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General Psychology I

by: Cleta Bechtelar II

General Psychology I Psyc 1100

Cleta Bechtelar II
GPA 3.65
General Psychology I
Eric Lundquist

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General Psychology I
Eric Lundquist
Class Notes
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cleta Bechtelar II on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1100 at University of Connecticut taught by Eric Lundquist in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see General Psychology I in Psychlogy at University of Connecticut.


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Date Created: 09/17/15
EXAM 3 November 16 2009 39239 HUMAN MEMORY gt Stage theory Long term and Short term memoryquotworking memoryquot gt Duration I Long term memory relatively permanent I Short term memory seconds to minutes gt Storage capacity I Long Term Memory infinite I Short Term Memory 7 2 quotchunksquot organized packets of information v Flow of Information in Memory see chart gt StimulusgtSTMgtrehearsalgtLTM I Two kinds of rehearsal 0 Maintenance holds info in STM o Elaborative moves info to LTM 39239 Serial position effect in free recall gt Task read 20 words one at a time recall in any order gt Primacy effect early part of list recalled better than middle recalled from LTM gt Recency effect last part of list recalled better than middle recalled from STM I Reduce recency delay between 20quoth word and recall I Reduce primacy present words faster 39239 Further Differences Between STM and LTM gt Psychological code I STM phonologicalbased on speech sounds o Confuse quotboatquot w quotcoatquot I LTM semanticbased on meaning 0 Confuse quotboatquot w quotshipquot 39239 Further Differences Between STM and LTM gt Neural code I STM dynamicpattern of activity among a group of cells I LTM structural pattern of connections within a group of cells I quotTrace consolidation is what goes on during elaborative rehearsal a memory trace changes from a dynamic to a structural pattern o Amnesia interruption of consolidation process 0 Retrograde amnesia for events BEFORE trauma 0 Anterograde amnesia for events AFTER trauma November 18 2009 39239 Further Differences Between STM amp LTM gt Forgetting gt STM DISplacement andor decay I Decay ex Give six numbers don t repeat it to yourself numbers fade away I Displacement ex Put bags on table keep doing eventually some fall off 0 Too many numbers meet limit forget first numbers gt LTM MlSplacement andor retrieval failure 0 Failure of retrieval information is there but don t know how to remember it I Proactive interference old info affects new 0 Ex Professors learning names previous year names get in way of learning new year names I Retroactive interference new info affects old Working Memory gt STM not just storage box more like cognitive work bench gt Limit on storage capacity is viewed instead as limit on processing capacity gt Used in all processing of information mental calculation reading etc Depth of Processing gt What kind ofencoding will be most 39 deeper more better memory gt Connected to notion of elaborative rehearsal gt Craik and Tulving 1975 experiment I Elaborative Rehearsal 0 Subjects were shown lists of words not told to remember 0 Asked to use one of three strategies O Visualshallow Is the word printed in capital letters O AcousticPhonological intermediate Does the word rhyme with O Semantic deep Does the word fit into the following sentence for ex quotA rides on railsquot Now write down all of the words shown shows which analytical way worked best for remembering Kinds of Memory gt Longterm vs shortterm quotworking memory gt Episodic episodes events w time and place I saw an elephant at a zoo in 1988quot I Personal mental time line 0 00 o 00 leads to o 00 vs gt Generichemantic facts concepts and meanings quotAn elephant has big floppy ears and a trunkquot 39239 Kinds of Memory gt Explicit reference to prior learning experience I Recall what were the words on the list you readquot I Recognition circle the words you saw earlier Vs gt Implicit no conscious awareness of remembering I Printing read list of words then do tasks 0 Stem completion quotMDT 0 Word fragment completion UOOEquot KINDS OF MEMORY gt Declarative knowing M mainly explicit I Statements using episodic and generic info Vs gt Procedural knowinghow mainly implicit I Skills riding a bike playing an instrument etc Korsakoff s syndrome Bl deficiency affects hippocampus Limbic system is critical for memory formation and recall hippocampus and amygdale HMpatient Henry Mulisin epilepsy lobotomy cut out hippocampus and amygdale lost part of personality I o 00 Scoville operate on frontal lobe cut parts of skull and quotlifted up brain and vacuumed out hippocampus and amygdale didn t cure epilepsy but calmed down and couldn t remember anything Henry s procedural memory is in tact Doesn t depend on hypocampus Memories can affect your behavior but aren t aware of memory Henry can draw a star by looking at a mirror after third day learns each day but doesn t remember doing it learning continues though bc brain maintains learning 39239 Retention without awareness gt Amnesic patients and normal controls tested for memory of words learned previously gt Amnesics performed poorly on explicit memory tasks gt Performance on implicit memory tasks was like control subjects RETRIEVAL gt Encoding Specificity Principle or Compatibility Principle I Retrieval cue current stimulus that aids retrieval I Any memory for an item has the item s context wrapped up in it too I Context cues at retrieval should be as much as possible like context at encoding 0 Ex learn list quottulip orchid violet sunflowerquot O Then quotgirl s name will not be a good retrieval cue for quotvioletquot ContextDependent Memory gt Scuba divers learned words either on land or underwater gt Tested for recall on land or underwater gt Recall was better in context where words had been learned N Is retrieving a memory like playing back a tape gt Loftus and Palmer 1974 experiment gt 1 View slides of car accident gt 2 Ask quothow fast were the cars going when they m each otherquot gt Or gt quotHow fast were the cars going when they smashed into each otherquot gt 3 1 week later quotDid you see any broken glass in the picturesquot gt YES response more likely for quotsmashquot group than quotmquot group I Conclusion at least in part memory involves reconstruction of remembered information 0 Memory may be distorted by other information Opponent Processes Feature detectors Image of tree on retina promixmal stimuls Tree itself is distal stimulus I Sensation basic primitive mental state corresponding to energies in environment Experience of world I Perception mental state corresponding to properties of objects and events in environment knowledge of world 39239 Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies Johannes Muller 1826 gt Quality of sensation visual auditory touch etc depends on which nerve fibers are stimulated NOT on the stimulus itself gt Fiber ofoptic nerve are normally stimulated by light I May also be stimulated by pressure electric current and so on I Any stimulation will yield experience of light I Any sensory experience must have corresponding set of nerve fibers experiences of brightness color loudness pitch etc o 00 o 00 o o o 00 o 00 o o 00 o 00 0 Each color has to correspond with a particular state of nervous system Lightelectromagnetic radiation gt Electromagnetic spectrum from shortest to longest wavelength I Gamma rays X rays ultraviolet color infrared microwaves radar FM AM TV I ntensitygt brightness I Wavelength gt color shortblue mediumgreen longred How do we see colors gt First guess trichromatic theory YoungHelmholtz theory I All colors would be mixtures of blue green red based on response of those cone types I But what about 1 afterimages and 2 yellow 0 There are three different cone cells in retina Q But activity more subtle than YoungHelmholtz thought O Short medium long wavelengths Current theory OpponentProcess Theory gt There ARE three con types but they re NOT blue green and red I They are violet green and yellow call them short medium and long wavelength cones I Each responds to many wavelengths but peak responses are at 0 Short 440 nm Medium 530 nm Long 560 nm I Colors come in opponent pairs black and white red and green blue and yellow I White wavelength has all colors I Activation of short medium and long wavelength cones may excite or inhibit Opponent Process cells which are probably ganglion cells Three sets of cells that combine to let us see all the colors in the world Rods and cons respond to light Structure of the Eye gt Retina consists of receptors rods cones bipolar cells ganglion cells some others gt Light enters pupil then passes through eyeball to retina through ganglia bipolar etc then finally strikes receptors gt Optic nerve bundle of axons of ganglion cells leading out back of eye to brain leaving blind spot Structure of the Eye cont d gt Fovea central depression in retina where cones are most densely packedmost acute vision gt Rods very sensitive blackwhite achromatic night vision mostly in periphery 120000000 I Not all interconnected to some other cells just give yes or no response light or not 0 With rod cells only see black and white not color 0 Rod cells can t see color because there is only 1 kind of rod cell gt Cones less sensitive color chromatic daytime vision mostly in fovea 6000000 I Three different kinds so can be linked together to form color Retinal Image stimulation of receptors produced sensations of brightness and colors gt Then light sensations must be interpreted as objects gt Perception is knowledge of worldexperience of objects and events based on sensations Problem POVERTY OF THE STIMULUS gt Proximal stimulus retinal image is inadequate for knowing about distal stimulus gt 1 Invertedimage ofobject is upsidedown on retina gt 2 Ambiguoussize and distance trade off I Close up small object has same image size as faroff large object gt 3 twodimensionalimage is flattened and then curved too but objects are 3D solids Conclusion Perception doesn t happen in the EYE it happens in the BRAIN 0 Four definitions of Psychology 0 The science of mind and behavior 0 The science of knowing and experiencing I Knowing is different than holding information not a computer 0 The science of experimental epistemology I Psychology branched off ofphilosophy I Epistemology the theory of knowledge 0 The science of things that move around on their own I If something can move around on its own there must be some kid of goal it is trying to satisfy 0 People 0 Wylder Penfield I Motor homunculus 0 Area ofbrain devoted to hands are huge because require very fine coordination I Sensory homunculus 0 Area ofbrain devoted to ears are huge because very sensitive to touch 0 Wilhelm Wundt in 1879 founded the science ofpsychology 0 John Watson in 1913 all you will ever know about someone is behavior will never truly know what they are thinking 0 Ulric Nessier in 1967 published Cognitive Psychology book outlining basic areas of study 0 Rene Decarte presented dualism Mind and body are separate things I Presented the re ex A stimulus can be directly connected to a response Inputoutput input through back pariteal temporal occipital output through front frontal lobe Charles Sherrington I Showed existence of synapse by studying behavioral observation I Showed central excitatory state 0 Cut off spine from brain nerves not continuous pathway 0 Temporal summation add up weak stimuli and it adds to a re ex 0 Spatial summation add up stimuli from all over body and goes to a re ex I Reciprocal inhibition 0 Bicep contracts while tricep relaxes and vice versa Both don t go at same time o Franz Joseph Gall I Developed pseudoscience ofphrenology o 4 claims 0 the brain is organ of mind 0 0 Ivan Pavlov different functions of mind have different locations in the brain when someone is blessed with a trait that area is physically larger in that person than another 0 skull on brain is like a glove on hand 0 O I experiment on patients with either a damaged amygdala or hippocampus showed a blue card to patient then shocked them Patient should show a conditioned fear response when the blue card is shown later Amygdala damage 0 Knew the blue card had been followed by shock I Did not show a fear response Hippocampus damage 0 Showed the fear response to the blue card I Did not remember that the blue card had been followed by the shock o Rationalismnativism 0 Nature 0 EmpiricismAssociationism o Nurture o Neural bases ofbehavior 0 Structure of the neuron dendrites soma signal terminals I Cell bodysoma Nucleus inside soma Dendrites branch off of the soma I Axon carries electrical signal down its length Myelin sheath covering around axon o Insulates the axon improves efficiency protects the axon Node of ranvier discontinuities of myelin sheath Multiple sclerosis o Myelin covering attacked by self 0 Communication between neurons potentials I Resting potentialstate neuron is in when nothing is going on neuron isn t stimulated I Process of firing ofa neuron Inside ofa cell has 70mV difference between outside of cell 0 Is 70mV more negative because ofNa ions outside and Cl and K ions inside Starts gradually increasing Na ions are entering the cell Na ions move Via ion channels Charge slowly goes up until hits threshold of 55mV 0 Hit 55mV and ion gates open up and all Na2 ions ush right in ies down to OmV and overshoots a little to 40mV I Getting back to resting potential 0 40mV more positive than outside 0 throw Na out and bring K and Cl back in I Action potentialfiring ofa neuron I Action potential is all or none Either gets to 55mV or doesn t o Cant half shoot a gun 0 Can increase number ofneurons but not the actual strength of the action potential 0 Communication between neurons neurotransmitters I Synapse physical gap between presynaptic cell before gap and postynatpic cell after gap I At end of axon is signal terminals 0 These signal terminalsterminal buttons and have sacks of chemicals vessicls o Chemicalsneurotransmitters I Action potential travels down axon and causes a release of neurotransmitters I Molecule ofneurotransmitters oat across gap and land on dendrites ofpostsynaptic neuron I On postsynaptic cell have receptor molecules embedded in cell membrane of dendrites o Neurotransmitter fit into receptor molecule like a lock and key 0 When neurotransmitter fits in it can do several things I Neurotransmitters oat across land on receptor molecule opens doorway Doorways do different things 0 Excitatory doorway o Lets Na go in o Firing of first neuron makes firing of second neuron more likely o Inhibitory doorway o Lets K and Cl go in o Firing of first neuron makes firing of second neuron less likely o A cell might get both inhibitory and excitatory signals cell will take sum of all and get the nef effect I Seratonin o Neurotransmitter used in mood regulation Involved in antidepressant medications o Antidepressants ie prosac Prevent cell from allowing cells to reuptake seratonin Leave neurotransmitter seratonin in the synapse I Dopamine o Neurotransmitter manufactured in substantia nigra of midbrain o Sends dopamine to basal ganglia in the forebrain o Basal ganglia need that dopamine to function 0 Function allows smooth voluntary muscle movments o Parkinsons disease 0 Basal ganglia cant do that I Tremor shaking I Slowness in movement I Stiffness o Divisions of the nervous system 0 Peripheral nervous system everything outside the CNS I Somatic body 0 Nerves responsible for controlling and sensing outside the body 0 Have sensory nerves so can touch things 0 Have motor nerves so can move I Autonomic self rule 0 Part that is responsible for how body governs itself 0 AutonomicMetabolicprocesses o Sympathetic excited states 0 Feeling excited facing emergency situations 0 Speeds heart lungs o Inhibits digestion and sexual function 0 Parasympathetic o Vegetative calm states 0 Conserves energy slows heart rate works as reciprocal inhibition 0 Central Nervous system brain and spinal cord 0 The brain 0 Hindbrain bottom can move but not act I Medulla 0 Most basicprimitive part of brain 0 Responsible for vital functions I Pons bridge 0 Bridges medulla to midbrain 0 Functions of arousal 0 Falling asleep or wide away 0 Coordinates muscles for facial expression 0 Arousal expressed via facial expressions I Cerebellum o Reaching for a cup 0 Integration of muscles to perform fine motor movements 0 Midbrain middle can act but without purpose I Responsible for forming movements into coherent acts I Put movements together into acts so that body can respond to things I Can walk but if hungary wont go and get food Do things things without a purpose I Whole body responses to visual and audtiory stimuli I Superior coliculus o Responsible for whole body movements in response to visual stimuli I Inferior coliculus o Responsible for whole body movements in response to auditory stimuli I Substntia nigre o Manufactures dopamine and sends to o Forebrain topcerebrum I Lets you do things with direction to environment 0 React with purpose I Thalamus 0 Relay center Incoming sensory info 0 Incoming sensory info comes here from frontal lobe 0 Get sent thorugh thalamus and out to body 0 Essentially it s a post office Relay center for sensory and motor info I Hypothalamus o Motivational functions Controls the autonomic nervous system 0 4 F s of motivation o eeing ighting feeding mating o regulates body temperature 0 when hypothalamus is cool triggers information to trigger heat not just involuntary also voluntary putting on a sweaterhyp othalamus if really hot put a fan on 00 I basal ganglia o regulates muscle contraction for smooth movements 0 voluntary movements don t need to reply to visualauditory stimuli if want to intentionally do something and carry out movements I limbic system border between upper and lower portions of brain Acts normal with purpose but are clumsy o hippocampus 0 associated with memory 0 registering what you have experienced o amygdala 0 associated with emotion o registers whether a moment was scary or not I central cortexneocortex 0 allows final coordination and direction ofmovements without it you are clumsy 0 will be thirsty go get water wont drink it properly 0 cortex I cerebral hemispheres cerebrum 0 each hemisphere controls opposite side ofbody 0 left hemisphere language 0 right hemisphere spatial abilities o corpus callosum connects both together 0 large band ofneural fibers 0 many pathways but corpus callosum is largest I cerebral cortex skin or bark 0 very think high surface area 0 not just a protective covering is an actual functional part of the brain I lobes 4 in each hemisphere 8 total 0 frontal o planning social behavior motor control 0 motor stripback of frontal lobe 0 front of brain 0 broca s area I responsible for ability to produce spoken language 0 parietal lobe o somatosensory sense of touch 0 somatosenory strip front ofparietal lobe 0 on top and toward back of brain 0 occipital 0 vision 0 primary visual area 0 back of brain 0 temporal 0 hearing memory primary auditory area side of brain wernicke s area responsible for language comprehension I front of brain frontal lobe OOO o eXpressionactionsplans back of brain parietaloccipitaltemporal lobe o receptioninterpretation fissures 0 central fissure separates frontal and parietal lobe o lateral fissure separates frontal and temporal lobe prefrontal cortex 0 most front part of frontal lobe o where phineas gage got injured 0 planning moral reasoning sensitivity to social context 0 intiation ofaction deliberation 0 makes you inhibit bad tendencies and behave like peers broca s area and wernicke s area are only in left hemisphere brain lesion primary areas 0 that part of the brain has been damaged and is no longer functioning correctly 0 If have brain lesion in primary auditory area cant hear cortically death 0 If have brain lesion in primary visual area cant see cortically blind Blindsight 0 Ability that cortically blind people have Superior colliculus helps out Flash light and can have idea ofwhere it is coming from but have no clue you have an idea Brain lesion non primary areas 0 Prefrontal lesion ApraXia no doing 0 Failure in sequencing components of action 0 Inability to organize movements 0 Damage to just side of motor strip 0 See a tooth brush and cant use it correctly Agnosia no knowledge 0 Lesions in occipital lobe 0 Can see fine but wont know what you are looking at o Lesions in temporal lobe 0 Hear keys tingling but don t know who they are Neglect right hemisphere parietal damage 0 Causes inattention to whole left side 0 Drop a pencil to left cant see it visual areas are working fine but affects ability to look there and notice anything Has to appear on right or else will never notice it 0 Will eat dinner plate and not notice food on left side Aphasia left hemisphere damage that causes deficits in language function o Broca sexpressivenon uent aphasia 0 Know what want to say but cant get words out o Wernickesreceptive uentaphasia 0 Can speak fine but have no clue what are saying 0 broca s and wernickes I Broca s area lined up right next to motor area I Wernicke s area lined up right next to somatosensorsy o Splitbrain studies 0 I separate left and right hemisphere by cutting corpus callosum I left language abilities while right spatial abilities I corpus callosum connects both hemispheres together 0 both hemispheres are always sharing info I whatever is presented to left goes to right hemisphere and vice versa I experiment 0 show picture to left side of screen stimulus goes to right hemisphere Left hand knows it is Right hand doesn t know Cant tell someone what it is I stacking cans in grocery store with one hand and other hand is unstacking I reciprocal inhibition I put headphones on performance better ifwords go into right ear 0 right ear goes directly to left hemisphere 0 left ear goes to right hemisphere and crosses over Very subtle affect To understand and interpret experiments I Which side ofvisual field info is shown to I Which hemisphere gets the info I What abilities does that hemisphere have I Which hand does it control 0 Brain plasticity I Organization of brain can change over time I Nervous system must be plastic 0 Subject to alteration in how it functions I Can alter amount ofneurotransmitter released as a function of prior experience I Neurons can change how sensitive they are to neurotransmitters o Gain new receptors I Neurons can create entirely new connections by adding synapses as a function of experience 0 Dendrites of postsynaptic cells grow new dendritic spines 0 Spines are the receviving stations for most synapses 0 Growing more spines means growing more synapses I Can change brain s architecture I PNS Neurogenesis continues throughout life 0 Promoted by learning 0 Can regenerate axons after original axon has been severed repairable I CNS cant grow new neurons 0 Glial cels get in way 0 Beneficial because in absence of injury keeps CNS stable I Neural stem cells implanting into an area of damage 0 Cells are very pliable able to develop into whatever 0 Instead of receiving replacements receives a precursor to what it needs 0 Learning 0 The perspective oflearning theory I Learning involved the creation ofassociations and the associations were the direct result of one s experiences I More complex learning requires more associations 0 Habituation I Habituation the decline in an organism s response to a stimulus once the stimulus has become familiar 0 First time a strange noise is heart it startles us second time it doesn t startle us as much 0 Requires that animal compares what it now hears and sees with what it previously heard and saw I Dishabituation increase in responsiveness caused by the presentation of something new 0 Classical conditioning I Pavlov and the conditioned response 0 US uconditioned stimulus UR unconditioned response CS conditioned stimulus CR conditioned response Give a dog food US and it salivates UR Ring a bell and then give dog food Dog learns that bell means food is coming Ring a bell CS and dog salivates CR 0 Relationship between bell and food is secondorder conditioning o The major phenomena of classical conditioning I Acquisition of conditioned responses 0 Initially the CS does not elicit the CR but after several pairings with the US the CS I Extinction o If ring a bell CS enough and don t give it food US then the CR will disappearbecome extinct o Extinction can be undone through reconditioning o Spontanteous recovery extinction than long rest period Contingency 0 Temporal contiguity two events CS and US occurred toether in time Not true The absence of contingency o Blocking effect if have a hissing noise then as shock then light comes onanimal is not scared of light only hissing noise conditioned fear 0 conditioned emotional response fear tends to disrupt other activities 0 phobias irrational fears CR vs UR 0 Animal receives shock US it jumps and squeals UR 0 Animal hears hissing noise CS it freezes and tenses its muscles 0 Manifestion of fearful anticipation General Psychology I Agenda 39 TA Introduction 39GO over Syllabus 39 Key Concepts 39 Reaction Time Exercise Syllabus lWork required I Grades lClass Rules 60 Grades Assignment 1 Assignment 2 l Assignment 3 Assignment 4 II Final Psychology as a Natural Science I The goal of this lab class is to introduce you to experimental design and research methodology I You will get hands on experience in the scientific approach to studying behavior and analyzing data Studying Behavior Behavior The actions or reactions of a person or animal in response to external or internal stimuli Behavior is objective you can observe appearance in the physical world We use behavior as a means of learning about underlying mental processing Question How do we measure subjective experiences mental processing of others Measurement of Mental Processes I Brain Imagining fMRI PET Terms and Concepts Hypothesisr A proposed explanation of observable phenomena A statement about how variables are related Independent variable A variable that is manipulated by the experimenter Dependent variable A behavior recorded and measured at the end of a study to see Whether the IV has affected it Confounding variable Any variable not deliberately manipulated by an experimenter that acts unequally on experimental and control groups that may in uence outcomes create random error Control Measures Controlling subject variables so that experimental conditions are as similar as possible on all dimensions people can differ Alternately controlling situational variables in order to avoid confounding variables so that only the independent variable is highlighted Reaction Time Data Left Right Left Right T1 T2 T3 T4 Mean


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