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Principles of Biology I

by: Greyson Gutkowski

Principles of Biology I BIOL 1107

Greyson Gutkowski
GPA 3.88

Thomas Abbott

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Thomas Abbott
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Greyson Gutkowski on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1107 at University of Connecticut taught by Thomas Abbott in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/205863/biol-1107-university-of-connecticut in Biological Sciences at University of Connecticut.

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Date Created: 09/17/15
Biology Chapter 40 403 404 4051 Concept 403 Animals use the chemical energy in food to sustain form and functions Bioenergetics The ow of energy through an animal 0 Limits animal s behavior growth reproduction and determines how much food it needs Energy sources and allocation 0 Chemical energy is harvested from the food they eat It is digested by enzymatic hydrolysis These energy molecules have several fates in the body 0 Generate ATP by cellular respiration and fermentation I Powers cells organs and organ systems to function I Production of ATP causes animal to continually give off heat to its surroundings 0 Any remaining molecules from food can be used in biosynthesis including body growth repair synthesis of storage materials such as fat and production of gametes I Requires both carbon skeletons for new structures and ATP to power their assembly Quantifying energy use 0 Metabolic rate amount of energy used in a unit of time the sum of all energy requiring biochemical reactions over a given time interval Energy is measured in calories or kilocalories 0 Metabolic rate can be determined by measuring heat loss since nearly all chemical energy is used in cellular respiration which produces heat as a product 0 Calorimeter closed insulated chamber equipped with device to measure animal s rate of heat loss 0 Metabolic rate can be determined by measuring the amount of oxygen consumed or carbon dioxide produced Over long periods the rate of food consumption can be used to estimate metabolic rate Must account for energy in feces and urine Bioenergetic strategies 0 Endothermic Bodies are warmed mostly by heat generated by metabolism and body is maintained within narrow range 0 High energy strategy that permits intense long duration activity 0 Ectothermic Gain heat mostly from external sources 0 Requires less energy because of high energy cost of heatingcooling Endotherms generally have higher metabolic rates Size and Metabolic Rate 0 Amount of energy it takes to maintain each gram of body weight is inversely proportional to body size Gram of mouse takes 20 times more calories than elephant Higher metabolic ratehigher demand for oxygen Also has higher breathing blood volume and heart rate 0 Unclear as to why it is inverse o Endotherms the smaller the animal the greater the energy cost of maintaining a stable body temperature The smaller the animal the greater its surface to volume ratio thus the greater loss gain of heat Activity and metabolic rate 0 Basal Metabolic Rate BMR Metabolic rate of nongrowing endotherm that is at rest has empty stomach and not experiencing stress Can be determined within a range of temperatures 0 Standard metabolic rate SMR Metabolic rate of resting lasting nonstressed ectotherm at a particular temperature 0 Any activity affects energy and BMR and SMR Max rates at peak activity such as running etc 0 Maximum metabolic rate is inversely related to duration activity 0 Decreases over long period Endotherms respiration is greater thus last longer 0 Factors that affect it include sex age size temperature quality and quantity of food activity level oxygen availability and hormonal balance and time of day Energy Budgets 0 Human uses large amount for BMR little for temperature and activity vs penguin who uses most energy for activity swims to catch food low cost of energy for temperature 0 Dependent on activity level temperature regulation surface to volume ratio Biology Chapter 40 Concept 401 Physical Laws and the Environment Constrain Animal Size and Shape Anatomy study of biological form of organism Physiology study of biological functions an organism performs Physical Laws and Animal Form 0 Physical requirements constrain what natural selection can invent including shape and size 0 For example sharks penguins and dolphins are fast swimmers because of their streamlined body form 0 These similar shapes are an example of convergent evolution Convergence occurs because natural selection shapes similar adaptations when diverse organisms face the same environmental challenge Exchange with the Environment 0 Animal s size and shape have a direct effect on how the animal exchanges energy and materials with its surroundings o Animal s body plan must allow all of its living cells to be bathed in aqueous medium for integrity of plasma membrane 0 Exchange occurs through diffusion 0 Surface area to volume ration plays an important role in diffusion 0 Single cell has sufficient SA to volume 0 Animal cell has numerous cells Shape is important 0 Flat shapes help with surface area but do not provide complex internal organization 0 Complex bodies have distinct benefits 0 Specialized outer covering to protect against predators Large muscles for rapid movement Internal digestive organs to break down food controlling energy release 000 Cells immediate environment is in body uid allowing internal control for stability Concept 402 Animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization Living things exhibit hierarchical levels of organization each with emergent properties Tissue structure and Function 0 Tissues Groups of cells with a common structure and function Different types have different structures suited for function Ex 9Weaves extracellular matrix 0 Four Categories Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous o Epithelial o Epithelial Tissue Occurs in sheets of tightly packed cells covers outside of body and lines organs and cavities within body Functions as barrier against injury microbes and uid loss o Glandular Tissue Absorb or secrete chemical solutions for example ones that line the lumen form mucous membrane Mucous Membrane Secret mucus that lubricates surface and keeps moist 0 Two criteria for classifying epithelial Number of cell layers and shape of cells Simple Epithelial Single layer of cells Strati ed Epithelial Multiple tiers of cells Pseudostrati ed Single layered but appears strati ed because cells vary in length Cuboidal shape Dice like Columnar Like bricks standing on end Sguamous Floor like tiles 0 Connective Tissue o Connective Tissue Functions mainly to bind and support other tissues Sparse population of cells scattered through extracellular matrix 0 Connective Fibers Made of protein and have three kinds 9 Collagenous bers elastic bers and reticular bers Collagenous Made of collagen most abundant protein Nonelastic does not tear easily Elastic Fibers Long threads made of protein called elastic Rubbery quality that complements collagen ber Reticular Fiber Think and branched Composed of collagen and continuous with collagenous bers form tightly woven fabric that joins tissues VertebratesMajor tissue include loose connective tissue adipose tissue brous connective cartilage bone and blood 0 Loose Connective Binds epithelial to tissue and holds organs in place Cartilage Strong exible support material Fibrous Found in tendons which attach muscle to bone ligaments Adipose Fat for insulation 0 Blood Composed of blood cells and cell fragments in plasma 0 Bone Mineralized and forms skeleton o Fibroblasts secrete the protein ingredients of the extracellular bers 0 Macrophages Amoeboid cells that engulf foreign particles 0 Muscle Tissue o Composed of long cells called muscle bers that are capable of contracting Large units of myo brils made of actin and myosin o Vertebrates have skeletal muscle cardiac muscle and smooth muscle Skeletal muscle Striated muscle responsible for voluntary movement Smooth Muscle Involuntary movement Cardiac muscle Contraction of heart 0 Nervous Tissue o Senses stimuli and transmits signal in the form of nerve impulses from one part to another 0 Functional unit is neuron or nerve cell Organs and Organ systems 0 Organs Different tissues organized into organs 0 Some organs tissues are arranged in layers 0 Messenteries Organs of vertebrates have sheets of connective tissue in moist or uid lled body cavities o Thoracic Cavi Mammals housing lungs and heart that is separated from abdominal cavity by a sheet of muscle called the diaphragm 0 Organ Systems Carry out major body functions of most animals Coordination and Control 0 Depends on endocrine system and nervous system 0 Endocrine systems transmits hormones to receptive cells 0 Hormone may affect one or more regions 0 Slow acting but long effects 0 Nerve system transmits information between speci c locations 0 Very fast can be received by neurons muscle cells and endocrine system Organ Systems eir Main Commuterts and Functions in Mammals Organ System Digestive Circulatory Respiratory Immune and lymphatic Excretory Endocrine Reproductive Nervous lntegumentary Skeletal Muscular Maln Components Mouth pharynx esophagus stomach intestines liver pancreas anus Heart blood vessels blood Lungs trachea other breathing tubes Bone marrow lymph nodes thymus spleen lymph vessels white blood cells Kidneys uretcrs urinary bladder urethra Pituitary thyroid pancreas adrenal and other hormoneisecreting glands Ovaries or testes and associated organs Brain spinal cord nerves sensory organs Skin and its derivatives such as hair claws skin glands Skeleton bones tendons ligaments cartilage Skeletal muscles auyugn a zoos Pearson Emazm mu vanishing as Pearson Bevuamm Cummings Main Functions Food processing ingestion digestion absorption elimination Internal distribution of materials n u I I F I39 v i l l39 l i D We r r Body defense ghting infections and cancer Disposal of metabolic wastes regulation of osmotic balance of blood Coordination of body activities such as digestion and metabolism Reproduction Coordination ofbody activities detection ofstimuli and formulation of responses to them Protection against mechanical injury infection drying out Lhermoregulation Body support protection of internal organs movement Locomotion and other movement


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