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Comparative Political Parties and Electoral Systems

by: Mrs. Halle Barrows

Comparative Political Parties and Electoral Systems POLS 3202W

Marketplace > University of Connecticut > Political Science > POLS 3202W > Comparative Political Parties and Electoral Systems
Mrs. Halle Barrows
GPA 3.96

Matthew Singer

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Matthew Singer
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Halle Barrows on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 3202W at University of Connecticut taught by Matthew Singer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/205855/pols-3202w-university-of-connecticut in Political Science at University of Connecticut.

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Date Created: 09/17/15
Study Guide for Electoral Systems Midterm There is 3 Basic quotElectoral Formulasquot Plurality Most votes win a Candidates compete for a single seat b Count the ballots hope there is no tie and then you are done c United States and the UK Majority Rule Requires 50 percent to win a Candidates compete for a single seat b Count the ballots hope there is no tie and someone got a majority c Most French speaking countries d Most presidential elections Proportional Representation parties gain power in accordance with their strength a Candidates compete for multiple seats Try to make proportional but can be hard Worried about small extreme parties winning seats 52957 There s two forms of ballots in PR Closed List where the party decides who is nominated and voters vote for the part only and Open List where voters vote for the candidates and not the party votes are totaled for party candidates are ranked by votes e Nearly all of Western Europe and Latin America Mixed systems combine one of the first two plurality or majority with proportional representation a German Japan New Zealand and Eastern Europe Ideology Ware published a book in 1996 stating the Radical Right was a new phenomenon Data focuses on old economic left right no postmaterialism Ideology system of goals distributional and valence set of priorities among them and beliefs about methods that are effective and appropriate to obtain them Distributional winners and losers can be modeled in space Example welfare spending Balance a universally good thing but may not consider important Example reducing poverty Priorities among them Personal attention and agenda for example abortion Methods agreeing on issues but disagreeing about methods Example Education Linkage Structures Linkage how parties relate tocourt voters Main Dimensions of Ideology Economics Regulation of business and trade Ownership of capital and investment Welfare state Globalization Social RoleofChurch Libertarianism Minority Rights This may be own ethnicregional dimension as well Parties differ in The positions that they take The issues that they emphasize Liberal Conservative Social Democrat Christian Democrat Communist Green Radical Right Political cleavages Antiregulation Right Before Industrial RevolutionAnti globalization and prosubsidies for farms left Since thenRight Left Right Very Left Left sometimes Right There is an overall left Right axis Before Industrial Revolution Support Left Since thenCenter Oppose Right Left CenterRight Very Left Left sometimes Right sometimes Somewhat support free speech over traditional values Centerleft Support Traditional Values Right Left Very Right Very Left Left Very Very Right A cleavage is rooted in a relatively persistent social division which gives rise to objectively identifiable groups in society Is it institutionalized in some form of organization most commonly a political party and engaged some set of values common to members of the group Lipset and Rokkan a Social changes create conflict b Social structures rise up around issues c Parties form as part of the struggle around the organizations d Thus locking in the cleavage structure FROZEN Specific Conflicts The National Revolution a Villages and fiefdoms into countries Churches competing Role of the church in regulating society Resulting Cleavages a Regionalism Protestant v Catholic b Religious v Secular Industrial Revolution a The decline of agriculture and the rise of a middle class b The organization of labor Resulting cleavages a Urban v Rural b Working class v Middle class Party Families Conservative Parties Urban v Rural Liberal Parties Urban v Rural Christian Democratic Parties Church v State Social Democratic Parties Middle v Working class Ethnic Parties Regional Split Post Industrial Shift Proposed by nglehart Wealth increases defuse distributive conflict Other issues rise in importance a Nuclear energy b Environment c Participation in politics d Lifestyle Choices Generational Factors PostMaterial Politics New Cleavage change versus more of the same 2 potential responses parties adjust or new parties form In Europe new politics dimension has largely folded into old alignments Why we care about cleavages Social divisions can create parties a If electoral systems allows small parties a chance b ie Winning a congressional seat in the us requires at least 4732 of the vote c Explains the specific content of party system There are Homogenous cleavage systems where the issues are the same So Wealthy voters against poor ones Heterogenous Cleavages where there s a lot of overlapping So religious voters overlap with wealthy ones and minority ethnic groups etc Heterogenous Cleavages crosscutting So overlapping in every aspect Predictions Countries where the cleavages are reinforcingoverlapping or homogenous will tend to have fewer parties Countries where the cleavages are reinforcingoverlapping will have few parties and DEEP conflicts Countries with crosscutting cleavages will have more parties more disagreement but less severe conflict Are Cleavages quotFrozenquot Dalton says no a Rise of new cleavages weakens old ones b Class employment type is a less relevant factor than it used to be c People rely less on partisan identities and more on specific issues d Evidence more electoral volatility Caramani says yes a Old parties have no gone away new issues fold into old divisions b Volatility is within ideological blocks c Wealth still strongly predicts voter choices Lecture 6 Why we care about cleavages d Social divisions can create parties for example if an electoral system allows small parties a change e winning a congressional seat in the US requires at least 4732 of the vote 5 Explains the specific content of party system r There is always a relationship between the cleavages For example the division could be between poor and wealthy voters or religious and secular voters Question do Cleavages exist in New Democracies New democraciesparties and organizations still coalescing Ideologies have to compete with clientelismanpersonalist linkages cleavages of competition might not have any values content What are the Dimensions of Competition Economic factors almost universal Preferences over democracy in initial elections or prolonged transitions 3 In Eastern Europe State and markets are a common bundle of reform issues b Little postmaterialism in voting in new democracies c One additional cleavage not captured ethnicity How stable are these cleavages The regime usually fades as a cleavage Law and order and economic governance fairly stable as performance concerns Nationalistethnic mobilizational strategies have thus had fertile ground One reason why party systems are volatile in new democracies Lecture 6 Conclusions Cleavage politics are different in developing countries a Content b Overall number c Stability Categorizing types of parties is then hard Is Clientelism to blame Or weak social organizations Lecture 7 Parties in NonDemocracies Role of elections in Authoritarian States InternationalInternallegitimacy Select leaders without war Identify supporters Moderate opposition And help create some opportunities for accountability No Competition Iraq Cuba and the USSR Competition with violent repression Zimbabwe Kenya What is the role of parties in government Boycott v Participation Role of Elections in Shaping Democracy Elections leader to liberalization Do not lead to democratization If dictatorship breaks down those that held elections are more likely to democratize Role of Democratizing in Shaping Parties Fight for democracy major cleavage Fight for democracy with labor involved strong parties Revolutions charismatic parties Strong parties before dictatorship usually strong parties afterwards


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