Principles of Biology II
Principles of Biology II BIOL 1108
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Exam 1 11212010 121300 AM Photosynthetic Organisms I Autotrophs organisms make own energy self feeders I Heterotrophs get energy from other organisms I Photoautotrophs autotrophs use light as source of energy I Chemautotrophs autotrophs that use molecules as source of energy I Chemolithotrophs oxidize inorganic substances Origin of life I Abiotic synthesis of small organic molecules joining of small molecules into macromolecules transition to membrane bound cells origin of selfreplication molecules early atmosphere on earth I volcanoes no free oxygen bombarded by heat UV radiation torrential rains Hypotheses I Oparin and Haldane life began from chemical reactions that synthesized organic compounds by reducing inorganic precursors ocean was prebiotic soup of organic compounds life arose from here Miller and Urey duplicated organic synthesis under early earth conditions living cells may have been preceded by aggregates of abiotically membranebound produced molecules Chemical monomers preceded polymers I First genetic code started as RNA DNA m ore stableaccurate later replaced it Prokaryotic cells were first life on earth I Stomatolites layered sedimentary rock provided evidence of early life Photosynthetic organisms I Similar to modern cyanobacteria produce energy through oxidation reactions thus creating oxygen Eukaryotes I Unicellular and multicellular have organelles complex membranebound no circular chromosome I Endosymbiosis facilitated immediate adoption of metabolism I Undergo mitosis I Hypothesis for origin 0 Cells evolved in which the plasma membrane enfolded to form a nuclear envelope endosymbionits prokaryote parasites entered these cells Viruses I Cant replicate genes or produce ATP amino acids or nucleotides no independent metabolism I Most complex form of molecules or simplest form of life Prions I Infectious protein particles mad cow disease can be misfolded or normal Prokaryotes simple asexual reproduction no membrane circular chromosome I Archaea o No peptidoglycan in cell wall B acteria 0 Positive gram stainlots of peptidoglycan negative grain stainlittle peptidoglycan Protists Protists and eukaryotes evolved from bacteria Have no alternation of generation I Fungi animals and plants evolved from protists I Protozoa animallike protists I Mycetozoa funguslike protists I Algae plantlike protists Alternation of generation different phases Cutcle protects plants from dessication dryness Evolution of plants in a nutshell I Nonvascular9 vascular spores9seeds I Seed lants9flowering plants angiosperms Plant and animal cells have similar functions I Cell membrane mitochondria cytoskeleton ribosomes golgi apparatus endoplasmic reticulum nucleus Differences in plant and animal cells plants have I cell wall contains pectin have no skeleton for support 0 wall is permeable to water and solutes o grow because cell wall matrix can stretch o divides because of the formation of a cell plate between daughter cells I middle lamella keeps glued together I intercellular space cellulose starch I vacuoles storage for waste because have no excretory system I have turgor pressure to maintain cell shape I plastids 0 double membrane bound have amyoplasts store starch chromoplasts caroten choroplasts plasmodesmatasymplasts I formed from trapped segments of ER occur in pit fields help facilitate exchange of stimulimaterials I interceullar highways through cells connects all parts of a plant body Water routes of travel I Transmembrane straight through membrane after membrane I Apoplastic through cell wall I Symplastic route though plasmodesmata Secondary wall I Really strong stops growth develops later lignifed woody 3 layers Tissue systems of a plant I Dermal tissue like skin protection surrounds entire plant 0 Epidermis most outer layer waterpfoof by cutin I Has hairs trichomes I Has guard cells for gas exchange with vavles and stomastom ata opening I No chloroplasts here 0 Periderm outer cork layer involved in secondary growth widens plant replaces epidermis I Have lenticles for gas exchange I Ground tissuevascular tissuethe inside of a plantsupport and fill 0 simple I Parenchyma most commonsimple storage of water and food I Totipotent maintains ability to undergo mitosis and divide I Collenchyma simple support I Thicker at corners living at maturity strong like steel support thick secondary wall I Sclerenchyma simple support and storage I Thick secondary wall lignified pits dead at maturity D Fiberslongunbranched fibers D Schlerigsirregularbranched 0 complex I Xylem D Wood is xylem ruds axial and radial D Transports water I Tracheary elements I Tracheids 0 Not perforated at ends pits more strong less efficient I Vessel elements 0 Perforated at ends perforation plates more efficient less strong I Phloem D Food transportation sugars D Sieve elements conducting cells I Sieve cells older plants o Albuminious cells are their nucleous not speciliazed at end plate I Sieve tube elements angiosperms o Speciliazed at end plate sieve plates 0 Companion cells for nucleus 0 Pores connected form tubes nacreous pearly wall 0 Primary vascular tissue Secondary walls resemble annuli or springs which allow the cells to elongate without bre aking Mata elements D Later formed elements Have a more pitted appearance stronger but cant elongate Plant Tissue I Meristerms 0 Sites of active cell division mitosis embryonic and never mature plant growth 0 Large nuclei small vacuoles simple thin wall I Primary meristems o Protoderm produces different plant cells 0 Procambium produces vascular tissue I Apical meristems shoots and roots accounts for increase in length way top primary growth 0 simple asexual reproduction no membrane I Lateral Meristems increases girth width secondary growth 0 Vascular cambium angiosperms thin layer of meristematic cells bw xylem and phloem I Generates new vascular tissue which leads to secondary growth 0 Cork cambium produces bark Stem Anatomy I Epidermis outermost layer of cells I Cortex middle tissue layer I Vascular Bundles lowest tissue layer contains xylem and phloem Apical bud way tip of plant Nodes where leaves come out Internode area between nodes Axillary bud bud on point of connection of leave to stem Megaphylls evolution 111 1 in in 1 quot webbed O Enations non Vd culali Cd Midrib vein running through middle of leaf Leaf margin whole leaf Petiole bottom of leaf Rachis similar to a stem leading to a leaf branching off of another leaf Lea et pointy part on top of leaf Root Anatomy roots are for uptake and storage Epidermis outermost layer of cells have hair to hold in placeincrease surface area absorption Cortex middle layer storage starch grains Endodermis surrounds vascular tissue have suberin waterproof Stele tissue inside endodermis o Pericycle divide give rise to lateral roots 0 Xylemphloem I Protoxylem outer I Metaxylemirner Casparian strips have suberin prevents apoplastic transport Root cap top of root protects it can dig through soil will wear down eventually Zone of cell division growth under root cap apical meristem Zone of elongation cells elongate and mature Zone of maturation cells go after finish elongating closer to main part of plant Primary root has secondary roots branching off of it Leaf Anatomy Epidermis outermost layer of cells covered by cuticle waterproof Palisade mesophyll tall and skinny parenchym a chloroplasts Spongy Mesophyll globular parenchyma few chloroplasts large air spaces gas exchange stomataguard cells Vascular bundles embedded in the mesophyll xylem upper phloem lower Secondary Growth lateral Vascular cambium meristematic cells bw xylem and phloem produces secondary xylem and phloem Cork Cambium outside secondary phloem produces cork cells 0 Cork covers stem surface has suberin waterproof Phellogen cork parenchyma internal to cork cambium Pithprimary xylem surrounded by secondary xylem aka wood Heartwood non functional and darker colored old Sapwood functional and lighter colored young Bark tissues external to vascular cambium secondary phloem and periderm Vascular rays rays that radiate outward like spokes of a wheel I Annual rings layers to count years spring wood larger and summerwood smaller I Primary Phloem crushed outside of secondary phloem pushes outward I Secondary phloem beneath cortex has fibers support I Vascular cambium rings between xylemphloem neatly lined up I Secondary xylem most volume of stem vessel elements rays moving materials horizonatally I Primary xylem inner edge of secondary xylem I All secondary vascular tissue is between primary xylem and phloem phloem outer xylem inner I Pith center of the stem I Lenticles gas exchange I Initals o Fusiform initials cells elongateaxial systems 0 Ray initals cells become more squarishradial systems 0 New initials increases width of cambium Monocots vs Dicots I Leaf venation o Monocotsparalleldicotsnet I Root system 0 Monoctssingle main roots dicotssystem with branching I Root anatomy o Monocotspith star shaped middle dicotsno pith circle in middle I Stem Anatomy 0 Monoctswascular bundles randomly arranged Dicots pith in a circle I Petal Number 0 Monoctsfewer petals dicotsmore petals Leaf duration I Evergreen lose only some leaves leaves live long I Deciduous lose all leaves annually I Abscission leaves detach via an abscission zone that has a separationabscission layer where leaf detaches and protective layer where periderm seals off leaves Uptake and transport I Leafs take in light and CO2 give off 02 and H20 I Roots take in 02 H20 minerals give off CO2 I Water has to cross at least one membrane before entering xylem in root I Osmosis movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane with diffusion gradient I Water moves from area of high water potential to low water potential High SPF low P I Simple diffusion passive transport High to low no proteins or ATP involved I Facilitated diffusion passive transport uses a carrier protein no ATP needed I Active Transport against diffusion gradient ATP and transport proteins pumps push Water uptake I Water moves from high to low water potential soil9cortex9steele I Cohesiontensiontheory 0 Water evaporates form leaves opens stomata transpiration giving off water lowers water potentiol of mesophyll cells evaporating water film lowers tension of water potentiol water pulled into cells osmotically from the veins narrow diameter of conducting elements facilitates strong hydrogen bonding 0 Water pulled out of soil9root cortex9xylem9evaporates9diffuses O Sap rises due to solar power root has high water potential Transpiration Guard cells surround stomatapore gas exchange Phloem transport I Translocationmovement of sugars throughout plant source to sink 0 Source provides organisms energy materials 0 Sinks absorb the organisms energy materials 0 Involves ATP 0 In a plant sources are the leafs and create sugars and send sugars to the roots sinks 0 Water moves up through the phloem and turgor pressure causes it to go down Photosynthesis process where organisms convert light energy to chemical energy which is stored as glucose Light Reactions I Capture sunlight store in usable form photophosphorylation Photosystem H light harvesting capture an electron and pass it on to photosystem II Photosystem lreaction center complexes produce NADPH noncyclic photophosphorylation 0 Cyclic photophosphorylation produces ATP instead Occurs in chloroplast thylakod membranes that form grana stacks Chlorophylls A B dominante absorb incoming photons and become excited absorb red and blue re ect green 1 1 1 Accessory pigments ex 39 absorb 39 Excited chlorophyllsreducing agents react quickly with oxidizing agent redox reaction sunlight only Primary job is to generate these high energy molecules Dark energy I Take in C02 Calvin Cycle takes place use ATP NADPH to synthesize sugar I Occur in the stroma of the chloroplast carbon fixation occurs fixation of carbon dioxide to something I Calvin Cycle 0 0 0 0 Fixation fixation of carbon dioxide Reduction reduction of phosphoglycerate to G3P I C02 bound to RuBP to help carry the C02 produces PGA which is reduced to G3P regenerationL regeneration of RuBP from G3P one turn requires 1 C02 3 ATP 2 NADPH G3P needs 3 C02 glucose needs 6 C02 I Rqu rubisco is inefficient certain plants in tough environments cant use it and evolved into a new beginning part to the system that s more efficient 0 0 0 Yield 4Carbon acid instead called C4 plants trap carbon initially to prevent its conversion to phosphoglycerate Contain enzyme pep carboxylase which binds PEP and C02 to form the C4 Has more C02 stored at night used during the day Have krantz anatomy radiating wreath like arrangm ent which helps take in carbon more Exam 2 11212010 121300 AM Growth and development I Polarity established when plant is really young zygote cant reverse I Homeotic genes master regulatory genes that significantly in uence development I Due to environment plants respond and alter their growth to enhance survival 0 Stimulus signals detected by receptor molecules and initiate a series of events signal transduction pathway Will pair a response with that stimulus I Hormones mediate environmental cues in small quantities really strong chemical messengers o Produces naturally growth regulators are artificial in meristems embryos not specialized glands like in animals 0 Growth promoting Hormones extend life I AuxinIAA indole acetic acid I Moves in ground tissue but slower polar transport only downward D Prolongs life enzymes degrade it to lower concentration roots sensitive I Acid growth hypothesis triggers loosening of cell walls by activating proton pumps causing the wall to be acidified lets auxin in increases cell size I Reduces growth in roots increases growth in shoots promotes growth of vascular cambium and ground tissue I Gibberellins D Stimulate growth in leaves and stems works on whole plant better while 1AA works on individual parts of the plant I Causes bolting rapid owering production enhances fruit growth I Affects vascular cambium wauxin stimules secondary phloem production I Transported equally up or down I Cytokinins D Causes a delay in senescence aging is an antisenescent D Transportedup from the roots I AuxinCytokinin interactios D Callus cant growth without it I Just auxin large cells no division I Just cytokinin no effect I Both normal cell division I Brassinosteroids D Throughout plant I Delays leaf abscission D Promotes xylem differentiation 0 Growth inhibiting hormones make life shorter I Abscisic acid I Everywhere specialize in leaves stems D Water loss drought induce rapid release of this closes guard cells D Brings about dormancy inhibits growthgermination D Promotes agingsenescence I Ethylene gas I Everywhere specialize in nodes D Induces senescence D Causes abscission of leafs and enhances fruit ripening I Plant responses 0 Turgor movements temporaryex leaf blade rolling guard cells doesn t represent growth 0 Growth movements irreversible I phototropisms plant moving to light postivietoward negative away I auxin produces growth only on one side asymmetrical growth I nastic movements doesn t depend on direction of stimulus I Gravitropism example of how auxin is used I Bending of shoot upwarddownward occurs in darkdetermined by gravity D Moves statoliths that respond to gravity amyoplasts D Roots seeking gravity auxin distributed to other side to make bend down I Phytochrome o In uences growth and abscission switches shape 0 Pr absorbs red light Pfr absorbs far red light quick light conversion 0 Pr9pfr rapid pfr9prslow prolonged dark conversion 0 High pfr levels promote owering in long day plants and inhibit owering in short day plants 0 Constans CO made when phytochrome activated by light I Stimulates owering in long day plants inhibits owering in short day plants Thigmotropism 0 Movement by contact directional growth in response to touch plants sensitive to touch 0 Mmosa touching induces sudden loss of turgor pressure and will collapse but restore soon Florigen singal to ower eventually found it and named it Flowering Lotus T FT same in long day and short day plants Charles Francis Darwin 0 Only blue light causes bending of plants cut off tip no bending black foil no bendingetc 0 Some in uence in the shoot apex responding to light transmitted to stem Fritt Went 0 Used agar blocks 0 Chalondywent theoryroots being so sensitive to aux results in inhibition on lower side as auxin accumulates Interphase stage before mitosismeiosis I S Phase synthesis chromosomes get produced DNA replication occurs I G2 Phase interval where chromosome replication is complete but mitosismeiosis hasnlt begun o Gap between interphase and mitosis I Gl Phase cells do normal functioning phase gap between end of mitosis and next interphase Cytokinesis immediately follows In phase mitosismeiosis cell plate forms divides into double amount of cells 2 daughter cells with a nucleus in each complete set of organelles Spindle apparatus pulls chromosomes to the poles of the cell I Polar microtubules extend from each spindle and overlap in the middle I Kinetochore microtubules attach to the chromosomes at the kinetochore part of centromeremiddle I Centrosome microtuble organizing center contain pair of centrioles Mitosis results in exact copies of genetic materialno change in chromosome numberyields 2 identical diploid cells I Prophase chromosomes condense into compact structures called chromatids o marked by formation of spindle apparatus Prometaphase chromosomes condensed nucleolus disappears and nuclear envelope disintegrates o Kinetochores form on each chromatid centromere Metaphase complete migration to opposite poles of the centrosome o chromosomes lined up in the middle along metaphase plate like a tug of war occurring anaphase centromeres split under tension sister chromatins pulled apart 0 results in two identical new chromosomes I telophase chromosomes stop moving makes diploid 2 independent nuclei form Meisosis diplod produces four haploid daughter cells with half the genetic info of the original cell I Differ from mitosis DNA does not replicate before Meiosis 11 o chromatids are not identical crossing over end products are haploid rather than diploids 0 genetic diversity synapsis and crossing over yield genetically different chromosomes crossing over chiasm ata occurs in prometaphase synapsis homologous chromosomes pair along entire length random chance determines which of the nonhomologous chromosomes end up in daughter cells at the end of anaphase I independent assortment I meiosis I 0 starts with tetrads and goes through phases of mitosis o tetrads double amount of chromosomes 0 forms 2 diploid daughter cells I meiosis H 0 cells condense again and go through phases of mitosis 0 same as mitosis but occurs in 2 cells rather than one and forms 4 haploid cells Meiotic abnormalities I Non disjunction failure of homologous chromosomes or siter chromatids to separate 0 Results in aneuploidy chromosome lacking or have excess changes number I Translocation piece of chromosome breaks off and attaches to another I Polyploidy extra chromosome sets odd sets are bad Protists eukaryotes that aren t animals fungi or pants asexualsexual reproduction I Many are endosymbionts living inside another organism mostly unicellular I Plant like protists o Dino agellates 2 agellum armor plates toxic o Diatoms 2 silica frustules like glassy rock 0 Euglenids l2 agella 0 Brown algae largest algae multicellular marine 0 Red algae seaweeds nori agar carrageenan 0 Green algae ancestral to the land plants I Unicellular life cycles with no alternation of generation 0 Haplontic dominanted by haploid phase diploid phase restricted to only zygote phase 0 Diplontic dominated by diploid phase haploid phase restricted to gametes Isomorphic alternation of generation sporophyte and gam etophyte indistinguishable Heteromorphic alternation of generation sporophyte and gam etophyte are easily distinguishable Fungilike protists 0 Have a agella no dikaryotic stage 0 Amoebozoans I Plasmodial slime molds cellulose and chitin in cell walls I Cellular slime molds phagocytotic food ingestion o Oomycetes I Water molds and mildews saprobic decomposers and parasites I Celluse and no chitin in cell walls I Phytophtora infestans caused irish potato famine Fungi live in beneficial symbiosis with other organisms heteromorphic cell walls contain chitin I Mycellum body of fungus made up of growing filaments called hyphane haustoriapenetrate host I Largest and oldest living organism on earth is a fungus in Oregon I Formation of dikaryotic stage maintained by clamp connections o Plasmogamyfusion of cytoplasm karyogamyfusion of nuclei heterokaryotic2 haploid nuclei present in each cell I More closely related to plants than animals I Lineages o Microsporidia parasites of humansinsects cell walls have chitin lack mitochondria o Chytrids and Zygomycetes aquaticsoil dwellers parasites of fishmosquitos black bread molds o Glomeromycota contains arbuscular mycorrhizae higher plant mutualists o Basidiomycota produce 4 spores digest wood mushrooms rusts and smuts poisonous toadstools o Ascomycoa produce 8 spores penicillin yeast truf es True Plants embryophytes I Embryo with material tissue cellulose in cell walls chlorophylls A B and carotenoids starch stores carbohydrates alternation of generation life cycle with gametophyte and sporophyte have waxy cuticle to make waterproof I Prokaryotes no mitosismeiosis lack nuclei cells divide by fission o Fission circular DNA chromosome molecule replicate I Spores haploid cells divide mitotically to produce an adult haploid plant gametophyte divides by mitosis to produce male and female haploid divides by mitosis to create diploid zygote zygote grows into sporophyte which will divide by meiosis to produce haploid spores I Gametes9Malesperm or pollen grain F emaleegg I Isogamyboth gametes appear identical I Anisogamyfemale gametes are larger I Oogamyextreme anisogamy egg is large and sessile immobile Nonvascular plants bryophytes I Small grow in damp habitats have rudimentary inefficient water conduction system Some have hydroids which may partially conduct water I Gamete stage is dominant heteromorphic alternation of generation I Gametangia produce gametes gametes are surrounded by sterile cells to prevent dessication o Archegonium skinneier and smaller female sex organ contains egg 0 Antheridium wider and bigger male sex organ producing sperm I 3 groups liverowrts hornworts stomata present mosses algal like seedless vascular plants I sporophytediploid domiant phase of life cycle true stems roots leaves ground tissue colonize land I free living not attached to gametophyte I two types of spore production o homosporyspores producesd are samedevelop into gametophyte that posses both sex organs 0 heterospory sporse produced are morphologically distinct I megaspores larger and produce female gametophyte and only egg I microspores smaller produce male gametophyte and only sperm I younger ones have true roots and leaves while older ones don t 0 microphyllous club mosses spike mosses and quillworts o megaphyllous ferns have clusters of sporangia spori sperm swim through water vascular seed plants I desired traits of seed plants 1 J 0 reduced h t i p 1 micro and ovules pollen seeds 0 fertiliztion of egg and sperm into diploid zygote I gymnosperms non owering o dominant sporophyte stage 0 megasporangium yieds 4 megaspores only one becomes female gametophyte o J 39 lumllK P lots of 39 1 one will find eg I pollen transported by went trapped by sticky droplet pollen tube germinates and grows toward egg I xylem has tracheids but no vessels seeds have no endosperm I angiosperms flowering o dominant sporophyte stage largest plant group 0 reduced female gametophyteembryo sac o microsporangia called stamens usually develop into a pollen grain transported abiotically windwater and biotically birds insects mammals o pollen tube grows toward the embryo sac pollen lands on top and tube grows in o micropile is the opening for the pollen tube to get to the egg 0 double fertilization I one sperm fuses with the egg the second sperm fuses with several nuclei in the embryo sac to called nutritive tissue called endosperm o xylem contains tracheids and vessels 0 modifications of leaves I ovules are protected by the carpel leaves roll in tubes guard seeds from predators I receptacle structuere bearing the top of the ower like the stem I perianth two outermost series of sterile appendages I calyx outermost series made up of green leaflike seapls I corolla next series made up of petals I androecium outermost of fertile appendages stamens the tubes on inside I gynoceium innermost set of fertile appendages comprise of pistils D pistil has a stigma op style middle ovarybottom like a beaker 0 fruit simple fruitproduct of one pistil compound fruitproduct of several pistils D aggregate fruit pistils from the same ower D multiple fruit pistils form different owers I eshy fruit eshy texture I dry fruits dry texture D dehiscent fruits open I indehiscent fruits closed Floral modifications Complete all series present plant parts Incomplete one series absent Naked lacking skinperianth Perfect both sexes present Imperfect lacking other androecium or gynoceium Sexual conditions Hermaphroditic both sexes present in every ower Monoecious males and female owers occur on same individual plant Dioecious male and female owers occur 0 different plants All complete or perfect owers must be hermaphroditic All imperfect or naked owers must be incomplete Perfect owers are not necessarily complete Hermaphroditic owers can never be monoceious or dioecious exam 3 11212010 121300 AM Population a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at the same time Increase population birth immigration Decrease population death emigration Survivorship Curves I Type 1 low infant mortality most die when old lots of care to few children they produce I Type 2 equal probability of death at any age I Type 3 high infant death rate adults have high survival rate little care to a lot of children produced Rb minus m change in population size birth rate minus mortalitydeath rate Exponential Population Growth density independent not realistic requires stable environment unlimited resources only occurs in spurts of time Logistic Population Growth density dependent maximum population size will support K carrying capacity realistic Metapopulations a group of populations that help from going extinct don t know they live near eachother but will resupply other populations when they get killed off immigrants Phenotypes physical makeup of an organism Genotype genetic makeup of an organism Dyhybrid Cross gets 16 boxes instead of the typical 4 for a punnet square Homozygous dominant RR Homozygous recessive rr Heterozygous Rr Law of segregation an organisms 2 alleles for a character separate during gamete formation and end up in diff cells Alleles different versions of a gene that produce different phenotypes Independent Assortment alleles of different genes are transmitted to the next generation independently of each other I Results from genes occurring on different chromosomes Dependent assortment alleles of two genes stay linked through the generations I Results from genes occurring on the same chromosome Incomplete dominance RRdark pink Rrpink rrwhite pink can revert back to red or white Codominance two genes are dominant and cooccur I Ex human blood types I AOA BOB 000 ABAB Pleiotropy when a gene affects many traits Sex linked genes when the gene is on the X or Y chromosome Females can be carriers men either have it or don t JeanBaptist Lamarck was first to suggest theory of evolution but suggested there was a mechanism that stated I Characteristics aquired during an organism s lifetime could be passed on WRONG I Darwin fixed that point Homology a trait shared by two species because both inherited it from a common ancestor Homoplasy similar traits evolved independently Vestigial Traits a structure that is reduced or incompletely developed and has no function Fitness ability to survive to produce offspring Adaptation a heritable trait that increases an individual s fitness in a particular environment Mutation creates genetic diversity essential for evolution change in DNA HardyWeinberg Principle predicts the genotypes and phenotypes produced when an entire population interbreeds Null hypothesis indicates the genotypesphenotypes when nothing special is going on If something special going on then false pfrequency of allele 1 phenotype qfrequency of allele 2 phenotype pql 2pqfrequency of heterozygous genotype I pA2frequency of homozygous genotype for allele 1 I qA2frequency of homozygous genotype for allele 2 I requires no gene flow no mutations no natural selection large population size random mating Natural selection certain alleles increase in frequency bc they are associated with greater reproductive success Directional selection one end is really low one end is really high Stabilizing selection extremes are really low middle is high Disruptive Selection favors extremes middle is low Sexual selection females choose most showy males males fight over females Genetic Drift in small populations allele frequencies can uctuate unpredictable by chance Founder effect very small number of individuals migrate to a new area and establish a new population Genetic Bottleneck natural disaster Gene Flow immigration and emigration Species a distinct identifiable group of populations that is evolutionary independent of other such groups Prezygotic factors before fertilization Postzygostic factors after ferilization Hybrid animals ex mule are infertile and cnat produce Morphospecies concept population is different morphologically from other populations Phlogenetic species concept smallest monophyletic group on a phylogenetic tree Allopatric mechanisms populations geographically separated I Dispersal some individuals leave their population and colonize a new habitat founder effect and genetic drift occur I Vicariance population split into two by a geographic boundary Sympatric mechanisms populations cooccur Phlyogenetic classification King9 kingdom Phillip9phylum Came9class Over9order I F or9fam ily I Grape9genus I Soda9species Sister species two species right next to eachother Polytomy more than 2 branches emerging from one node shows uncertainty Outgroup species that branches off way easy and doesn t have any ancestors Monophyletic group onesnip test single species and all species descended from it Synapomorphies traits that first evolved in the ancestral species in a monophyletic group and were passed on to all descendant species Alternate ways to draw a phylogenetic tree can ip it swap sister brnaches swap whole branches as long as spin aoround the node its fin Adaptive radiation a rapid evolutionary diversification in which one lineage leads to numerous descendants that are diverse in form Ways of eating Heterotrophs aquire energy by ingesting organic material Suspension feeders filter particles of food from the water or air Deposit feeders ingest organic material that has been deposited on a floor Predators kill and consume prey Herbivores feed on plants or algae Parasites take nutrition from another species host without killing it smaller than the host 0 Endoparasite lives inside host s body 0 Endoparasite lives outside host s body Symmetry Radially symmetric many planes of symmetry Bilaterally symmetric 2 planes of symmetry Gastrulation I Zygote divides and forms a blastule hollow ball of cells I Punch a hole into a balloon and crevace forms Creates 2 germ layers diploblast o Ectoderm outermost tissue layer forms the skin and nervous system 0 Endoderm innermost tissue layer forms the gut Sometimes 3 germ layers triploblasts Mesoderm inbetween endoderm and ectoderm O I Coelom uid filled gap in mesoderm cushions organs provides skeleton o If mouth forms first protostome o If anus forms first deuterostome 0 Usually Will connect to other side and form anusmouth if doesn t called a blind gut Lophophore ring of tentacles around mouth functions in suspension feeding Metamorphasis I Complete metamorphasis from larva to butterfly changes stages I Incomplete metamorphasis like us stays same just grows SpongePorifera 0 tissue layers I Suspension feeders I Outgroup of animal phyla I Have collagen or mineralized spicules Diploblast 2 tissue layers I Cnidaria o Mouth up polyp o Mouth down medusa 0 Marine o Lophophoressuspension feeders o Radially symmetric o No nervous system 0 complete metamorphasis larva stage I ctenophores o radially symmetric 0 marine o predators tentacles triploblast 3 tissue layers I protostomes o lophotrochoozoa I platyhelminathes B at body large surface area live in moist environment B at warms9tapewarmes flukes tuberallians I sometimes parasitic I annelidia D chatae bristle like extensions D segmented warms9polychaetes oligochaetes leeches I mollusca D foot locomotion D radula tongua for deposit feeding D hard shell secreted by mantle D bivalvia 2 halves hinged together gastropoda snails chitons 8 shelly plates I rotifers D damp soils coronoa of cilia that make a crown D suspension feeders I bryozoa D encrust rocks docks I brachiopoda I attach to rocks like bivalves but aren t o ecdysozoa I tardigrada I water bears survive crazy environments I onychophora u caterpillars D moist environments segmented body I anthropoda u jointed limbs u chitinous exoskeleton a segmented body has tagmata head thorax abdomen sometimes has cephalothorax 2 body segmentstagm enta and has cepla u hemocoel body cavity that provides space for internal organs a grow by molting a compound eyes with many lenses antennae u jointed appendage serve many different functions walking swimming flying etc a myriapods centipedes insecta have appendages on mouth chelicerata horshoe crabsea spidersscorpions spiders crustacea lobsters crab shrimp barnacles double anntanea trilobites famous extinct bug I nematodes I cover everywhere abundant cause elephantis and trichinosis unsegm ented simple I deuterostomes o echinoderms I radially symmetric calcareous skeleton marine water vascular system series of tubes that is like a hydrostatic skeleton tube feet tubes project to the outside environment lets water into body reson why cant go into freshwater crinoidea feather stars and sea lilies asteroidean sea stars Ophiuroidea brittle stars and basket stars Echinoidea sea urchins and sand dollars Holothuroidea sea cucumbers churizo shaped o Chordata I Pharyngeal gil slitsopening to throat I Hollow nerve cord on dorsal side I Notochor supportive but exible rod on dorsal side for swimming I Tail I Cephalochordates small fish I Urochordates lose all characteristics when grow up sea squirts and salps o Vertebrates I Cartilaginousbony vertebrae protecting spinal cord I Cranium skull I The earliest fish were jawless the jaw allowed fish to diversify evolved from gill arch o Chondrichthyes sharks and rays 0 Actinopterygi ray finned fish 0 Lobefinned fish I Coelacanth deep ocean I Lung fish omnivorous both meat and veggies can hibernate and dig into dirt in water Exam 4 11212010 121300 AM Tetrapods 4 feet evolved from lobe fins therefore branch off of chordata I Amphibians live in damp habitats at least in part on land 0 Eggs must be laid in water born as larvae undergo metamorphassis o Moist skinfacilitates gas exchange carnivores o Salamanders keep tails as adults 0 Frogs and toads lose tail as adults I External fertilization baby called tadpole with gills metamorphasisget legs 0 Caecillians legless burrowing 0 Fish and amphibians surrounded by skin that must be wet I Amniotes o Amniotic egg lets live in drier habitats has 4 membranes and can be laid out of water I Has 4 membranes and can be laid out of water D Cushions and supports embryo provides nutrition gas exchange to prevent dessication39 surrounded by a shell to prevent dessication dryness o reptiles Ectothermic regulate body temp with behavior use sunshade not metabolism D Lizards snakes turtles crocidiles dinosaurs birds aren t ectothermic Live on land some water urtle scaly skin prevents dessiation lungs amniotic egg Turtles shell protection beak no teeth carnivores and herbivores Lepidosaursssnakes snakes evolved form lizards D Lizards mainly herbivores were snakes are carnivores Crocidlealligators warmer aquatic climates semiaquatic predators ambush prey Dinosaurs extinct D Originally in Triassic period then larger in Jurassic and cretaceous herbivores and carnivores a lot had feathers ex velociraptor D Birds evolved from dinosaurs I Use feathers for staying warm keeping eggs warm flightgliding I Endothermic warm blooded while ectothermic is cold blooded I Flying adaptationsex keel on sternum horny beak instead of teeth I Herbivorous and predators emus cant fly D Archaeopteryx first bird many reptile characteristics I Mammals o Synapomorphies fur insulation mammary glands lactationmilk production facial muscles and lips for sucking lower jaw endothermic high metabolic ratehigh activity 0 Monotremes platypus or porkypine echidna I Lay eggs most basic group of mammals Australia lower metabolic rate secrete milk but don t have nipples eat small animals leathery beak o Marsupials young develop in a pouch suck milk in there omnivores AustraliaAm erica I Poorly developed placenta so short and bad preganancy o Eutherians placental mammals I Longer pregnancy because placenta is well developedyoung highly developed I Most diverse rodents bats hoofed mammals primates I Extensive parental care placentatransfers gasses and nutrients to embryo o Marsupials and eutherians are viviparous give birth to live young instead of eggs I Allows the embryo to develop under more controlled conditions I Primates placental mammalseutherians 0 Eyes in front of face for depth perception grasping handsfeed big brain color vision parental care 0 Prosimians new world monkeys lemur catta old world monkeys I Hominids great apes all except orangutangs live on ground I Homo sapiens are extinct relatives evolved out of Africa The History of Life I Fossil any trace of an organism that lived in the past provide direct record of history of life 0 Buried by sediments to protect the remains from destruction hardens into sedimentary rock Trace fossils tracks trails and burrows Original biological material sometimes preserved ex pollen grain bones shells Compression the organic material is pressed by the weight of sedimeintes Molds and casts the original bioligcal material decays or dissolves leaving an impression Permineralization dissolved minerals precipate in the pores of wood bone etc turning into stone Fossil record is best in wet habitats and for decay resistant parts Geological time scale earth about 46 bya dominanted by unicellular organisms animals last l8th 0 Time divided up into levels intervalsextinctionevolution usually 0 Precambium Period Hadean Eon earth forms water forms Archean Eon microbial life bacteria archaea Early Proterozic Eon oxygen released by photosynthetic cyanobacteria microbes D Stromatolites in rocks mounds of layered sediment I lLiddle Proterozoic Eon eukaryotesprotists I Late proterozic Eon animals 0 Camiran Period time of visible life 542 mya I Early Cambrian Most modern phyla appear fossils more common D Cambrian explosion modern phyla appear animals with hard skeletons I Paleozic Era animals and lineages on land I Early Denovian coal swamp conifers mammal like reptiles tetrapods I Late Cretaceous Cenozoic mammals birds angiosperms dinosaurs killed off I Continents moving due to plate tetonics I Mass extinction an increase in extinction rate that significantly reduces biodeversity o Dramatic changes in environment 5 big ones in history diverse groups went extinct 0 Ex asteroid volcanism global warming ocean assidification anoxia low oxygen glaciation o The Permian extinction39 basalt layers volcanism Basaltic volcanism Permian aged lavas erupted Environmental effects lots of C02 causes global warming and ocean assidfication anoxia sulfur Effects mammallike reptiles were dominant and went extinct 90 marine went extinct I Endcretaceous extinction dinosaurs went extinct and mammals came to power 0 Asteroid impact evidence iridum sediments rare and abundant in asteroids 0 Effects of the impact I Dust cloud causes darkness plants stop growing animals lose food vaporization of sulfur caused acid rain widespread wildfires tsunamis Ecology study of how organisms interact with each other and the environment I Understand how these interactions result in the observed abundance and distribution of organisms I Use this knowledge to help protect changes due to hum an activities I Organisml ecology how do individual organisms interact weachother and their physical environment I Community ecology how do species interact predation competition and what are the consequences I Population ecology how and why does population size change over time I Ecosystem ecology how do energy and nutrients cycle through organisms and the environment I Types of environments 0 Climate hot vs cold hot near equator cold near poles I circulation cells exist at equator Hadley cells warm air rises at equator cold air comes down toward poles 3 circulation cells in north 3 in south hemisphere 0 climate seasonality when equator faces sun at different angles seasonality results I Terrestrial Biomes 0 Climate especially temp and precipitation determine vegetation type and thus biome o Hadley cells cause hot and wet biomes rain forest near equator 0 Productivity amount of carbon fixed per year by photosynthesis 0 Net primary productivity total productivity 7 amount oxidized by cellular respiration I Is productivity available to make biomass and food for other organisms 0 Tropical wet forests I Temp warm little variationprecip lots no dry season I Great for plant growth and very high productivity high biomass of diversity I No seasonal loss of leaves 0 Subtropical deserts I Temp high temp but variable precip low I Low productivity and biomass due to scarcity of water 0 Temperate grasslands I Temp hot summer cold winner precip low seasonal I Too dry for forests productivity lower than forests o Temperate forests I Temp hot summer colt winter precip moderate fairly constant I Requires more precipitation than grasslands moderate productivity I Deciduous trees common ex Connecticut 0 Boreal Forests I Temp cold variable with short cool summer precip lowe but so is evaporation I Subartic conifers low productivity and diversity 0 Tundra I Temp cold articprecip low but little evaporation I Very short gorwing season low diversity permafrost permanently frozen soil layer I Aquatic Environments 0 Water depth water absorbs and scatters light light intensity depends on depth photsynthesis can only occur in shallow water where sunlight is present 0 Water flow many environments encounter water movement organisms must avoid being swept away by attaching to a surface enhances productivity 0 Nutrients Nitrogen Phosphorusetc are scarce in aquatic environments 0 Photic vs aphotic zone light only penetrates to photic zone where photosynthesis occurs animals in aphotic zone subsist on dead material sinking from photic zone 0 Intertidal zone exposed at low tide high physical stress highly productive o Nertic zone always submerged edge of continental shelf high productivity from land 0 Oceanic zone deep water zone beyond continental shelf nutrients scarce low productivity 0 Benthic zone bottom of the oeaan low productivity no light 0 Upwelling zone currents carry nutrientrich deep water upwards high productivity O Lakes mostly freshwater few salty photic vs aphotic zones and benthic zones I Littoral zone light reaches lake bottom rooted plants Lirnnetic zone offshore waters in the photic zone Lake Turnover cold dense water at bottom shallow less dense water in photic zone cant mix with this as water warmscools in the springfall the surface water gets dense and sinks so lake waters mix enhances productivity 0 Wetlands shallow water plants grow up on land soil saturated with water plants adapted o Streams and Rivers unidirectional water flow near source water is fast nutrient pour high in 02 water slows down becoming warmer and more nutrient rich and lower in 02 o Estuaries where rivers meet ocean high productivity Distribution of organisms o Abiotic factors a species can only be adapted to a certain range of physical conditions 0 Biotic factors interactions with other organisms limited by disease competitors predators 0 Historical factors geographic barriers wallace s line marks deep ocean trench o Invasive species human s activities are increasing the dispersal of organisms among diff groups Behavior any action by an organism response to a stimulus piece of info gathered about the environment Proximate howhow do they navigate at night Ultimate whywhy do they forage at night Behavior influenced by both genetic and environmental factors can evolve by natural selection Costbenefit analysis behaviors that improve fitness are preferred 0 Optimal foraging theory animals make decisions that maximize the intake of usable energy Foraging looking for food Choosing a mate females invest energy in reproducing and parenting females picky about mates need a man who can contribute good alleles and lots of resources to offspring Migration long distance movement of a population associated with the change of seasons 0 Piloting use familiar landmarks o Compass orientation movement in a particular direction using sun stars earth s magnetic field 0 migrate so can accomplish successful foraging communication any process in which a signal from one individual modifies the behavior of another 0 single must be acted upon tactiletouch olfactory smell acoustic sound visual o honeybee communication if a bee finds a new source of food more bees show up 0 Karl von Frisch did experiement and showed bees communicate by dancing I Waggle dance circles plus straight line round dance circular motion 0 Dishonest communication tricking prey generally works rare Cooperation 0 Most behaviors benefit organisms o Altruistic behaviors decrease fitness of self increase fitness of other sacrificing yourself I Like a body guard do for closest relative I Ex prarie dogs giving alarm or sterile worker bees working for queenmother o Kin selection natural selection that favors altruistic behaviors directed at close relatives Community all the species that interact with each other in a given area I Competition individuals share resources lowering fitness of both 0 Intraspecific competition competitors within members of the same species causes density dependent growth logistic o lnterspecific competition competition between members of a different species who use same 1396 sourc CS Competitive exclusion when 2 species compete one may eliminate the other Coexist species find niches don t compete Keystone species large effect on community Fitness tradeoff no one is perfect at everything Consumption one organism eats nutrients from another consumer increases victim decreases o Herbivory parasitim predation o Defenses camoflauge schooling s weaponary mimicry I Mullerian mimics look dangers are dangerous I Basterian mimics look dangerous not dangerous Mutualism39 both increase in fitness 0 Flowering pants and pollinators ants and acacia trees 0 Self interest benefit to other is incidental not intended Commensalim one species benefits other is unaffected Structure of communities 0 Biological communities are stable and contain a predictable set of species 0 Biological communities are dynamic everychanging and chance plays a major role in what species occur Disturbance any event that removes some individuals or biomass from a community 0 Biotic predation grazing trampling o Abiotic fire storm etc 0 Can drastically change community common Succession recovery of communities following a severe disturbance 0 Early successional communities small shortlived species that disperse their seeds over long distances I Pioneering species devote energy towards rapid dispersal not competition 0 Late succesional communities dominanted by large long lived species good competitors 0 mid sucessional communities shrubs are shortlived and trees begin to invade o climax community longlived tree species mature and outcompete other species I species intereaction o faciliation earlyarriving species make conditions more favorable for the arrival of later species 0 tolerance existing species don t affect the probability that subsequent species will become established 0 inhibition one species inhibits the establishment of another Ecosystems all the organisms in a community and all the abiotic factors with which they interact I Primary producers use energy in two ways 0 Maintenance of life replace cellular components synthesize hormonesdefensive compounds 0 New biomass growth reproduction net primary production Consumers and decomposers 0 Consumers eat living organisms 0 primary consumers eat primary producers secondary consumers eat primary consumers o decomposersdetrivores eat dead organisms or waste products fungibacteria Food Chain diagram showing how energy flows from one species to another Trophic level level in a food chain indicates how many levels of consumption occurred since energy was fixed by primary production Many consumers feed at multiple trophic levels depending on food food chainssimplified food webs Each trophic level has a lot less energy of level below itprimary producer has most energyeeds most Trophic Cascadetop down control 0 Top down control consumers lmimit the population size of the species they consume 0 Trophic cascade series of changes in the abundances of species in a food web caused by the removal or addition of a key consumer O Biomagnifications Animals on way bottom of food chain eat toxic material gets more concentrated as that animal gets eaten and passed up food chain I Net Primary Production 0 Land where it is wet and warm low where it is dry and cold 0 Ocean along the coasts where light and nutrients are abundant low in deep ocean I Exception near deep sea vents where hot chemical rich fluids are ejected o Coral reefs and beds of algae are really productive 0 Some that are really productive cover very little land and vice versa I Nutrients cycle among organisms and the abiotic environment 0 Start off in abiotic world soil or atmosphere taken up by primary producer tree stimulated in tissues of tree tissues fall to ground and form detritus animals will consume that and excrete it or die causing detritus 0 Can enter or leave an ecosystem I Decomposers detriovres scavengers 0 Important in releasing the nutrients in dead organic matter so that primary producers can use them to make new organic matter all dead stuff would keep building up 0 Boreal forest slow decomposition cold organic accumulation o Tropic al wet forest fast decomposition warm no organic accumulation I Global biogeochemical cycles how different elements or molecules circle among ecosystems o Reservoirs living or nonliving components that contain the element 0 Fluxes the rate at which the element moves between reservoirs 0 Global water cycle precipitation and evaporation I wind blows evaporation from ocean and causes it to sometimes precipitate on land 0 Global nitrogen cycle bacteria turn unusable gas into usable gas I Humans artificially fixN for fertilizer 0 Global carbon cycle the burning of fossil fuels releases carbon from within the earth into the atmosphere I Coal carbon left over from ancient buried plants I Oil the buried hydrocarbons left over from ancient phytoplankton I The greenhouse effect 0 C02 water vapor and other gasses trap heat 0 Overall this is a good thing most of the planet would be frozen otherwise 0 Changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases cause changes in climate Conservation Biology I Many species have died due to human actiities ex passenger pigeon I Biodiversity the diversity of life 0 Genetic diversitythe diversity of alleles present in a population species or group of species 0 Species diversitythe diversity of species in a region 0 Ecosystem diversitythe range of ecosystems present in a region 0 Phylogenetic diversitysome species have many close relatives I Others are only distantly related to any other species I It may be more important to preserve a species that represents a unique branch I about 15 million species on earth 12 insects vastly underestimated I most biodiversity found in tropics I extinction 63911 mass extinction adding to the 53911 one happening right now
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