the dairy industry if people stopped eating cheese national dairy herd would reduce from 92 million a 5 million in one lactation 600 lbs milk consumed per capita PS I got most of this poop from USDA39s National Agricultural Statistics Service site BREEDS OF DAIRY CATTLE Specific breeds quotdevelopedquot in given geographical areas some waaaaaaay back black and white holsteins produce more milk red and white recessive allele holsteins 95 of US dairy cattle are holstein 3 Jerseys 2 others See Table 211 p 398 Breeds are distinguished both by appearance and by production characteristics See Table 3012 p 581 for production differences Best Web Site Okie State GENETIC HVIPROVEMEN T IN DAIRY CATTLE QUALITATIVE vs QUANTITATIVE Definitions Qualitative trait Trait in uenced by few genes resulting in discrete phenotypes Quantitative trait Influenced by many genes resulting in continuous phenotypes Examples Qualitative Traits Quantitative Traits Hair color Production traits milk fat protein Eye color Type conformation traits Polledness Growth rate Genetic defects Wool growth Blood group Speed strength and stamina IMPROVING QUANTITATIVE TRAITS The crucial problem phenotype masks genotype There are around 30000 genes in the average mammalian genome The solution No direct way only guesses some good some bad Three important developments in estimating genetic merit of dairy cattle I Techniques for freezing semen crucial in methods used to evaluate genotype I Statistical theory for analyzing data from DHIA I BIG computers to do the number crunching statistical theory HERITABLLITY I Heritability is the amount that the genome influences the phenotype usually expressed as percentage I Qualitative nearly 100 inheritability Quantitative low inheritable Quantitative is more impacted by the environment I Different traits are influenced to different degrees by genetic factors I Improvement will occur more rapidly as heritability increases I Genetic improvement of quotlow heritabilityquot traits rather slow inadvisable depending on cost involved Table 1812 p 349 USDA SIRE SU39MIVIARY I Since mid1960s most 8590 of genetic improvement in dairy cattle is due to the sires39 contributions Why I USDA39S Animal Improvement Program Laboratory AIPL estimates genetic merit of dairy sires four times a year using Dairy Herd Improvement Association DHIA data Bull daughters are compared for various production traits to other bulls39 daughters in the same herd to produce average deviation values Daughters raised in different in environments use this to pull out the genotype This approach quotremovesquot the environmental contribution to phenotype Works good if a bull has lots of daughters distributed in lots of herds Genetic merit for several traits are estimated including yield traits milk fat protein components fat protein somatic cell score SCS productive life PL and several economic traits such as Net Merit NT And here39s a handy list explaining important dairy cattle selection terms from Hoard s Dairyman Here are current genetic averages bV breed for production oriented traits DAIRY CATTLE GENOMICS Explosion in genomic information has hit the dairy industry in a big way Too early to tell but could easily have the impact that the current system has had Allows direct identification of desirable alleles by presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs Greatest impact may be on the cow side Microarray chip already commercially available as quotBovineSNPSOquot Lab Section Dairy Herd Health A lLilk is Main Product Calf is bonus lCows are sensitive to environmental changes providing clean water may increas e milk output by llbday 2 Cows drink more slightly warmer water than cold 3 A good cow is either 2 1 Being milked Eating 3 Re stingrum inating higher rumen fat content in milk weight of milk is greater is up to 5055 gallons capacity B Conformation related to good health 2 3 4 5 1 Good udder straight strong attachment square udder 4 good teats not too big can t nurse or fit machine pendulous udder no good stretched suspensory ligament Straight line on TOP strong straight legs Feminine Good cow will milk out in about 35 minutes Vital signs Body temp lOl 5 F HR can be plus or minus 34 degrees RR 20 C Reproduction Cycle of Cow 1 Pregnant Cow 280 a 285 days gestation 2 use AI mostly 3 ovulate at 1012 hours after standing heat 4 Breed at 14 15 months to calve at 24 months 5 Breed again about 46 weeks after calving some of ours go 80 100 days because they are high producers BST growth hormone 7 higher efficiency higher feed needed Signs that Cows are ready to calve 1 Ligaments on either side of tail head get softer 2 Vulva ared 3 Break water about 2 hr prior to calf When you see this wash the vulva 4 Use plastic sleeve check presentation of calf Once born and Calf is on the ground ry o 2 Iodine on navel 3 Give oral dose of Calf guard 7 within 24 hrs Protects against rotovirus corona virus diarrhea diseasescolustrum a dehydration 4 Should get Colostrum within first hour and for first 24 hrs EG bypasses rumen Elabomasum D Typical Health Program for Replacement Heifers 1 To hutch within 24 hrs stay for 8 weeks Colostrum 67 of bw then MilkRep 10 of bw daily 2x day 510 days calf starter and good quality 2nd cut hay 30 days Dehorn if needed remove extra teats 6 weeks some hay and grain MR to themlx day 7 weeks Nasalgen TSV Z pneumoniadiarrhea Vita E and Se as needed 7 8 weeks to heifer barn Stay 8 weeks there also 8 4 months Deworm cal iood vaccination rabies brucellosis use Bovashield 2 shots at 1014 day intervals 9 6 months Magnets in rumenreticulum any extra vaccinations 10 1 year Deworm again breed at 1315 months heat checks 2x a day 11 2 years old 7 first calf freshen start milking bring into herd for milking Clip hair on udder wash before each milking etc 12 Normal lactation is about 305 days This is the basis for all milk record keeping 1f cows receive bST bovine somatotrophin then they will persist milking longer and produce more milk may go an extra 60 or more days 993 19 Dry cows by stop milking them Then do dry cow treatment to prevent mastitis Back to the original cow that gave birth to that heifer 1 Did she pass afterbirth NO clean and pull cotyledons on placenta off if you have trouble treat with prostaglandins and antibiotic Did she cast her withers prolapsed uterus put back in may have to stitch across vulva to hold in place Mastitis infection of mammary gland Treat each quarter up through teat canal with special syringe and applicator Antibiotics are used Tetracyclines etc metritis infection of the endometrial tissue in the uterine 9 Hypocalcemia Patrurient Paresis or milk fever due to low Ca1 At the onset of milking Usually treat with Calcium borogluconate 1V to get Ca up again Downer Cow Syndrome 7 usually associated with Sciatic or Obturator nerve damage May recover may not 6 Ketosis 7 acetonemia or ketonemia 7 occurs a few days to a few weeks after calving Characterized by hypoglycemia ketonemia ketonuria lack of appetitie lethargy weight loss drop in milk produciton Usually due to lack of carbohydrate intake or absorption early in lactation Can t get enough energy to make milk so start using body stores of fat to make CHO The process produces ketones Breath has that sweet acetone odor Urine shows presence of acetone or other ketones Treat with glucose TV along with oral dose of propylene glycol to help get blood glucose levels up again Feed propylene glycol for two or more days to stabilize 7 Displaced Abomasum symptoms similar to ketosis abomasum fills with methane Lay cow on back and roll back and forth a few times to undo abomasum or prophylactic omentopexy 8 General foot care foot baths with antifungal agents h as copper sulfate Other General Diseases of Dairy Cattle Respiratory Disease Complex a major economic problem in cattle Combo of both viral and bacterial organisms Parainfluenza P13 7 also viral pneumonia Infections Bovine Rhinotracheitis IBR 7 Upper Resp infection caused by a herpesvirus Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus BRSV 7 a pneumovirus causes viral pneumonia Bovine Viral Diarrhea BVD 7 just what it sounds like Weather management Crowded pens long truck hauls etc Cause stress and set the animal up for this problem Brucellosis 7 caused by Bmcella abamts 7 abortions in cattle Turberculosis 7 TB 7 once widespread in dairy cattle but well controlled now Lung lesions coughing maybe death Hardware Disease 7 metal in digestive tract cuts or punctures Use magnets to prevent What is evolution A gradual process in which something changes into a different and usually more complex or better form Change in the genetic composition of a population during successive generations 7 all horses are hind gut fermentors large cecum protein gets absorbed in small intestine fat gets absorbed in the ileum secondary absorption in large intestine 3 Mechanisms of Evolution Genetic Drift changing allele frequencies over time Mutation can be caused by environment lightning radiation Natural Selection those who can survive under conditions environment anything external to the animal Horses are a Classic Example of Evolution Scientific Classification of the Horse Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Spe cies 7 the earliest ancstors of the horse appeared over 50 millions years ago Recent 10000 years ago to present Pleistocene 25001 million years ago Pliocene 5325 million years ago Miocene 2453 million years ago Oligocene 3824 million years ago Eocene 5838 million years ago hLLp A aOlcu1u Jim I 1 htm httpwwwangelfirecommidinosaurshorsehtml thippus or Hyracotherium 50 million years ago About size of a fox 2 feet long 8 inches tall at withers Long skull with 44 low crowned even teeth without cement three hooved toes on hind feet four hooved toes up front Originated in N America thippus 50 million years ago Carried its weight on central pad like a dog Well adapted to living in forested and swampy environment Miohippus or Mesohippus 35 million years ago low crowned teeth without cement teeth suitable for grazing on the prairie greater speed endurance for finding forage water protection survival 3 hoofed toes on each leg with smaller side toes touching the ground Bones of the leg began fusing together larger 2x size of thippus splint of second digit Merychippus 25 million years ago over 2 feet tall 35 inches long crowned teethwith cement eye socket position changes Pliohippule MillionYears Ago Body equipped for savanna type conditions Higher crowned molars develop for grinding gmsses lSt single hoof equine No recognizable side toes 12 hands tall One toe on front and hind legs Splints of 2nd and 411 digits Long crowned teeth with cement Grandfather of the modern horse Equus 6 MillionYears Ago Develops into modern day horse a er 15 million generations Equus Evolutionary Changes Increase in body size Reduction in toe number Increase in size of cheek teeth L onger face Evolutionary Changes in Horse Body Size EquEIST a 1 0 a uni us 100Hyracatrumpp 50w kiix 6055 50 5454035 30 25201510 5 d MIIIIOI IS of vears aqo The appearance of man in the Paleolithic peuod Return to the continent at the Age of Exploration Why Where did they all go Glacial cold Insects Disease The acts of man Starvation Other mammals that became extinct or disappeared from the W Hemisphere in the Pleistocene epoch include rhinoceros camels sabertooth tigers elephants and the mastodon Survival of Equus Members of family Equidae that survived Equus hemionus Equus burchelli Equus grevyi Equus asinus Equus caballus Escaped to Asia by land bridge The First 5 5 distinct subspecies of Equus caballus developed west of Siberia and China Przewalski horse Tarpan ProtoOriental Genghis Khan the mongols mongolian warhorse ProtoWarmblood semidraft stronger ProtoDraft proto original Talk to the Hoof This horse was the most likely ancestor of the Arabian horse A 7 Przewalski B 7 ProtoDraft C 7 Tarpan D 7 ProtoOriental E 7 ProtoWarmblood lnitial Hum an Contact with Horses Object of prey for humans Drove them to their death over cliffs Actual Domestication 40003000 BC 7 steppes N of Black Sea First domesticated horses closest to today s Exmoor ponies Przewalski horse Caspian ponies rd By early 3 millenium BC asses and onagers harnessed Donkeys domesticated 3400 BC Driving of Horses Near East 30002000 BC light chariot developed for warhunting st 1 used yoke to drive Metal bits used Near East 1500 BC War chariots China 14501050 BC Riding of Horses Initially ridden only by groomsmessengers Military mounts ridden 1000 BC Roman army changed to cavalry until fall of Roman empire AD 476 Middle Ages used for battlehuntmgagricultural work Refinement of Horsemanship Renaissance 14501650 AD 7 anatomy of horse studied horse in art training of horses an art horses used to transport goodspeople Hungarians supreme in carriage making Horse s Return to N America 1519 Coronado 7 brought 150 horsemen 1539 DeSoto 7 brought 237 horses st 1547 DeMendoza 7 1 governor of Mexico New Spain 7 1500 horses 1600 Spanish missions large numbers of livestock including horses 7 horses that got loose and ran free mustangs Horses and the Native American From 16501750 Spanish horses were dispersed over the plains Native Americans great horse culture Horses in the Colonies The English brought horses to Virginia the Dutch to New York and the French to Quebec Breeding farms were established in the West Indies Horses in New England Small hilly rocky fields better suited to oxen Puritan ethics Horse racing had a negative association Horses in Early American History Revolutionary War 7 Light Dragoons Late 1800 s 7 horse central to urban life Exploration of frontier land demand demand for mules America in Transition Civil War to WW1 1850 s urban fire protection st nd 1855 1 and 2 Cavalry formed 1880 s horse used for mass transitlocal transportation 18201870 demand for heavy horses 1898 Spanish American War Rough Riders WWI twilight of the cavalry and horse in war W WI to Today Early 1900s transition from horsepower to gasolineengine power Continue to be used today in the horsedrawn hearse for dignitaries and presidents Market for heavy horses in agriculture went into decline after W WI Horses in Recreation Colonial America 7 horse racing 1886 First rodeo wpaid attendance 1875 First Kentucky Derby 1883 National Horse Show Early 1900s circus horses and creation of carousels Ancient 1912 Olympic Games 1969 American Horse Council formed1971 CT Horse Council Horses Today Increase in personal income and free time 92 million horses in United States with 102 billion impact on economy Approximately 43029 horses in CT Horse Colors Five basic horse coat colors t t t t t t BrownEEA A EEA a EeA A or EeA a Black 7 EEaa or Eeaa t t Bay EEAA and EeAA A t Chestnut 7 eeA 7 or eeA 7 or ee A 7 or a a eeA A White 7 KIT mutation in genes 7 now thought not to really be a base color Color Gray G G G G G and G G Albino Sorrel or chestnut TypesClassifications Light horses Draft horses Ponies Warmbloods Coldbloods Cob Hack Classes of Mules Draft PackWork Saddle Driving Jumping Miniature llses Riding Gaited 3 and 5 gaited Stock horses Sport horses Ponies Racing Flat Steeplechase Harness PacersTrotters Uses Driving Heavy harness Fine harness Ponies Roadsters All Purpose Recreation Showing Ranch work Miniature Driving Petscompanion animals Lab Section Visual Inspection and Health Management of Horses I feeder height 4248 waterer height 3842 isolation stall sick bay softer material 4 bedding otherwise reluctant to defecate box stall feeder like to move around to get food young horse could rear up and catch foot feeding on ground horses like it tie stalls with manger for hay horses are very susceptible to airborne diseases ventilation is important aisle amp ceiling fans windows run in shed hay racks in paddocks prevents waste of hay 75 of hay made on campus other hay bought using budget hanging buckets vs ground feeders horses respond to pecking order one extra bucketground feeder so weaker horse still gets food when pushed away automatic waterer free access to water at all times fool proof to weather acts as thermos cool in summer warm in winter hanging buckets filled 3 to 4 times a day frost free hydrants comm only used don39t freeze in winter empties into troughs troughs need to be cleaned especially in summer a algae PVC fencing horses break boards 3 board fencing with wire lining prevents horses from chewing on wood creep feeder foals can get concentrates 247 only foal can get into it constantly fixing broken fences a accident waiting to happen horses consume between 1015 gallons of water 49 tons of manure per horse yearly 50 lbs daily manure piles have to follow regulations 100150 ft from property line 500 ft from public water supply at least 200 ft from well compost piles grass clippings manure from livestock feed horses 2 of their bodyweight daily vital signs temperature 1005 degrees F pulse 3242 bpm respiration rate 812 bpm pulse behind elbow with stethoscope in fetlock area weak pulsemost accurate in maxillary artery respiration count everytime they take a breath watch barrel large animal thermometer shake down mercury vaseline string hooks to the tail wait 3 minutes for temperature pointing put one foot forward to rest it sore if temperature is elevated 102 a concern 104 a call vet 106 4 problem check feet nothing strange wedged in lateral succa or center succa shod every 6 weeks straighter the leg the less chance it will go unsound base wide horse pick up foot and swing to inside base narrow horse pick up foot and swing out paddling teeth are constantly erupting lower jaw is narrower than top jaw when horse chews sharp edges on molars and premolars points horse39s teeth file on end of long stick oat files off edges oat horses teeth once a year biosecurity measures equine herpes virus 1 have no idea how it got here cost program 80 thousand dollars between vet bills and no practicum profits limited access oor mats with water and disinfectant each horse has own riding equipment bits washed disease control guard vs bacterial and viral diseases tetanus west nile virus rabies encephalomyelitis equine herpes virus equine infectious anemia 250 to 500 dollars UCONN program 5 in one or 5 way in spring tetanus rhino u EEE also west nile virus vaccine rabies vaccine every 3 months u and rhino booster and once a year for traveling horses coggins draw sleeping sickness no vaccine visiting horses year old negative coggins certificate 90 day u and rhino vaccination 3 day normal temperature log cannot enter a horse that goes through a public auction has to have a 60 day coggin health certificate by attending and state veterinarian up to date within 10 days of sale Parasite Control deworming a alternat with ivermectin pancur pyrantel pamaote and Strongid T in the Fall iverm ectin including praziquantel alternating every 23months can become resistant to it wound care bruises leave alone or treat with hot and cold compact as well as ointment hematoma can be treated with icthamol abrasions dressing or leave alone incised wounds clean cut may require sutures clean and ush with betadine or novasane solution call vet if deep for sutures can bandage every other day laceration cut with irregular edges requires sutures usually and wrapping puncture woundcaused by splinter sharp object nail often in foot soak ush wit betadinenovasance solution squirt penicillin inside promote healing from inside out eye ulcer notice right away treat right away anti in ammatory drug call in vet if no improvement 68 times a day dressing comm on ailments colic 7 treatment banamine IM or IV or paste oral form or powder oral formdigestive disorder Notice quickl Azoturia 4 monday morning disease muscles not in shape and thrown into hard work need conditioning Lactic acid build up muscles tighten up azium and banamine cold and u 4 sulfa drugs can lacerate inside of thrush a thrushbusterbleach cleft of frog deep black tar substance sprains and strains 7 wrapping linimentcold hosing may or may not be lame observation is important Equine Reproduction mares are difficult to get pregnant seasonal polyesters artificial lighting 300 watt bulb in middle of stall on timer tease at day 15 of lighting mare receptive to stallion Teasing chute looks like tie stall put mare in and bring stallion perpindicular to chute stallion nuzzles mare reaction scored 04 squealing and kicking versus showing interest look at stallion raise tail move hindquarters wink vulva squat and urinate bred every other day as long as mare is ranked at a 4 with live cover with AI bred less frequently due to availability of semen vet assesses ovulation to see when to perform AI 15 days after last breeding can perform ultrasoun tease through cycle no estrus signs a still pregnant 30 days vet comes again 60 days vet checks again 120 days vet checks again still pregnant will carry foal full term if mare will foal early in season she will work in lesson until turned out for foal watch watch for udder development pelvic muscle softening vulva relaxation at 1218 hours prior to parturition they go into labor go up and down break into sweat respiration increases udder filled waxing on end of nipples tail gets wrapped vulva and rectum washed udder washed camera in stall watch from another room normal presentation front legs in front takes 2060 minutes need human assistance if longer once foal is born need to move debris from nostrils dip navel in iodine solution allow foal to stand and nurse within the first hour needs to pass first bowel movement thick tar like meconium if have trouble give soap sud enemas foal imprinting formal training at 24 hour blood test IGG imunnoglobin test enough antibodies in its blood stream if didn39t given a transfusion 2 days of age tuIned out in round pen or small paddock for exercise 2 months of age around goes out to pasture depending on whether mare is bred again 3 weeks of age encouraged to eat solid food 6 months first vaccine 5 way vaccine west nile and rabies too dewormed half dose 30 days later booster to 5 way west nile and rabies dewormd second half all set until following spring wean 46 months depending on mare not in good body condition weaned at 4 if they look ok and health weaned at 6 months maintaining healthy horses select horse for conformation condition horse with proper exercise feed balanced ration nutrients and minerals at regular intervals shoe and trim feet on regular basis clean and inspect food daily at first sign of lamenessunsomdnessnot eating being a good observer check it out hoof tester check for absess tooth oat grooming supplies twitch hoof knife handle problems with horses foot F eedingManaging Horses and Donkeys Lecture Objectives Explain why nutrient requirements vary in horses Explain how ingredients are selected for horse and donkey feeds Explain why roughageconcentrate ratios vary in equine diets List nutrients needed for equines and types available List what factors can in uence feed consumption List common feed problems in equines Explain at least two feeding tips Nutrient Requirements Varies depending on physiological state 7 Maintenance having feed available which provides energy to get up lay down heart beating 7 Pregnancy 7 Lactation one of greatest energy demands in horse39s life 7 Growth light horses 3 years warmbloods 5 years full growth 7 Work light moderate intense very intense Types of Nutrients Combination of ingredients chosen based on nutrient content availability price of ingredient preference of horse owner Types of Nutrients Roughagesforages grasses dried or fresh Energy feeds corn oats Protein supplements soybean meal Mineral supplements Vitamin supplements Additives color smell as well as dewormer yeast etc Water Roughage Concentrate roughage to concentrate ratio Varying proportion used lto control energy intake 2to maintain normal digestive tract fill 3to minimize digestive dysfunction 4to regulate consumption of feeds by horses fed in groups Pasture 7 15 percent of bodyweightday of good quality roughage or access to pasture Recommended for CT per acre 10 lb Kentucky bluegrass 6 lb orchardgrass 1 lb ladino clover Roughage sF orages Grass hays 510 protein Timothy Orchard grass Bermuda grass Fescue can produce endophytes which lead to thickening of placenta and decreased milk Kentucky bluegrass I Smooth bromegrass Roughage sF orages Legume hays 1216 protein good for young horses amp horses working hard Alfalfa clover Energy Needs Hay typically 7694 Mcal megacalorielb Grain typically 1900 kcallb Feed with fiber levels of 6 or less high energy Feed with fiber levels of 710 moderate energy Feed with fiber levels of 1115 low energy 7 less fiber more energy Grain Types Plain ingredients Sweet feed 8 molasses to increase consumption Coarse feed 5 more digestible Pelleted feed corn oats vitamins minerals all contained in pellets 7 more digestible Extruded feed senior horses surface area is increased 15 more digestible 7 cracking and crimping of feed increases surface area aiding digestion Energy Feeds FatsOils 20 of feed 7 benefits great provider of energy in addition to grain can only feed about 5 lbs of grain in one meal so fatoil can be added on 1020 fat 23 months after feeding to become an energy source Protein Often too much concern over protein in feed Maintenance horse only needs about 810 CP Horses in intense work requirement 10 Can range from 74 or lower to 15 or higher in hay If moderate working horse needs 10 24 lb hay x 074 1776 10 lb grainx 14 168 345634 10 Mneral Needs CaP calcium to phosphorus ratio 7 ideal 21 7 too much phosphorus big head disease Salt needs best source TM salt trace mineralized salt block horses will not overconsume salt block Selenium amp Vitamin E too much selenium toxidity and loss of tip of tails and ears Mineral Needs Supplement with trace mineralized salt blocks Or use mineral blocks Often see iodized trace mineralized salt blocks Vitam in Needs Horse can convert Bcarotene to VitaminA May need to supplement Vitamin C in older horses B vitamins 7 biotin water soluable vitamin aids in hooves Additives Yeast products aid in digestion Dewormers more away from daily and only treating shedders Antioxidants Flavorings increase palatability Colorings horses can only see grey or yellow Water Often overlooked Needed for every metabolic activity that takes place in body 1215 loss is fatal Average intake Livestock Cold weather 1 gal per 100 lbs BW hot weather 2 gal per 100 lbs BW Factors that may affect feed consumption Palatability Dental Care quitting spitting out feed a not able to chew Proce ssing Av ailabilitytime to eat Fatigue Illness Stress Parasite load pot bellied look feeding a lot with no weight gainpossible weight loss Condition Scoring How can you tell if a horse is wellfed Weight tape Sc ale Condition Scoring Condition scoring 1 7 9 5 optimal for breeding decreases risk of distocea 46 what people shoot for Problems associated with feeding Colic gas build up rupture in cecum twister tortion knotinterceptioncross over eachother of intestines Bolting feed slow down by rocks or large objects in feed Choke blockage in esophagus vet needs to lubricate mass and help pop it out Gastric ulcers can case bleeding and hemohorraging in stomach treated with omeprazole Slobbers toxins consumed such as too much clover Leukoencephalomalacia corn will be infected with fungus causing damage to brain becomes mushy upon consumption Miller s or big head disease too much phosphorus bony changes replaces cartilage with bone Feeding Tips Manure 7 4050 lb of manureday Environmentally conscious good way of composting or getting manure off farm important Changes in manure smell color consistency in order to detect illness some change with diet Feeding Tips Feed 3 timesday if possible Do not feed more than 45 lbs of grain at any one meal too much glucose or sugars present leads to founder or laminitis Make changes in feed gradually2 lb every other day Feed hay before grain less likely to bolt feed eat slower Feeding Tips Group Feeding dominant horse steal other feed add extra bucket hay before grain Ways to decrease waste feed tubs hay racks Feed by weight not volume different feeds weigh different amounts Feeding Tips Observe amp feel each horse regularly for changes in body condition Individual feeding is best if have time and labor available Do not feed dusty or moldy feeds recurrent airway obstruction basically allergies Do not overfeed Lecture Objectives Explain why nutrient requirements vary in horses Explain how ingredients are selected for horse and donkey feeds Explain why roughageconcentrate ratios vary in equine diets List nutrients needed for equines and types available List what factors can in uence feed consumption List common feed problems in equines Explain at least two feeding tips Swine Use Products Breeds and Breeding I There has been a significant drop in number of hog operations because there has been a significant increase in the number of hogs per operation Also the economy and the increase of corn prices due to ethanol production increase made it much more difficult to have as many pigs Pork products include tenderloin ham smoked or cureda avor pork chop bacon com es from belly canadian bacon comes from spine more expensive I pork products39 avor can be altered greatly while beefs cannot 55 of all the hogs in the U S are on large operations number of pigs per litter has risen consistently The operations that have 5000 or more hogs on them have the largest number of pigs per litter Iowa has the most number of pigs in all of the US followed by North Carolina Minnesota Illinois and then Indiana Top Breeds Used I Yorkshire Landrace Duroc Hampshire Lacombe Berkshire Chesterwhite Poland China Spotted Tamworth Terms to Know Gilt 7 young female pig that has not had her litter yet Sow 7 older female pig that has given at least one or two litter Boar a uncastrated male Barrow 7 castrated male Shoat a young pig Farrowing process a of giving birth Farrow to Finish 7 a breeding operation that farrows baby pigs and raises the baby pigs all the way to market all on one farm Feeder Pig 7 buy pigs of 40 or 50 pounds of weight and sell them out at 100 or 150 pounds GrowerFinisher 7 bring pigs up to market weight around 200 to 250 pounds Purebred a single breed within the pigs entire breeding Crossbred 7 hybrid cross I Breeding Systems Mother breeds good litters good mothers good lactation Landrace Yorkshire Chester White I Meat or carcass breeds Duroc Hampshire Poland China I Types of Swine Operations 7 Feeder pig production 7 produces pigs for sale at about s Have sows boars gilts farrowing crates farrow babies 4 to 6 weeks of age sell them off a Feeder pig finisher 7 feed a feeder to slaughter weight 7 Farrow to finish 7 keep sows and gilts breed rear piglets to slaughter weight about 225250 lbs 7 Purebred similar to F to F but sell purebred stock as 7 Breeding stock to others 7 The Farrow to Finish is the most common in the Industry Primary objective is to feed and manage Sows gilts and boars economically to assure large healthy litters Waste disposal need enoughland 3 gallons per pig per day is enough water to finish in a pig you look for conformation Nice front and rear feet and leg structure wide stance You do not want a high topped pig steep rumped shallow in the rib and fla you want nice een spacing between the eight teats good quality all functional if a sow doesn39t have good nipples she will be sent to slaughter oxytocin helps stimulate contractions aids in birth sow needs well developed vulva with good size and shape not a tipped up vulva Swine Nutrition and Healt Specific Nutrient Requirements of Swine l Lysine Tryptophan Threonine and Methionine 2 Vitamins A and D added E and K is enough usually 3 H20 soluble Vitamins need to watch carefully Add B12 Riboflavin Pantothenic Acid Niacin 4 Minerals Macro Ca P Na Cl Micro I Zn Mg IVIJ I Cu Fe Se Important GOALS Farrow Healthy pigs Sell as feeders at 40 lbs Grow pigs from 40 lbs to 240 lbs market so add 200 lbs Get about 1 lb gain for each 325 lbs feed so 650 lbs feed per hog at about 15 lb of feed 9750 to finish hog IManagement of Breeding Herds Young Boar 50 125 lbs 18 CP 125 200 lbs 16 CP about 68 lbs 200Lbs 12 14 CP Limit feed if boar ave 180200 lbs reduce energy intake for breeding ie replace some corn or SBM in diet with lower energy component Add alfalfa meal in place Use hand feeding of 46 lbsday During nonbreeding season feed mature boars 46 of complete 14 ration or 35 lbs of grain or 35 lbs of grain plus 7510 lbs of 35 supplement daily Gilts Fed 4 6 lbsday after breeding Replacements Sows in breeding herd for 5 years out and replaced Weigh 250275 at selection 78 months old 23 estrous cycles Keep gilt on maintenance diet Must not get too heavy at breeding Flushing For gilts Increased Energy Intake 12 weeks before breeding increase feed to 9lbsday A More eggs ovulated B Improved Health C More certain Conception Flushing not recommended for sows Sows should return to estrous 612 days post weaning GESTATION After breeding energy intake should be restricted to prevent Gilts or sows from becoming too fat during gestation Hand feed a limited quantity of feed 45 lbs of 1214 ration at 50006000 kcal ME per day Gilts should gain about 70 80 lbs during gestation Sows should gain about 30 40 lbs During last 13 of gestation increase the daily feed intake of gilts to 67 lbs of 14 for sows a constant feed allowance is ok FARROWING 35 days before and after increase bulk in sows diet by substituting for corn 510 dried beet pulp or wheat bran or 1020 alfalfa meal This prevents constipation and mastitis Also must have enough good clean water LACTATION Increase feeding level with the first few days after parturition in order to meet high nutrient and energy demands of milkin 1315 CP diet high in energy 3190 kcal ME and low in fiber Add about 4 lbs 1 lb per nursing piglet Some have found that during the last 13 of gestation the addition of fat to the diet of a gilt or sow will increase the glucose in the liver of baby pigs and increase fat and insulation in pigs This will increase baby pig survival ANING39 Pigs develop their own disease resistance at about 3 weeks of age So may wean as early as this Must be sure piglets have gotten colostrum PRESTARTER Creep feed Must be fresh daily serve only what the pigs clean up 2022CP Feed prior to weaning STARTER DIET 18 20 CP Designed as a complete feed fed from about 3 to 6 weeks of age Also used in creep feed Use till pigs are about 4050 lbs GROWER FTNT SHER DIET S Grower 1416 CP from 40 to 120 lbs Commonly CornSoy meal formulation fortified with essentials antibiotic if needed Finisher 1214 CP fed from 120 to market 225 Yorkshire Landrace Chesterwhite Poland China Spotted Tamworth Swine Management Systems Farrow to Finish Farrow to Wean Feeder Pigs GrowerF inisher Hoop structures are naturally ventilated structures that have a polyethylenePVC fabric roof Sidewalls are wooden or concrete and are either 4 or 6 ft tall Re ective tarps are used to re ect solar radiation to prevent overheating Many hoop structures provide ventilation by leaving the end walls open While others add ventilation curtains to the sidewalls which may be adjusted Radiant heaters are used sometimes to provide zone heating While minimizing energy usage Radiant heaters like this one provide a hot service which makes animals feel warm Without heating the surrounding air Sheep amp Goat Breeds and Use Sh 2211 History Domesticated about 8000 years ago Domestic sheep are thought to have originated from two Wild stocks 1 the Moufflons Ovis musimon and Ovis orientalis recently cloned 2 the Asiatic Urial Ovis vignei 7Wool garments worn in Babylon the land of wool as early as 4000 BC wool trade also occurred 7 2500 BC clay tablets show Mesopotamia with a major sheep industry 7 Old testament speaks of many shepherds Abraham etc 7Romans under Claudius brought sheep to Spain who developed the Merino Death penalty to those who took a Merino out of Spain 7 Columbus 1493 Second Voyage brought sheep to Cuba and Santo Domingo Churra mutton sheep from Spain not Merino 7 Cortez brought sheep to Mexico in 1521 7Early Dutch settlers brought first sheep to New England First sheep of British breeding thought to have been brought over in 1609 into Virginia by the London Company As early as 1662 there was a woolen mill at Watertown MA 7Found in all parts of the world except wet tropical areas 7 Survive on most forages respond to good care and not too rich feeds 7Labor intensive to a degree but easy to herd Use of Sheep and Goats Food Meat and Milk Fiber Wool and Mohair Lanolin Skin care etc Pleasure Pets or Show Work Care for land etc Goats and sheep a tribe Within the Bovidae family called Caprini that include six goat six sheep and five related species Goats 2n chromosome 60 Sheep 2n chromosome 5439 living hybrids of the two genera reported The six species of goats canbe distinguished by their horn shapes Goat Breeds 1 Capra aegagrus the wild or bezoar goat of Near East Asia has scimitarshaped horns with a sharp anterior keel and a few knobs interrupting it 2 Capra ibex the ibex of the Alps Siberia and Nubia has scimitar shaped horns with a atter front and many transverse ridges 3 Capra falconeri the markhor of Central Asia has sharpkeeled horns that are twisted into open or tight spirals 4 Capra pyrenaica the Spanish goat has outwardupward curving horns with a sharp posterior keel 5 Capra cylindricornis the Dagestan tur of the aucasus mountains has round outwardback inward curving horns 6 Capra hircus the domestic goat evolved principally from capra aegagrus except for Angora Cashmere goats and Damascus types who descended from capra falconeri Genus and species Domestic Sheep and Goats Ovis aries for sheep Capra hircus for goats Goats distinguished from sheep by 7 absence of foot glands 7 strong smell of bucks 7 differences in horn and skeleton 7 Goats appear to be more independent and possess greater ability to fight and fend for themselves 7 Today there are more than 200 distinct breeds of sheep throughout the world Sheep Production In America 2006 69090 sheep farms and ranches in the USA 2007 70590 2008 73150 2006 623 million head of sheep and lambs combined 2007 605 2008 595 Ecology in America 7 Sheep are a natural lowcost means of managing America s federal state and private lands even as they produce other resources such as wool meat and lanolin Proper grazing can benefit the environment wildlife the taxpaying public and consumers 7 Sheep grazing can be an effective biological control program to increase conifer growth Furthermore sheep are less costly than chemicals or mechanical vegetationcontrol measures In the United States and Canada sheep grazing has helped regenerate ponderosa pine Douglas fir radiata pine sugar pine spruce and western hemlock forests Total number of lambs born during 2008 371 million head For 2009 370 estimate 7 Sheep eat woody and broadleaf plants as well as tall weeds and grasses As a result sheep are an ideal tool for controlling undergrowth in forests and other wooded areas The US Forest Service uses fire fighting sheep as a lowtech lowcost approach to undergrowth control on national forests This approach benefits the forest environment by eliminating the need for herbicides it benefits the Forest Service by reducing the need for costly manual clearing and it benefits communities at risk of wildfires in neighboring forests American 7 Lamb is used to define sheep meat from an animal that is less than one year old while mutton is used to define meat from sheep oneyearold and older 7 Lamb has a much milder avor than mutton Wool 39s Valuable Attributes Durability amp resilience Resistance to ame Fiber absorbency Chemical structure Felting Resistance to compression Dyeability USA about 45 million sheep shorn Produce about 32 million lbs of Grease Wool 400 1Lills make about 1 billion worth of textiles Clean Wool Scoured Wool Characteristics of Wool 7 18 to 41 microns thick11000 to 12000 inch and about 1 2 5 inches long iHigh in sulfur amino acids methionine and cystine iWool is water resistant and Fire resistant iHas two features Crimp and Fiber Scales Quality Factors Fineness 15 or more crimps per inch Length Crimp Color Strength Uniformity Spinning Count Hanks per lb of clean wool 1 hank 560 yards Blood System of merino in the animal the more the better Types of wool are used for 1 Fine wool High quality clothing 2 Long wool heavy clothing upholstering and rugs American Wool iWool is comfortable to wear yearround because it s an absorbent fiber that helps regulate body temperature When the air is cool and damp wool absorbs moisture and keeps a layer of dry insulating air next to the skin Conversely when its warm that same absorption capacity takes up perspiration making the body s natural cooling system work better iAmerican wool has many uses In addition to its wellknown uses in clothing fabrics yarn felt and carpet American wool is used to make insulation rug pads baseballs and tennis balls iAustralia is the largest wool producing country in the world and China is the largest wool buyer The export market is becoming increasingly important for US wool In 2002 the US exported 916 million in raw wool wool top yarn and wool fabric compared to 1085 million in 2001 Here are a few highlights from Sheep and Lamb PredatorDeath Loss in the United States 2004 Atotal of 385000 lambs and 215300 sheep were lost due to predator and nonpredator causes in 2004 These totals represent 94 and 56 percent of lamb crop and sheep inventory respectively While the sheep death loss percentage has remained relatively stable since 1994 the lamb death loss percentage declined during the same period Coyotes accounted for the highest percentage of predator death loss in lambs in 1994 1999 and 2004 694 643 and 642 percent of total predator loss respectively Coyotes were the leading cause of sheep predator loss in 2004 accounting for 517 percent of sheep deaths due to predators Dogs were the second leading cause of loss accounting for 227 percent of predator losses Nonlethal predator control methods were used by 319 percent of all operations with sheep in 2004 Sheep and Lamb PredatarDeath Loss in the United States 2004 is available at the NAHMS Web site httpnahmsaphisusdagov Sheep can be classified by l Mutton or wool production 2 Color of face 3 Horns 4 Topography of where they originated Mountain Upland or Lowland 5 Type of wool produced 6 Use in breeding 7 Exotic uses Fine Wool Breeds American Cormo Booroola Merino Debouillet DelaineMerino Rambouillet Meat Breeds Ch viot Dorset polled and horned Hamps ire Montadale North County Cheviot Oxford Shropshire Southdown Suffolk Texel Tunis Long Wool Breeds Border Leicester Coopworth Cotswold Lincoln Perendale Romney Wensleydale Dual Purpose Breeds American Miniature Brecknock Columbia Corriedale East Friesian Finnsheep Panama Polypay Targhee Mnor Breeds Black Welsh Mountain Blueface Leicester California Variegated Mutant Clun Forest Gulf Coast Native Icelandic Jacob Karakul Navaj oChurro Scottish Blackface Sennybridge Welsh Mountain Shetland Wiltshire Horn Hair Breeds Barbados Blackbelly California Reds Romanov Royal White Sheep St Croix Goats http www ansi okstate edubreedsgoats 7 The goat along with sheep were among the earliest domesticated animals Goat remains have been found at archaeological sites in western Asia such as Jericho Choga Mami Dj eitun and Cayonu which allows domestication of the goats to be dated at between 6000 and 7000 BC 7However unlike sheep their ancestry is fairly clear The major contributor of modern goats is the Bezoar goat which is distributed from the mountains of Asia Minor across the Middle East to Sind 7Unlike sheep goats easily revert to feral or wild condition given a chance In fact the only domestic species which will return to a wild state as rapidly as a goat is the domestic cat Major Goat Breeds African Pygmy Alpine Angora Boer Cashmere Golden Guernsey LaMancha 1Liniature Breeds Nigerian Dwarf Nubian Oberhasli Saanen Spanish Tennessee Fainting Goats Toggenburg Dain Goat 7 There are six types of dairy goats that are recognized by the American Dairy Goat Association They are Nubians LaManchas Alpines Oberhaslis Togenburgs and Saanens 7 Cashmere the fiber of kings produced from the lowly Cashmere goat This fiber is so luxurious that the Arc of the Covenant of the old testament was lined and curtained with it Sixty percent of the world39s supply of Cashmere is produced in China and the remainder from Turkey Afghanistan Iraq Iran Kashmere Australia and New Zealand It is a completely new industry for the United States and the first Cashmere goats were imported from Australia and New Zealand about 1990 Since then several Cashmere breeders and Growers have been producing breeding stock to launch this new industry in the US The price of Cashmere uctuates in a range of 120 to 190 per pound and is currently selling for 190 Feeding Sheep and Goats EWES backbone of enterprise Animal Units mature cow and calf 1 Animal Unit 46 Ewes and lambs 1 Animal Unit 35 Ewes 1 Ram Unit Lambing Systems EARLY Jan Feb 1 Prices up in May and June for Lambs 2 Labor is available in winter 3 Less parasites 4 Need good care during flushing breeding and lambing LATE March April 1 Roughages for feed Ewes Lambs 2 Less care and mgmt as early lambs 3 Lamb prices lower in fall 4 High quality pasture needed 5 More parasite problems Feeding sheep and lambs Lambs 65 go to feed lots mostly in California and Great Plains states Ewe and Lamb feeding 7 1 Ewe and her lambs 7 25 bu grain and 800 lbs hay per year 5 months of good pasture for ewe or add another 800 lbs of good hay 1f poor quality hay need up to 25 lbs of 44 CP supplement per ewe per year Needs based upon type of feed for a 140 lb ewe per day Legume Hay 35 lbs Grass hay 40 lbs Haylage 60 lbs Corn Silage 75 lbs Age Yearlings about a 20 percent higher energy requirement than adult Importance to producers who breed ewes to lamb first at 12 to 18 months of age Exercise Grazing sheep may use from 10 to 100 percent more energy than sheep in drylot conditions depends on distance to feed and water and topography of the rang Feeding for Breeding 7 FLUSHING Take ewes off legume pasture about 2 weeks prior to breeding season Estrogen in feed may prevent settling 1 Ewes on dry pasture no green chop or grain a turn out on sudan grass or lush grass pasture 2 weeks prior to breeding b feed 12 lb grain daily corn oats milo two weeks before breeding and 1 week after season starts 2 Ewes on good pasture not legume change pasture ie if on brome go to sudan if on sudan go to brome two weeks prior to breedin b feed 12 lb grain daily 2 weeks b4 and 1 after breeding season starts GESTATION 147 150 days first 3 12 months no worry last 1 12 months critical must have good nutrition now for ewe and fetus Poor nutrition now results in a Lambing paralysis or pregnancy disease b weak lambs c drop in milk production d low wool clip e light wool clip Wintering and spring lambing ewes should get 4 4 12 lb hay 12 34 lb shelled com OR 2 2 12 lb hay 2 lb shelled com OR 7 8 lb corn silage 1 lb shelled com 14 12 lb supplement OR 6 7 lb haylage 1 lb shelled corn Fall lambing ewes Pasture 12 34 lb graineweday If pasture is not available then feed as for winter lambing ewes with slightly reduced amounts fed Gestation During early gestation a ewe s nutrient requirements are only slightly higher than they are for maintenance Ewes in good condition at the end of the breeding period can loose some weight without hindering normal production This is particularly true of sheep that have recovered most of their lactational weight loss during the later phases of lactation If the weight loss is entirely recovered before breeding lack of gain for the first 60 to 90 days of gestation should not have a negative affect on subsequent production The last six weeks of gestation is the most critical period in ewe nutrition Approximately 70 percent of the fetal growth occurs at this time Nutrient restrictions during this period may result in lighter lambs at birth increased postnatal lamb losses lower levels of milk production and possibly pregnancy disease ketosis In late pregnancy ewes require approximately 50 percent more feed than they do earlier in gestation If protein is limited during late gestation lower biith rates and lighter ewe fleece weights can be expected Very often inadequate phosphorus intake occurs during this period especially with ewes on pasture or with ewes consuming hay Ewes in late pregnancy sometimes have difficulty consuming enough feed because of the space occupied by the fetus particularly when they have twins or triplets If the ewe is fed a highroughage ration she may not be able to consume enough to supply the necessary daily energy requirements For ewes in late pregnancy consuming high roughage rations it is generally advisable to feed supplemental grain RANGE EWE NUTRITION Sheep on range are usually low on Energy Protein Phosphorus and Vitamin A For protein can supplement with Cotton Seed meal or SBM but NOT corn or barley Range sheep production is dependent upon the weather Three classes of forages are found in range areas Grass Plants Low in CP and Phosphorus but high in energy b Browse a broadleafed woody plant a shrub a bush or a tree of small stature High in protein but low in energy c Forbs boardleafed herbaceous plants commonly referred to as weeds They are intermediate between grasses and browse in most respects protein content declines slightly with maturity PREGNANCY DISEASE OR LAMBING PARALYSIS OR KETOSIS Anutritional disorder usually due to a lack of usable CHO in the diet Poor condition sheep or inadequate diets with straw corn fodder no grain etc fetus takes all the energy and ewe gets none SYMPTOMS 1 loss of appetite 2 lay behind flock 3 labored breathing 4 impaired vision 5 staggering 6 paralysis 7 sweet smelling urine and breath Prevention feed ewe properly Treatment a 14 12 lb black strap molasses or corn sugar dextrose added to grain or drench ewe with sugar solution LACTATING EWE FEEDING remember feed requirements are greatest at this time twining ewes produce about 2040 more milk ie need more intake of nutrients Milk production peaks at about 23 weeks holds till about 8 weeks Feed 25 3 lb hay 25 3 lbs corn OR 10 lb alfalfa 15 lbs corn LAMBS must nurse within about 1 hour of birth or chances are limited Needs about 6 to 8 oz of colostrum A large proportion of lamb losses during the first week are due to starvation Most lambs show interest in solid food at about 10 days of age use creep feeds 1416 CP vegetable meal origin Must like the feed at first taste they like commercial feeds cracked shelled corn39 bran39 rolled oats molasses feed39 soybean meal39 and highquality leafy alfalfa hay At 25 lbs lambs can be weaned at about 25 to 30 days of age and feed like artificially reared lambs hand feed NORMAL WEAN is at about 68 weeks 40 lbs eating about 1 lb of dry feed daily OVEREATING DISEASE IN NURSING LAMBS ENTEROTOXEMIA This disease usually affects largest fastest gaining greediest lambs Caused by toxin from Clasm39dium per ngens type D also some type C Treatment for lambs under 2 months is Antitoxin Over two months of age they get a vaccination with a Bacterin or Toxoid at least 10 days prior to going on full feed Feeding the Young Kid 1 Introduce solid feed as early as possible 2 Feed approximately 14 lbheadday of a 16 CP feed together with a little corn 3 Feed weaner kids 60 days old approximately 12 lb of 16 crude protein feed with or without good gazing 4 Increase supplementation to 12 lb 34 lb per head per day for replacement breeding stock and even further to 1 lb per head per day for market males This will facilitate faster postweaning growth rates However the economics of supplementation must be borne in mind Feeding Yearling Does Replacement Females 1 Keep the best pastures and forages for yearlings 2 When good pastures and high quality forages are available concentrate feeding is not essential to the growing yearling doe However concentrate feeding can increase growth rate decrease the age at first breeding and increase overall lifetime performance 3 Concentrate feeding may reach l2 1 lb per headday depending on quality of roughage A 12 14 crude protein ration would su 1ce Feeding the Breeding Buck 1 When not being used for breeding good pasture alone will maintain bucks in good health 2 Abuck needs only 1214 protein in diet a Two weeks before and during breeding season gradually build up to 1 lb of concentrate of protein supplement twice per day or 2 lbheadday b Reduce concentrate after breeding season to l lbheadday c Avoid excessive weight gain when buck is inactive Poultry Uses Products Breeds and Management Who raisesuses poultry Comm ercial Poultry Producers NonCommercial Small Scale Producers 4H Youth Fancy Fowl Show Birds Pets Proj ect Government Officials and Regulators Consum ers NGOls What is required to raise poultry Physiology Nutrition Genetics Health Food Safety HACCP Engineering Economics Behavior Management Other Poultry Origins Scientists say that there were chickens in America long ago But these chickens weren t the same kinds of chickens that lay our eggs today Historians believe that the first chickens related to today s egg layers were brought to America by Columbus ships The chicken breed that lays most of the eggs we eat is the SingleComb White Leghorn The name Leghorn comes from a city in Italy called Livorno in Italian Brown Egg Layers Usually use a SexLink a cross between the Rhode Island Red male and Barred Plymouth Rock Fem ale Meat type birds Usually a cross between White Cornish and White Rock With a few other breeds thrown in for egg production and other factors Comm on Brown Egg Layers are Rhode Island Red New Hampshire Red Barred Plymouth Rock White Plymouth Rock Golden Cross Black Sex Link Why eat eggs Nutritious HQ Protein UnSaturated FA s ron Phosphorus Trace Minerals Vitamins A D E K B vitamins Little C Low in calories Grade AA Grade A Grade B Break Out Appearance Covers a small area Covers a moderate area Covers a wide area Album en White is thick and stands White is reasonable thick Small amount of thich Appearance high chalaza prominent Stands fairly high chalaza White chalaza small or prominent absent Weak and Yolk Firm round high Firm stands fairly high Flattened and enlarged Appearance Shell p roximates usual shape generally clean unbroken Abnormal shape some Appearance ridgesrough spots that do not affect the shell strength are slight stained areas rmitted Permitted unbroken prounounc Eggs can bind ingredients as in meatloaves or croquettes They can also leaven such baked high rises as souffles and sponge cakes Their thickening talent is seen in custards and sauces They emulsify mayonnaise salad dressings and Hollandaise sauce and are frequently used to coat or glaze breads and cookies They clarify soups and coffee In boiled candies and frostings they retard crystallization As a finishing touch they can be hard cooked and used as a garnish Egg Production Hen Day Production eggs produced Number hens Example you collected 859 eggs from 1000 birds HDP 8591000 859 x 100 859 Poultry meat products Chicken Turkey Game birds Water fowl etc Whole birds Parts Further Processed Product Turkey ham Poultry hot dogs Ground chicken and turkey Pot pies luncheon meat etc Scale of Production 2008 production of broilers 85 billion head 424 billion pounds liveweight 309 billion pounds RTC Channels 37 Retail 35 Foodservice 18 Export 10 Other pet food rendering Poultry Housing Floor systems Deep Litter Slatted Floor 23 Slatted Floor Other Cage Systems Large Colony Cages 58 birds cages Single bird cages Layers Chicks Breeders Alternative Housing Cage Free Free Range Organic Other
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