Principles of Biology I
Principles of Biology I BIOL 1107
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Chapter 1 Exploring Life Lecture Outline Overview Biology39s Most Exciting Era Biology is the Scientific study of life 0 You are starting your study of biology during its most exciting era 0 The largest and bestequipsped community of scientists in history is beginning to solve problem that once seemed unsolvable Biology is an ongoing inquiry about the nature of life Biologists are moving closer to understanding How a single cell develops into an adult animal or plant How plants convert solar energy into the chemical energy of food How the human mind works How living things interact in biological communities How the diversity of life evolved from the first microbes Research breakthroughs in genetics and cell biology are trans ormmg medlcme an agrlcu ture Neuroscience and evolutionary biology are reshaping psychology an socm ogy Molecular biology is providing new tools for anthropology and criminology New mode s in ecolo y are helping society to evaluate enVIronmental Issue such as he causes and biologlca consequences of global warming 0 Unifying themes pervade all of biology O 0 Concept 11 Biologists explore life from the microscopic to the global scale 0 Life39s basic characteristic is a high degree of order 0 Each level of biological organization has emergent properties 0 Biological organization is based on a hierarchy of structural levels each unldlng on the levels At the lowest level are atoms that are ordered into complex biological mo ecu es Biological molecules are organized into structures called or anelles the components 0 cel s Ce ls are the fundamental unit of structure and function of living Lecture Outline for CampbellReece Biology 7 h Edition Pearson Education Inc 11 Some or anisms consisT of a sin aggrega es of speCIalIzed ce ls WheTher ulTicellular or unicellular all organisms musT accomplish The same uncTIons upTake and processmg of nuTrienTs excreTIon of wasTes response To enVIronmen al sTImulI and reproducTIon MulTicellular organisms exhibiT Three major sTrucTural levels above The cell Similar cells are grouped InTo Tissues several Tissues coor InaTe To orm organs and severa organs form an organ sysTem For example To coordinaTe locomoTory movemenTs sensory informaTIon Travels from sense organs To The brain where nervous Tissues compose 0 ll Ionso InTerconnecTed neurons supporTe y connecTIve Tissue coordinaTe SI nals ThaT Travel VICl oTher neurons To The IndIVIdual muscle ce 5 Orlganisms belong To populaTIons localized groups of organisms be ongIng To The same species PopulaTIons of several speCIes In The same area comprise a bIolo Ical communITy Popu aTIons InTeracT WITh Their phySIcal enVIronmenT To form an ecos sTem The Iosphere conSIsTs of all The enVIronmenTs on EarTh ThaT are inhabITed by life Organisms inferacf canfinuausy wifh fheir environment Each organism inTeracTs wiTh iTs environmenT which includes oTher organisms as well as nonlIVIng facTors BoTh organism and environmenT are affecTed by The inTeracTions beTween Them Thedynamics of any ecos sTem include Two major processes The cycling of nuTrienTs and T e flow of energy from sun IghT To producers To consumers In mosT ecosysTems producers are planTs and oThe gle cell oThers are mulTicellular r phoTosynTheTic organisms ThaT converT lighT energy To chemical energy Consumers are organisms ThaT feed on producers and oTher consumers All The acTiviTies of life require organisms To perform work and work requures a source 0 energy The exchange 01l energy beTween an organism and iTs environmenT ofTen Involves T e TransformaTIon of energy from one orm To ano er In all energy Trans surroundings as he In conTrasT To chemical nuTrienTs which recycle wiThin an ecosysTem energy flows T rough an ecosysTem usually enTerIng as lIghT and eXITIng as heaT O fprmaTions some energy is losT To The a 0 Lecture Outline for CampbellReece Biology 7 h Edition Pearson Education Inc tel5 are an organ30115 basic um39f of sfrucfure and fundon o The cell is The lowesT level of sTrucTure ThaT is capable of performIng a The acTIVITIes o I e For example The abiliTy of cells To divide is The basis ofall reproduc Ion and The bClSIS of growTh and repaIr of mulTIcellular organIsms o hindersTanding how cells work is a major research focus of modern l0 ogy 0 AT sorge poinT all cells conTain deoxyribonucleicacid or DNA The herITa le maTerIal ThaT dIrecTs The cells acTIVITIes DNA isThe subsTance of genes The uniTs of inheriTance ThaT TransmIT InformaTIon from parenTs To 0 spring 0 Each of us began life as a single cell sTocked wiTh DNA inheriTed from our parenTs DNA in human cells is organized inTo chromosomes Each chromosome has one very long DNA molecule wiTh hundreds or Thousands of genes arranged along ITs engT The DNA of chromosomes replicaTes as a ce l prepares To divide Each of The Two cellular offspring inheriTs a compleTe seT of genes In each cell Thefgenesalong The lengTh of DNA molecules encode The InformaTIon or bUIldIng The cells oTher mo ecules DNA Thus direcTs The developmenT and mainTenance of The enTire organIsm MosT genes program The cell39s producTion of proTeins Each DNAmolecule is made up of Two long chains arranged in a double helix Each link of a chain is one of four nucleoTides encoding The cell39s InformaTIon In chemical leTTers The sequence of nucleoTides along each gene codes for a specific proTeIn WITh a uniniue shape and funcTIon AlmTosT all cellu ar acTiviTies involve The acTion of one or more ro eIns NA provides The heriTable blueprinTs buT proTeins are The Tools ThaT acTually bUIld and maInTaIn The cell All forms of life employ essenTially The same geneTic code Because The geneTic code is universal iT is possible To engineer cells To produce proTeIns normally found on y In some oTher organIsm The library of geneTic insTrucTions ThaT an organism inheriTs is called ITs genome The chromosomes of each human cell conTain abouT 3 billion nucleoTIdes Including genescodIng for more Than 70000 kInds of proTeIns each WITh a specIfIc funcTIon Lecture Outline for CampbellReece Biology 7 h Edition Pearson Education Inc 13 Every cell is enclosed by a membrane that regulates the passage of materia etween a ce an its surroun ings Every cell uses DNA as its genetic material Thlere are two basic types of cells prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic ce 5 The cells of the microorganisms called bacteria and archaea are prokaryotic All other forms of life have more complex eukaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells are subdivided by internal membranes into various organelles In most eukaryotic cells the largest organelle is the nucleus which contains the cells DNA as chromosomes The other organelles are located in the cytoplasm the entire region between the nucleus and outer membrane of the ce Prokaryotic cells are much simpler and smaller than eukaryotic cells In a prokaryotic cell DNA is not separated from the cytoplasm in a nucleus There are no membraneenclosed organelles in the cytoplasm All cells regardless of size shape or structural complexity are highly ordered structures that carry out complicate processes necessary for li e Concept 12 Biological systems are much more than the sum of their parts The whole is greater than the sum of its partsquot The combination 0 com onents can form a more complex organization calle a sy tem Examples of biological systems are cells organisms and ecosystems Consider the levels of life With each step upward in the hierarchy of biological order novel properties emerge that are not presen at lower levels These emergent properties result from the arrangements and interactions between components as compleXIty increases A cell is much more than a bag of molecules Our thoughts and memories are emergent properties of a complex network of neurons This theme of emergent properties accents the importance of structural arrangement The emergent pro erties of life are not supernatural or unique to life but Simply re lect a hierarchy of structural organization Lecture Outline for CampbellReece Biology 7 Edition Pearson Education Inc 14 Lecture Outline for CampbellReece Biology 7 h Edition Pearson Education Inc 0 The emer ent ro erties 0 life are articularl challen in because of thepungarallele complexigy of livingysystemsgl g The complex organization of life presents a dilemma to scientists seeking o understand biological processes We cannot fully explain a higher level of organization by breaking it down into Its component arts At the same time it is futi e to try to analyze something as complex as an organism or cell Without taking it apart Reductionism reducing complex systems to simpler components is a powerful strategy in biology The Human Genome Project thesequencin of the genome of humans andmanyother speCIes is heralde as one of the greatest saenti ic achievements ever Research is now movin on to investigate the function of genes and the coordination o the actIVIty of gene products Biologists are beginning to com ement reductionism with new strate ies for understanding t e emergent properties of life how all of t e parts of biological systems are functionally integrated The ultimate oal of s Ste 5 biolo is to model the d namic behavior of Whole biolblgica systen39cfsl y Accurate rBodelsallow biolo more varia es Will impact 0 system Scientists investigating ecosystems pioneered this ap 19605 With elaborate models dia ramming the interac speCIes and non ivmg component in ecosystems S stems biolo is now becomin increasin l im ortant in cellular arlld molecular lology driven in gart by theq delupe of data from the sequencmg of genomes and our increased unders anding of protein published a network of protein unctions In 2003 a large research tearfii rUIt fly pments have led to the increased g gists to predict how a change in one or her components and the w ole proach in the ions of interactions Within a cell of a Three key research develo importance of systems biolo y Highthroughput technology Systems biology depends on me hods that can analyze bio o ical material ver imckly and Broduce enormous amounts of ata An example i t e au omatic NAsequencing machines use y the Human Genome PrOJect 2 Bioinformatics The huge databases from highthroughput met 0 s reqUIre compu ing power software and mat ematical models to process and integrate information 3 Interdisciplinary research teams Systems biology teams may include engineers medical scientistsphy5icists c emists mathematICIans and computer suentists as wellas biologists Regulatory mechanisms ensure a dynamic balance in living sysfems 15 Chemical processes within cells are accelerated or catalyzed by speCIa ized protein molecules ca ed enzymes 0 Each type of enzyme catalyzes a specific chemical reaction In many cases reactions are linked into chemical pathways each step With Its own enzyme 0 How does a cell coordinate its various chemical pathways Man biological processes are selfregulating the output or pro uct of a process regu ates t at very process In negative feedback or feedback inhibition accumulation of an en pro uct of a process s ows or stops t at process 0 Though less common some biological processes are re ulated by posmvefeedback In which an end product speeds up I s own production Feedback is common to life at all levels from the molecular level to the biosphere 0 Such regulation is an example of the integration that makes living systems much greater than the sum of their par s Concept 13 Biologists explore life across its great diversity of spams 0 Biology can be viewed ashaving two dimensions a vertical dimensmn covering the Size scale from atoms to the bios hereand a horizontal dimenSIon that stretches across the diver5i y of life The latter includes not only presentday organisms but also those that have eXIsted throughout life39s history Living things Show diversify and unify 0 Life is enormously diverse Biologists have identified and named about 18 million species 0 Thisdiversity includes 5 200 known species of prokaryotes 100000 fungi 2900 0 plants 50000 vertebrates and 1000000 insects 0 Thousands of newly identified species are added each year Estimates of thetotal species count range from 10 million to more than 200 million 0 In the face ofthis complexity humans are inclined to categorize diverse items into a smaller number of groups Taxonomy is the branch of biology that names and classifies speCIes into a hierarchica order 0 Until the past decade biologists divided the diversity of life into ive king oms Lecture Outline for CampbellReece Biology 7 h Edition Pearson Education Inc 16 New eThods includin co arisons 0 DNA a on or anis s have led 5quot a reassessmenT f Tll eD number clcnd boundlarigs 01939 Them 39 king oms Various classification Schemes now include six eighT or even dozens of kingdoms Coming frorp39This debaTe has beenThe recogrrliiTion ThaT There are Three even igher levels of claSSIficaTions e domains The Three domains are BacTeria Archaea and Eukarya The firsT Two domains domain BacTeria and domain Archaea conSIsT of prokaryoTes All The eukaryoTes are now grouped inTo various kingdoms of The domain Eukarya The recenT Taxonomic Trend hasbeen To spliT The sin lecelled eukaryoTes and Their c ose re aTives inTo several king oms Domain Eukarya also includes The Threekingdoms ofmulTicellular eukaryoTes T e kingdoms PlanTae Fungi an Anima ia These kingdoms are disTinguished parle by Their modes of nuTriTion MosT p anTs produce Their own sugars and food by phoTosynThesis MosT fungi are decomposers ThaT absorb nuTrienTs by breaking down dead organisms and organic wasTes Animals obTain food by ingesTing oTher organisms Underlyin The diversiTyof life is a sTriking uniTy especially aT The lower leve s of organizaTion The universal geneTic language of DNA uniTes prokaryoTes and eukaryoTes Amon eukaryoTes uniTy is evidenT in many deTails of cell sTruc ure Above The cellular level organisms are variously adapTed To Their ways of life How do we accounT for life39s dual naTure of uniTy and diversiTy The process of evoluTion explains boTh The similariTies and differences among liVing Things ConcepT 14 EvoluTion accounTs for life39s uniTy and diversiTy The hisTor of life is a sa a of a chan in EarTh billions of ears old inhabiTed gy a changing cgsT of living or39cfns y Charles Darwin broughT evoluTion inTo focus in 1859 when he presenTe Two main concepTs In one o T e mosT irfgiporTanT and conTroverSIal books ever wriTTen On The Origin 0 SpeCIes by NaTural SelecTion Darwin39s firsT poinT was ThaT conTemporary s ecies arose from a successmn of ancesTors Through descenT WI h modificaTion Lecture Outline for CampbellReece Biology 7 h Edition Pearson Education Inc 17 This Term cngured The dualiTy of life39s uniT and diversiTy uniTy In The kIns Ip among specIes T aT descende from common ancesTors and dIverSITy In The modIfIcaTIons ThaT evolved as speCIes branched from Them common ancesTors o Darwin39s second poinT was his mechanism for descenT wiTh modIfIcaTIon39 naTural se ecTIon 0 Darwin inferred naTural selecTion by connecTing Two observaTions ObservaTion 1 Individual variaTion Individuals in a populaTion of any speCIes vary In many erITa e TraITs ObservaTion 2 OverpopulaTion and compeTiTion Any populaTion can poTenTIally produce ar more 0 sprIngT an T e enVIronmenT can supporT his creaTes a sTruggle for eXIsTence among varIanT members of a populaTIon InferenceUnequal reproducTive success Darwin inferred ThaT Those IndIVIduals WITh TraITs besT szedTo The loca enVIronmenT wou eave more healThy ferTIle offsprIng Inference EvoluTionary adapTaTion Unequal reproducTive success can ead To a apTaTIon of a po ulaTIon To ITs envIronmenT Over generaTIons herITable TraITs haTenhance surVIva an reproducTIve success Will Tend To Increase In frequency among a populaTIon s IndIVIdua s The populaTIon evolves NaTural selecTion by iTs cumulaTive effecTs over vasT spans of Time can produce new speCIes from ancesTral speCIes For example a populaTion fragmenTed inTo several isolaTed populaTIons In dIf erenT enVIronmenTs may gradually dIversIfy InTo many speCIes as each opulaTIon adast over many generaTIons To dIfferenT enVIronmen al pro lems FourTeen species of finches found on The Galapagos Islands dIverSIerd afTer an ancesTral fInch speCIes reac ed The archIpelago from The SouTh AmerIcan maInland Each species is adapTed To exploiT differenT food sources on dIfferenT Islands BioloqisTs39 diagrams of evoluTionary relaTionships generally Take a TreelI e form 0 JusT as individuals have a family Tree each species is one Twig of a branchIng Tree of Me Similar species like The Galapagos finches share a recenT common ancesTor Finches share a more disTanT ancesTor wiTh all oTher birds The common ancesTor of all verTebraTes is even more ancienT Trace life back far enough and There is a shared ancesTor of all lIVIng ThIngs o All of life is connecTed Through iTs long evoluTionary hisTory ConcepT 15 BiologisTs use various forms of inquiry To explore life Lecture Outline for CampbellReece Biology 7 h Edition Pearson Education Inc 18 The word science is derived from a Latin verb meaning to knowquot At the heart of science is inquiry people asking questions about nature and focusmg on speCI ic questions that can be answere The process of science blends two types of exploration discovery suence and hypotheSIsbased science Discovery science is mostly about discovering nature Hypothesisbased science is mostly about explaining nature Most scientific inquiry combines the two approaches Discover science describes natural structures and processes as gcqurate y as pOSSIble through careful observation and analySIs of a a Discovery science built our understandin of cell structure and is expanding our databases of genomes of iverse species Observation is the use of the senses to gather information which is recorded as data Data can be qualitative or quantitative Quantitative data are numerical measurements Qualitative data may be in the form of recorded descriptions Jane Goodall has spent decades recordinqlher observations of chimpanzee behaVIor during field researc In Gambia She has also collected volumes of quantitative data over that time Discovery science can lead to important conclusions based on Inductive reasoning Through induction we derive generalizations based on a large number of specific observations In science inquiry frequently involves the proposing and testing of hypotheses A hypothesis is a tentative answer to a wellframed question It is usually an educated postulate based on past experience and the availab e data of discovery science A scientific hy othesis makes predictions that can be tested by recording addi ional observations or by de5igning experiments A type of logic called deduction is built into hypothesisbased saence In deductive reasoning reasoning flows from the general to the speCI ic From general premises we extra olate to a specific result that we should expect if the premise are true n h pothesisbased science deduction usually takes the form of pre ictiops about what we should expect if a particular hypotheSIs is correc We test the h pothesis by performingthe experiment to see whether or no the results are as predicted Lecture Outline for CampbellReece Biology 7 h Edition Pearson Education Inc 19 Deductive logic takes the form of If thenquot logic Scientific hypotheses must be testable There must be some way to check the validity of the idea Scientific hypotheses must be falsifiable There must be some observation or experiment that could reveal if a hypothe5is is actually not true The ideal in hypothesisbased science is to frame two or more alternative hypotheses and de5ign experiments to fal5ify them No amount of experimental testing can prove a hypothesis A hy othesisgains support by surviving various tests that could fal5i y it whi e testing fal5ifies alternative hypot eses Facts in the form of verifiable observations andrepeatable experimental results are the prereqUISItes of science We can expore 39ie scien fc me 39ioa 0 There is an idealized process of inquiry called the scientific method Very few scienti ic inquiries adhere rigidl to the sequence of steps prescribe by the textbook saenti ic method Discovery science has contributed a reat deal to our understandin of nature Without mos of the steps of the so ca ed saenti ic met 0 We will consider a case study of scientific research This case begins with a set of observations and generalizations from discovery saence Many poisonous animals have warning coloration that signals danger to potential predators Imposter species mimic poisonous species although they are harmless An example is the bee fly a nonstinging insect that mimics a honey ee What is the function of such mimicry What advantage does it give the mimic In 1862 Henr Bates proposed that mimics benefit when predators mistake them or harmfu species This deception may lower the mimic39s risk of predation In 2001 David and Karin Pfennigand William Harcombe ofthe UniverSItyo Nort Caro ina de5igned a set of field experiments to test Bates s mimicry hypotheSIs In North and South Carolina a poisonous snake called the eastern coral snake has warning red ye low and black coloration Predators avoid these snakes It is unlikely that predators learn to av0id coral snakes as a strike is usually le hal Lecture Outline for CampbellReece Biology 7 h Edition Pearson Education Inc 110 Lecture Outline for CampbellReece Biology 7 h Edition Pearson Education Inc Natural selection mayhave avored an instinctive recognition and av0idance of the warning co oration of the cora snake The nonpoisonous scarlet king snake mimics the ringed coloration of the cora snake Both king snakes and coral snake live inthe Carolinas but the king snakes range also extends into areas Without coral snakes The distribution of these two species allowed the Pfennigs and Harcom e to test a key prediction 0 the mimicry hypot e5is Mimicry should protect the king snake from predators but only in regions where coral snakes ive Predators in noncoral snake areas shouldattack king snakes more frequentsy t an predators that live in areas where cora snakes are pre ent To test the mimicry hypothesis Harcombe made hundreds of artifICIal snakes The experimental roup had the red black and yellow ring pattern of king sna es The control group had plain brown coloring Equal numbers of both types were placed at field sites including areas where coral snakes are absent After four weeks the scientists retrieved the fake snakes and counte bite or claw marks Foxes coyotes raccoons and black bears attacked snake models The data fit the predictions of the mimicry hypothesis The ringed snakes were attacked bylpredators less frequently than the brown snakes only Within t e geographic range of the coral snakes The snake mimicr ex eriment rovides an exam le of how scientists design expepriments t test the effectpof one variable by cancelm out t e effects of unwanted variables The esign is called a controlled experiment An experimental roup artificial king snakes is compared with a control group ar ifiCial brown snakes The experimental andcontrol roups differ only in the one factor the ex eriment is deSIgned to est the effect of the snakes colora ion on the behaVIor of redators The brown artificial snakes al owed the scientists to rule out such variables as predator denSIty and temperature as pOSSIble determinants of number of predator attacks Scientists do not control the experimental environment by keeping all variables constant Researchers usually control unwanted variables not by eliminating them but by canceling their effects usmg control groups Lef s look af fhe nafure of science There are limitations to the kinds of questions that science can a ress These limits are set by science39s requirements that hypotheses are testable and fal5ifiable and that observations and experimental results be repeatable The limitations of science are set by its naturalism Science seeks natural causes for natural phenomena Science cannot support or falsify supernatural explanations which are out5ide the bounds 0 science Everyday use of the term theory implies an untested speculation The term theory has a very different meaning in science A scientific theory is much broader in scope than a hypothesis This is a hypothesis Mimickingltpoisonous snakes isuan adaptation that protects nonp0isonous sna es from predators Thlis ifs a theory Evolutionary adaptations evolve by natural se ec ion A theory is general enou h todgenerate many new specific hypotheses hat can be este Compared to any one hypothesis a theory is generally supported by a muc more masswe body of eVIdence The theories thatbecome widely adopted in science such as the theory of adaptation by natural selection explain many observations and are supported by a great deal of eVIdence In spite of the body of evidence sup ortinga widely accepted t eory scientists may have to modi y or reJect theories when new eVIdence is found As an example the fivekingdom theory of biological diversity eroded as new molecular methods made it p055ib e to test some of the hyspotheses about the relationships between liVing organism Scientists may construct models in the form of diagrams graphs computer programs or mathematical equations Models magi range from lifelike representations to symbolic schematic Science is an intensely social activity Most scientists work in teams which often include graduate and undergraduate students Both cooperation and competition characterize scientific culture Scientists attempt to confirm each other39s observations and may 5 repeat experiment They share information through publications seminars meetings and personal communication Lecture Outline for CampbellReece Biology 7 h Edition Pearson Education Inc 112 Lecture Outline for CampbellReece Biology 7 h Edition Pearson Education Inc Scientists maybe very competitive when converging on the same research question Science as a whole is embedded in the culture of its times For example recentincreases in the proportion of women in biology have had an Impact on the research being performed For instancethere has been a switch infocus in studies of the mating behaVIor of anima s from competition among males for access to females to the role that females play in choosm mates Recentresearch has revealed that females pre er bright coloration that advertises a male39s Vifgorous health a behavior t at enhances a females probability 0 havmg healthy offspring Somephilosophers of science argue that scientists are so influenced by cu ural andupolitical values that suence is no more obJective than 0 her ways of nowmg nature At the other extreme are those who view scientific theories as though they were natural laws The reality of Science is somewhere in between The cultural milieu affects scientific fashion but need for repeata i ity in observation and hypothe5is testing distingUIshes suence from other fields If there is f truthquot in science it is based on a preponderance of the available eVIdence Science and Technology are funcfians of sociefy Althou h science and technolo ma em o similar in uir patterr39cfs their basic goals diftgelr y p y q y The goal of science is to understand natural phenomena Technology applies scientific knowledge for some specific purpose Technology results from scientific discoveries applied to the development of goods and serVIces Scientists put new technology to work in their research Science and technology are interdependent The discovery of the structure of DNA by Watson and Crick sparked an explosmn of suentific actIVIty These discoveries made it possible to manipulate DNA enabling genetic technologists to trans Iant foreign genes into microorganisms an masspro uce valuab e products DNA technology and biotechnology have revolutionized the pharmaceutica industry The have had an important impact on agriculture and the legal pro essmn The direction that technology takes depends less on science than it does on the needs of humans and the values of somety 1 13 PebaTes abouT Technology cenTer more on should we do iTquot Than can we 0 IT 0 WiTh advances in Technology come difficulT choices informed as much by polITIcs economics and culTural values as by science 0 ScienTisTs should educaTe poliTicians bureaucraTs corporaTe leaders and voTers abouT how sCIence works and abouT The poTenTIal benefITs and hazards of specIfIc Techno ogIes ConcepT 16 A seT of Themes connecTs The concest of biology o In some ways biology is The mosT demanding of all sciences parle because lIVIng sysTems are so comp ex an parle ecause IO ogy IS a mulTidIsciplInary suence ThaT requures knowledge of chemIsTry physics and maThemaTIcs 0 Biology is also The science mosT connecTed To The humaniTies and soua suences Lecture Outline for CampbellReece Bioogy 7 h Edition Pearson Education Inc 114
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