Notes from class 8/27
Notes from class 8/27 Bio301
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shareyah Crandell on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio301 at Washington State University taught by McCabe in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at Washington State University.
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I was sick all last week and these notes were exactly what I needed to get caught up. Cheers!
-Miss Kaitlyn Cole
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Mendelian Genetics Mendel s Principles They help predict the inheritance of phenotypes as well as genotypes by using probability What is a Phenotype A trait something visible you can see characteristic 0 Example hair color eye color What is a Genotype The alleles 2 responsible for the trait o Allele pair of unit factors Vocabulary that goes along with Gametes Gametogenesis Meiosis Meiotic Cell Cycle Female 0 Eggs animal ova plant I Haploid in chromosomes 11 Male 0 Sperm animal pollen plant I Haploid in chromosomes 11 When a haploid and haploid combine fertilization they get a diploid or 2n Mendel and the Pea Plants Monoecious 0 Having male and female parts on the same plant I Male microspores pollen I Female megaspores ovum ovu1e Selfing or Fertilization o The gametes of the male and female fuse together in the same plant I Father and Mother are the same plant I Mendel tried to prevent this by cutting of the anthers Crossing or Cross Fertilization 0 Male and Female gametes from 2 different plants come together I Ideal for Mendelian Genetics True Pure Breeding Plants 0 Phenotype Every plant would be the same color and same trait every time o Genotype Homozygous either GG or gg at that specific gene I Phenotypes 0 Yellow is dominant to green 0 Green is recessive to yellow 0 G is dominant to g 0 G is recessive to G 0 G yellow dominant to g green 0 GG yellow homozygous dominant o Gg yellow heterozygous dominant o gg green homozygous recessive Monohybrid Cross 0 Parents have to be pure breeding 0 First Filial F1 generation 0 Second F2 generation 0 Example I P pure breeding tall X dwarf o 1000 plants total I Fl All 1000 plants were tall 0 Self for next generation I F2 705 tall and 224 dwarf 0 31 ratio Cross fertilization to produce next generation Self fertilization to produce next generation 0 Therefore tall is dominant to dwarf Mendel s Obsercations 0 Each gene has 2 alleles Principle of Segregation Individuals receive traits from parents One trait is coded for by a gene 0 Each gene has 2 alleles During gametogenesis one allele segregates into a different gamete Example Phenotype Tall x Dwarf Pure Breeding 0 Trait Stem Length Genotype o Homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive DDxdd Punnett Square Only one allele of every gene is found in a gamete 1 gene has 2 alleles D and d Dominant and Recessive example 0 Fl d d D Dd Dd D Dd Dd 100 heterozygous dominant all are tall F2 D d D DD Dd d Dd dd I 25 homozygous tall DD 50 heterozygous tall Dd 25 homozygous dwarf dd I Phenotypically tall IA dwarf
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