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Great Discoveries in Archaeology

by: Dr. Reyes Gislason

Great Discoveries in Archaeology ANTH 1500

Dr. Reyes Gislason
GPA 3.55

Philip Graham

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Philip Graham
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Reyes Gislason on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1500 at University of Connecticut taught by Philip Graham in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see /class/205866/anth-1500-university-of-connecticut in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Connecticut.

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Date Created: 09/17/15
Archaeology Exam 1 Review Key Terms boxes in text book Prehistory the human past prior to written records Archaeology the study of human past combining time amp change Era a major division of geological time mya millions of years ago epoch a subdivision of geological time millions of years long representing units of eras culture uniquely human learned behaviors for coping with physical and social environments evolution process of change over time resulting from shifting conditions in environment Biological anthropology stuy of biological nature of our nearest relativesourselves Cultural anthropology the study of living peoples and th hared aspects of the hum an experience 111 111 1 that seek to answer fundamental questions about humanstheir behavior Historical archaeology archaeology in combination with written record Artifact any object or item created or modified by human action Site the accumulation of artifacts andor ecofacts representing a place where people lived or carried out certain activities Fieldwork the search for archaeological sites in the landscape through surveys and excavations Survey systematic search of the landscape for artifacts and sites on the ground through aerial photography field walking soil analysis and geophysical prospecting Excavation exposure and recording of buried materials from the past Ground penetrating radar georadar or GPR an instrument for remote sensing or prospecting for buried structur using radar maps of subsoil features Bioturbation activities of plants and animals in the arth causing disturbance of archaeological materials Total station computerized surveying and mapping instrument that uses a laser beam or radio waves to measure the distance and angle between the instrument and the target and then calculates the exact position of the target Archaeological record the body of material and information that survives for archaeologists to study Context the association and relationships between archaeological objects that are in the same place Primary context in situ an object found where it was originally located in antiquity not redeposited Provenience the place of origin for archaeological materials including location association and context Shell midden a mound of shells accumulated from human collection consumption and disposal Ecofact any of ther emains of plants animals sediments or other unmodified materials tha result from human activity Feature an immovable structure or layer pit or post in the ground having archeological significance Ethnography the study of human cultures through firsthand observation Technology the combination of knowledge and manufacturing techniques that enables people to convert raw materials into finished products Economy the management and organization of the affairs of a group community or establishment to ensure their survival and productivity Organization the arrangements between individuals an groups in human society that structure relationships an activities Egalatarian a term that refers to societies lacking clearly defined status differences between individuals except for those due to sex age or skill Rank a relationship of inequality between members of society in which status is determined by kinship relations of birth order and lineage Class a relationship of inequality between members of society in which status is determined by membership in a level or class Craft specialists individuals involved in part or fulltime activities devoted to the production of a specific class of goods often highly valued Hierarchical a term referring to societies that have a graded order of inequality in ranks statuses or decision a ers Ideology a conceptual framework by which people structure their ideas about the order of the universe their place in that universe and their relationships among themselves and with objectsother forms of life around them Cosmology the worldview of a group or society encompassing their understanding of the universe their origins and existence and nature Pictograph a written or painted symbol that more or less portrays the represented object Petroglyph a drawing that has been carved into rock Sodality alliance among members of society based on agesex with a specific function Prim ate order of animals that includes lemurs tarsiers monkeys apes and humans Hominoidea taxonomic group that includes the human and ape members of the primates both fossil and modern forms Dryopithecine generic term for the Miocene fossil ancestor of both living apes and modern humans Paleoanthropology branch of anthropology that combines archaeology and physical anthropology to study the biological and behavioral remains of the early hominins Fossil mineralized bone of an extinct animal Bonobo small species of chimpanzee closely related to humans Hominoid descriptive term for any human or ape past or present characterized by teeth shape the absence of a tail and swinging arms Hominid obsolete term that refers to the uman members of the primates both fossil and modern forms Hominin a current term that refers to the huma chump an gorilla members of the primates both fossil and modern forms Sexual dimorphism a difference in size between the male and female members of a species Australopithecine the generic term for the various species of the genus Australopithecus including A ram idus A aferenseis and A africanus Locomotion a method of animal movement such as bipedalism PlioPleistocene a generic term for the period of the Pliocene and early Pleistocene use to describe age 31 mya Paranthropus genus of early hom inins contemporary with Australopithecus that includes boisei and robustus as species Polygynous having more than one mate Relative dating a technique used to estimate the antiquity of archaeological materials generally based on association with materials of known age or simply to say that one item is younger or older than another Association relationship between items in an archaeological site Items in association are found close together andor in the same layer or deposit Absolute dating a method of assigning archaeological dates in calendar years so that na age in actual number of years is known or can be estimated Isotope one of several atomic states of an element39 for example carbon occurs as Carbon 12 13 and 14 radiocarbon Isotopic technique a method for absolute dating that relies on known rates of decay in radioactive isotopes especially carbon potassium and uranium Half life a measure of the rate of decay in radioactive materials half the radioactive material will disappear within the period of one halflife Argonargon dating a more accurate method of potassiumargon dating that involves converting potassium to ragon before the isotope ratios are measured Bipedalism the human method of locomotion walking on two legs Breccia accumulated materials from cave deposits that harden into rock Cutmark a trace left on bone by a stone or metal tool used in butchering a carcass Oldowan name given to the assemblages of early pebble tools and akes belonging to the Basal Paleolithic Percussion flaking technique for producing stone artifacts by striking or knapping crystalline stone with a harder or soft hamm er Flake a type of stone artifact produced by removing a piece from a core through chipping Core the stone from which other pieces or flakes are removed Core tools are shaped by the removal of flakes Hammerstone a stone used to knock flakes from cores Flint fine grained crystalline stone that fractures in a regular pattern producing sharpedged flakes Flintknapping process of making chipped stone artifacts Assemblage set of artifacts and other remains found at a site within a specic level Lithic pertaining to stone Unifacial a term describing a aked stone tool in which only one face is retouched to make a sharp edge Bifacial a aked stone tool in which both faces are retouched to make a sharp edge Handedness preferential use of the right or left hand Tool any equipment weapon or object made by humans to change their environment Paleolithic the first period of human prehistory extending from the time of the first tools more than 25 mya until the end of the Pleistocene 10000 years ago Neolithic the period of time of early farmers with domesticated plants and animals polished stone tools permanent villages and often pottery Glacial cold episode of the Pleistocene ice age lnterglacial a warm period of the Pleistocene Glaciation expansion of continental glacial ice during a period of cold climate Oxygen isotope ratio the ratio of different isotopes of oxygen in ocean water varying with the temperature of the water Milankovitch forcing a term describing the phenomenon considered to be the prime reason for glacial uctuations and climatic change Handaxe a large tear drop shaped stone tool bifacially aked to a point at one end and the broader base at the other Reduction technique a manufacturing process involving the removal of materials from a core that becomes the finished product Acheulean a major archaeological culture of the Lower Paleolithic named after the site of St Acheul in France Hardhammer technique a percussion technique for making stone tools by striking one stone or core with another stone or hammer Softhammer technique a intknapping techniquethat involves the use of a hammer of bone antler or wood rather than stone Cleaver a tool with a broad leading edge Burin a stone tool with rightangle edges used for planning and engraving Clactonian a term used for assemblages from the Lower Paleolithic lacking handaxes and characterized b large akes with heavy retouching and notches Sexual Division of Labor the cooperative relationship between the sexes in huntergatherer groups involving different male and female task activity Hyoid bone a delicate bone in the neck that anchors the tongue muscles in the throat Endocast a copy or cast of the inside of a skull re ecting the general shape and arrangement of the brain and its various parts Lateralization division of the human brain into two halves Brow ridge that part of the skull above the eye orbits Occipital bun a distinctive shelf or protrusion at the base of the skull a feature usually associated with Neanderthals Robust bigboned Mousterian a term describing the stone tool assemblages of the Neanderthals during the lLiddle Paleolithic named after the site of Le Moustier in France Levallois a technique for manufacturing large thin akes or points from a carefully prepared core Blade a special knid of elongated ake with two parallel sides and a length at least twice the width of the piece Blank a basic form or perform from which various kinds of tools can be shaped Loess windblown silt deposited in deep layers in certain parts of the Northern Hemisphere Soli uction a phenomenon in which freezing and thawing of the ground results in slippage of the surface Red orchre an iron mineral that occurs in nature used by prehistoric peoples in powdered form as a pigment Mural art painting engraving and sculpting on the wallsf caves shelters and clifsPortable art decorated materials that can be moved or carrie Paleoindian the period of large game hunters in North America at the end of the Pleistocene Fluted point the characteristic artifact of the Paleoindian period in North America referring to the large channel ake removed from both sides of the based of the point to facilitate hafting The 5 W s aflhe sites Where on the map When Who What Why significant Laetoli Footprints Tanzania 1976 Mary Leaky Fresh Volcanic ash deposit 38 35 mya Australopithecus aferensis Tuang Child Tuang South Africa 1925 Non ape due to brain morphology foramen magnum brain size Nariokotome Boy Richard Leakey 1012 years old Robust humanlike post cranial skeleton Runner better than us Ca 16 mya Zhoukoudian Devil s Tower Gibraltar People to Know William King Marcellin Boule Louis and Mary Leakey James Ussher Charles Darwin John Lubbock


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