Introduction to Communication Disorders
Introduction to Communication Disorders CDIS 1150
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eunice Bartoletti on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CDIS 1150 at University of Connecticut taught by Jason Simon in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/205871/cdis-1150-university-of-connecticut in Communication Disorders & Sciences at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
CDIS Chapter 2 Terminology Anterior front Posterior back Superior top Inferior below External outside Internal inside Proximal toward the body Distal away from body Afferent towards nervous system Efferent away from nervous system The nervous system Central and peripheral nervous system CNS contains the brain and the spinal cord PNS Nerves that emerge from the brain and the spinal cord Cranial nerves 12 pairs of nerves that emerge from the brain Spinal nerves 31 pairs of nerves that emerge from the brain Neurons specialized cells that carry sensory and motor information o Consists of a body and two extensions that receive and transmit information in the form of electrical chemical nerve impulses o Dendrites Afferent extensions that bring nerve impulses to cell body 0 Axons Efferent extensions that take nerve pulses o Synapse space where two neurons meet 0 Neurotransmitters chemical agents that help carry information across the synaptic cleft which is the minute space between the axon and receiving neuron o Myelin coat the neurons and contribute to rapid relay of nerve impulses Central nervous system 0 Brain is the chief operator Carries information from brain to body Damage to brain can affect personality Damage to spinal cord can affect movement Shielded by 0 Bone o Meninges three layered membranes Pia matter the inner membrane wraps around brain giving the brain its bright pink color 2quotd layer s the anachoid and third layer is the dura Cerebrospinal uid 0 Brain stem On top of spinal cord and serves as conduit between the brain and the spinal cord 0 Three major ex centers the cardiac quot39 heart the quot39 blood vessels and the respiratory center which controls breathing Cerebellum oval shape that sits posterior to the brain stem Responsible for regulating motor and muscular activity Cerebrum or cerebral cortex is the part of the brain that governs the unique human qualities of thinking problem solving planning and creating 0 Contains to mirror image hemispheres 0 Corpus callosum band of bers that connects the two hemispheres o Frontal lobe o Activating and controlling both ne and complex motor activities 0 Controlling human executive functions I Include problem solving planning creating reasoning decision making 0 Contains Broca s area responsible for ne coordination of speech output 0 Parietal lobes o Perceiving and integrating sensory and perceptual information o Comprehending oral and written language and calculations for mathematics 0 Temporal lobes 0 Left lobe Heschl s gyrus which interprets auditory information o Wemicke s area Critical site for language comprehension o Occipital lobe Receives and processes visual information 5 key principles governing the brains organization 0 Interconnectedness connected to one another 0 Hierarchy controlled by hierarchy The more complex the behavior the greater the involvement of the brain Specialization Lobes are mirror images of eachother but function specially Plasticity Ability of the brain to reorganize and modify functions to adept to internal and external changes 0 Critical period Period of time where growth of function is most rapid Critical period for language 0 Sensory learning developing an internal representation of one s native language through exposure Sensorimotor output producing language and gradually matching one s own performance to a stored template of mature language through internal and external feedback Stabilization stabilizing of mature language patterns due to loss of plasticity and maintenance through use Essential architecture for human brain 0 Broca s area speech and language 0 Heschl s gyrus auditory perception and sensation o Wemicke s area language comprehension Peripheral nervous system 0 Connected to brain stem and spinal cord Anatomy and physiology of speech 0 Respiratory 0 Lower respiratory system lungs bronchi and alveoli 0 Upper respiratory system trachea larynx and oral and nasal cavities 0 To produce speech inhale and then exhale air Exhaled air ow is sent up through the larynx over the vocal folds and into the oral and nasal cavities Phonation key structures include pharynx trachea and the larynx o Pharynx mucosa lined muscular tube that runs from the nasal cavity through the rear of the oral cavity to the entrance of the larynx and esophagus Nasopharynx posterior continuation of the nasal cavity Oropharynx Throat length of the pharynx that connects with the oral cavity Laryngopharynx Inferior portion of the pharynx that connects with the oral cavity Larynx cartilaginous box that sits at the front of the neck on the top of the trachea Voice Creation of sound by vocal fold vibration Trachea cartilaginous tube that runs from the oral cavity down to the lung Human Ear o 3 distinct sections 0 Outer Auricale the external auditory canal and the tympanic membrane I External auditory canal conduct soundwaves toward the brain 0 Middle Bony cavity and holds the malleus incus stapes I Tymphanic membrane is a very thin concave membrane that stretches across the bony portion of the EAC 0 Inner Fluid lled cavity that resides deep inside the temporal bone behind the eye socket I Vestibule Central portion of the inner ear that sits between cochlea and semicircular canal Semicircular canals Cochlea 7 Single uid lled canal that serves as the organ of hearing
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