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General Psychology I

by: Cleta Bechtelar II

General Psychology I PSYC 1100

Cleta Bechtelar II
GPA 3.65
General Psychology I
James Chrobak

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General Psychology I
James Chrobak
Class Notes
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cleta Bechtelar II on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1100 at University of Connecticut taught by James Chrobak in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see General Psychology I in Psychlogy at University of Connecticut.


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Date Created: 09/17/15
1292010 421 00 AM Chapter 2 Naturalistic Observation observation of the behavior of people or other animals in their natural environment Correlational studies examination of relations between two or more measurements of behavior or other characteristics of people or other animals Theory a set of statements designed to explain a set of phenomena more encompassing than a hypothesis Hypothesis a statement usually designed to be tested by an experiment that tentatively expresses a causeandeffect relationship between two or more events Case study a detailed description of an individual s behavior during the course of clinical treatment or diagnosis Survey studies study of people s responses to standardized questions Independent variable variable that is manipulated in an experiment as a means of determining cause and effect relations Dependent variable variable measured in an experiment and hypothesized to be affected by the independent variable Experimental group the group of participants in an experiment that is exposed to a particular value of the independent variable which has been manipulated by the researcher Control group a comparison group used in an experiment the members of which are exposed to the naturally occurring or zero value of the independent variable Operational definition definition of a variable in terms of the operations the researcher performs to measure or manipulate it Validity degree to which the operational definition of a variable accurately reflects the variable it is designed to measure or manipulate Reliability repeatability of a measurement the likelihood that if the measurement were made again it would yield the same value Confounding variables inadvertent simultaneous manipulation of more than one variable The results of an experiment in which variables are confounded permit no valid conclusions about cause and effect Placebo an ineffectual treatment used as the control substance in a singleblind or doubleblind experiment Singleblind study experiment in which the researcher knows the value of the independent variable but participants do not Doubleblind study an experiment in which neither the participants nor the researchers know the value of the independent variable Replication repetition of an experiment or observational study in an effort to see whether previous results will be obtained ensures that incorrect conclusions are weeded out Generalize to extend the results obtained from a sample to the population from which the sample was taken Descriptive statistics mathematical procedures for organizing collections of data Measure of central tendency a statistical measure used to characterize the value of items in a sample of numbers M measure of central tendency the sum of group of values divided by their number the arithmetical average Median measure of central tendency the midpoint of a group of values arranged numerically Measures of variability a statistic that describes the degree to which scores in a set of numbers differ from one another Range the difference between the highest score and the lowest score of a sample Standard deviation statistic that expresses the variability of a measurement square root of a average of the squared deviations from the mean o Scatterplot a graph of items that have two values one value is plotted against the horizontal axis and the other against the vertical axis o Correlation coefficient a measurement of the degree to which two variables are related o Inferential statistics mathematical and logical procedures for determining whether relations r differences between samples are statistically significant Statistical significance the likeihood that an observed relation or differences between two variables really exists rather then being due to chance factors Chapter 3 Charles Darwin was interested of the process of artificial selection and natural selection Artificial selection procedure that differentially mates organisms to procedure offspring with specific characteristics Natural selection process whereby the environment differentially favors organism with characteristics that affect survival and production of offspring m unit of heredity inferred from Mendels experiments M deoxyribonucleic Acid Molecule resembling a twisted ladder whose sides are connected by rungs of pairs of nucleotides M singlestranded nucleic acid that is involved in several functions within the cell Nucleotides are molecules that when joined together make up the structural units of RNA and DNA they serve as sources of chemical energy Adenine guanine cystosine thymine Bipedelism habitually walking upright on two legs Regulatory genes genes that govern genes that code for proteins Hominids genus of bipedal apes ancestral to humans primates that fall along the human line Australogithecus ape from the south Homo erectus standing man extinct after 15 mil Homo neanderthalsis Neanderthal man names for the valley in Germany where their fossils were first found extinct only 25000 years ago Homo sagien humans of today Genome total set of genetic material of an organism Enzyme proteins that regulate processes that occur within the cells organic catalysts Chromosomespaired rodlike structures in the nucleus of a cell contains genes Sexchromosomes X or Y chromosomes that contain genes affecting sexual development Genotype genetic makeup Phenotype appearance or behavior of an organism Evolutionary psychology branch of psychology studying how human behavior is affected by evolution Sociology study of genetic influences on social behavior especially animals Reproductive strategies evolutionary effects on systems of mating and rearing offspring these need not to be conscious strategies Monogamy mating strategy of one female with one male Polygyny mating strategy of one male with more than one female Parental investment resources that parents expend in procreating and nurturing offspring Sexual selection preferences for traits that are differentially expressed in the 2 sexes for example body size Chapter 4 Central nervous system CNS is the brain and spinal cord Spinal cord a long think collection of neural cells attached to the base of the brain and running the length of spinal column Peripheral Nervous System the cranial and spinal nerves that part of the nervous system peripheral to the brain and spinal cord Nerve bundle of nerve fibers that transmit information between the central nervous system and the body s sense organs muscles and glands cranial nerves nerve fibers attached to the base of the brain conveys sensory information from the face and head and carries messages to muscles and glands spinal nerves nerve fibers attached to the spinal cord conveys sensory information from the body and carries messages to muscles and glands brain stem the tem of the brain including the medulla pons and midbrain cerebellum lies under and in back of the cerebral hemispheres controls posture and movements especially rapid ones cerebral cortex the outer most layer of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain approximately 3 mm thick dendrites a treelike part of a neuron on which other neurons form synapses soma a cell body the largest part of a neuron axon a long thin part of a neuron attached to the soma divides into a few or many branches ending in terminal buttons neurotransmitter a chemical released by the terminal buttons that causes the postsynaptic neuron to be excited or inhibited action potential a brief electrochemical event that is carried by an axon from the soma of the neuron to its terminal buttons causes the release of a neurotransmitter synapses the junction between the terminal button of one neuron and the membrane of a muscle fiber a gland or another neuron presynaptic neuron a neuron whose terminal buttons form synapses with and excite or inhibit another neuron postsynaptic neuron a neuron with which the terminal buttons of another neuron form synapses and that is excited or inhibited by that neuron neurotransmitter receptors a special protein molecule located in the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron that responds to molecules of the neurotransmitter reuptake the process by which a terminal button retrieves the molecules of a neurotransmitter that it has just released terminates the effect of the neurotransmitter on the receptors of the postsynaptic neuron glutamate the most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and spinal cord GABA the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain AcetylcholineAch a neurotransmitter found in the brain spinal cord and parts of the peripheral nervous system responsible for muscular contraction Antianxiety drug a tranquilizer which reduces anxiety Benzodiazepine a class of drug having anxiolytic effects such as diazepam Nicotine a drug that binds with and stimulates acetylcholine receptors mimicking the effects of this neurotransmitter Dopamine a monoamine neurotransmitter involved in control of brain mechanisms of movement and reinforcement Serotonin a monoamine neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of mood in the control of eating sleep and arousal and in the regulation of pain Norepinephrine a monoamine neurotransmitter involved in alertness and vigilance and control of REM sleep Cannabinoid a neuromodulator whose action is mimicked by THC and other drugs present in marijuana Anandaminde the most important endogenous cannabinoid THC stimulates cannabinoid receptors Functional magnetic resonance imaging modification of the MRI procedure that permits the measurement of regional metabolism in the brain Magnetic resonance imaging a technique with a device that uses the interaction between radio waves and strong magnetic field to produce images of slices of the interior of the body Frontal lobe includes prefrontal cortex and the motor cortex impairs movement planning and flexibility in behavioral strategies Parietal lobe contains somatosensory cortex is involved in spatial perception and memory Temporal lobe contains the auditory cortex Occipital lobecontains primary visual cortex Primary visual cortex region of the cerebral cortex that receives information directly from the visual system occipital lobe Primary auditory cortex region of cerebral cortex that receives information directly from the auditory system temporal lobe Primary somatosensory cortex region of the cerebral cortex that receives information directly from the somatosensory sensory touch pressure vibration pain and temperature parietal lobe Primary motor cortex region of the cerebral cortex that directly controls the movement of the body posterior part of the frontal lobe Sensory association cortex those regions of the cerebral cortex that receive information from the primary sensory areas Motor association cortex regions of cerebral cortex that control the primary motor cortex involved in planning and executing behaviors Prefrontal cortex anterior part of the frontal lobe contains the motor association cortex Thalamus region of the brain near the center of the cerebral hemispheres All sensory information except that of olfaction is sent to the thalamus and then relayed to the cerebral cortex Corpus callosum large bundle of axons that connects the cortex to the two cerebral hemispheres Basal ganglia a group of nuclei in the brain interconnected with the cerebral cortex thalamus and brain stem involved in control of slow movements and movements of large muscles Hippocampus part of the limbic system of the brain located in the temporal lobe plays important in episodic memory and spatial memory Amygdala part of the limbic system of the brain located deep in the temporal lobe damage causes changes in emotional and aggressive behavior Medulla part of the brain stem closest to the spinal cord controls vital functions such as heart rate and blood pressure Pons part of the brain stem just anterior to the medulla involved in control of sleep Chapter 9 Persistent vegetative state condition similar to coma except that the individual intermittently appears to be awake Minimally conscious state condition in which the individual shows occasional arousal and organized behavior but otherwise appears to be asleep Conciousness the awareness of complex private processes such as perception thinking and remembering Blindsight ability of a person who cannot perceive objects in a part of his or her visual field to reach for them accurately while remaining unaware of seeing them Visual agnosia the inability to recognize the identity of an object visually Night terrors experience of anguish without a clear memory of its cause occurs during the slowwave sleep usually in childhood Sleepwalking experience of walking during sleep without a clear memory of doing so occurs during slowwave sleep usually in cthhood Insomnia general category of sleep disorder related to difficulty to falling asleep and remaining asleep Narcolepsy a sleep disorder characterized by sleep attack irresistible falling asleep at inappropriate times Hypocretin neurotransmitter secreted by cells in the hypothalamus helps regulate sleepwake cycles Circadian rhythm a daily rhythmical change in behaviors or physiological processes Suprachiasmatic nucleus an area of the hypothalamus that provides a biological clock for circadian rhythms Chapter 8 Shortterm memory an immediate memory for stimuli that have just been perceived It is limited in terms of both capacity 72 chunks of information and duration less then 20 seconds Longterm memory memory in which information is represented on a permanent or near permanent basis Sensory input sensory memory shortterm memory longterm memory Working memory memory for new information and information retrieved from long term memory used in this text as another name for shortterm memory ii Consolidation the change of information from a state of shortterm activation into structural changes in the brain These changes are considered permanent and are hence part of longterm memory Retrograde amnesia loss of the ability to retrieve memories of the past particularly memories of episodic or autobiographical events Maintenance rehearsal rote repetition of information repeating a given item over and over again Elaborative rehearsal processing information on a meaningful level such as forming associations attending to the meaning of the material thinking about it and so on Effortful processingpracticing or rehearsing information through either shallow or deep processing Automatic processing forming memories of events and experiences with little or no attention or effort Episodic memory a type of longterm memory that serves as a record of life experiences Semantic memory a type of longterm memory that contains data facts and other information including vocabulary Explicit memory memory that can be described verbally and of which a person is therefore aware Implicit memory memory that cannot be described verbally and of which a person is therefore not aware Anterograde amnesia a condition in which a person has difficulty forming new long term memories of events that occur after that time Proactive interference interference in recall that occurs when previously learned information disrupts our ability to remember newer information Retroactive interference interference in recall that occurs when recently learned information disrupts our ability to remember older information a l l a l Schemas a mental framework or body of knowledge that organizes and synthesizes information about a person place or thing 1292010 421 00 AM 1292010 421 00 AM edification enlightening or uplifting so as to encourage intellectual or moral improvement independent inquiry idea that stands alone own question hypothesis makeup exam policy Note that ifyou miss Exam 1 due to illness sporting event lost hamster breakup with significant other or death in the family your Final Exam will simply count extra Under NO circumstance will anyone be given an examine outside of class time exception for those taking exam at CSD Epistemology how do you know validity of quotsciencequot clinical neuropsychologist has a PhD diagnostic assessment and treatment ofpatients with brain injury or neurocognitive deficits psychiatrist has an MD medical doctor works with people who have no clear brain damage can prescribe medication neurological disorder a disorder of the nervous system psychiatric disorder a mental disorder Ritalin ADHD Ritalin central nervous system stimulant trade name Ritalin used in the treatment of narcolepsy in adults and attention deficit disorder in children ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through adolescence and adulthood people with ADHD have more difficulty focusing controlling actions and remaining still or quiet than other people who are the same age psychoactive drug a chemical substance that crosses the bloodbrain barrier and acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it affects brain function resulting in changes in perception mood consciousness cognition and behavior validity the state or quality ofbeing sound just wellfounded reliability that may be relied on dependable in achievement accuracy honesty etc generalizability how well do the findings relate to larger population is this particular case a representative of what would happen to others example sample ofUConn students vs other students Science Literacy Science literacy is the knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision making participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity It also includes specific types of abilities In the National Science Education Standards the content standards define scientific literacy peer review refers to independent anonymous evaluation of a science paper by other scientists in the field between subjects designwithinsubjects design Between Subjects designs are those which have multiple levels of the Independent Variable eg treatment group and control group and there are separate groups for each variable that is each level of the IV has it39s own distinct group of participants such that no participant is receiving more than one manipulation A withinsubjects design involves a study where experimenters want to look at the effects of some manipulation but rather than have different groups for each level of the IV they have one group which receives all levels of the IV For instance the reaction time experiment we did in class is an example ofa withinsubjects design since you all experience all levels of the IV right left and alternating conditions Furthermore a lot of clinical studies use this design as they will give an assessment to a patient sample before treatment and then give that same assessment following treatment to see if there is improvement J 1 J L I and 39 39 r r c variables independent variable the variable that is manipulated examined by the experimenter to test its effects or in uence study time dependent variable the variable that is measured to see how it is changed by the independent variable test score confounding variable extraneous variable which can in uence results by interacting with the independent variable and the dependent variable not a variable ofinterest must be able to control Who What is the NIH What does NIH do The National Institutes of Health NIH a part of the US Department of Health and Human Services is the nation s medical research agency making important medical discoveries that improve health and save lives Who What is the FDA What does FDA do FDAZ Food and Drug Administration a division of the Department of health and Human Services that protects the public against impure and unsafe foods drugs and cosmetics Who What is the NSF What does NSF do he National Science Foundation NSF is an independent federal agency created by Congress in 1950 quotto promote the progress of science to advance the national health prosperity and welfare to secure the national defensequot With an annual budget of about 69 billion funding source for approximately 20 percent of all federally supported basic research conducted by America s colleges and universities In many fields such as mathematics computer science and the social sciences NSF is the major source of federal backing Alzheimer39s disease Alzheimer s Disease a degenerative brain disease of unknown cause that is the most common form of dementia that usually starts in late middle age or in old age that results in progressive memory loss impaired thinking disorientation and changes in personality and mood that leads in advanced cases to a profound decline in cognitive and physical functioning and that is marked by the degeneration of brain neurons especially in the cerebral corteX Parkinson s disease Parkinson s Disease a common neurologic disease believed to be caused by deterioration of the brain cells that produce dopamine occurring primarily after the age of 60 characterized by tremors especially of the fingers and hands muscle rigidity shuf ing gait slow speech and a masklike facial expression Schizophrenia chizophrenia a severe mental disorder characterized by some but not necessarily all of the following features emotional blunting intellectual deterioration social isolation disorganized speech and behavior delusions and hallucinations Substance Abuse Disorder also known as drug abuse What is DSM4 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ofMentaI Disorders IV DSM is published by the American Psychiatric Association and provides a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders Major neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA a neuro chemical that transmits neuro impulses across a synapse in the brain Other neurotransmitters norepinephrine dopamine serotonin acetylcholine Natural selection natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapting to the environment artificial selection selective breeding intentional breeding for certain traits speciation evolution of biological species What is an SSRI most antidepressant and many antianxiety drugs Prozac Zoloft select serotonin reuptake inhibitors thereby increasing the availability of serotonin 0n the Origin of Species by Natural Selection book published by Charles Darwin Hominad is a bipedal ape that would include australopithecus homo erectus homo Neanderthal homo sapiens Nucleotide Each starnd of DNA contains genetic codes or genes determined by a sequences of letters known as nucleotides DNA Chromosomes location nucleus of every human cell 23 pairs composed of doublestrand of DNA Each strand of DNA contains genetic codes or genes determined by a sequences of letters known as nucleotides genes code for production of a specific sequence of amino acids that make up a protein each chromosomes contains thousands of genes Protein Name three proteins and what they do GUG codon for amino acid valine CAU codon for histidine CUG codon for amino acid lucine What is the SRY gene and where is it located for the first 6 weeks of human life no sexual differentiation causes some cells to become testes and produce testosterone Sex determining gene SRY located on the ychromosome Chromosome 23 X or Y SRY gene Broca39s area Paul Broca performed an autopsy on the brain of a man who had a stroke several years previously the stroke had robbed the man of the ability to speak stoke damaged part of the cerebral cortex on the left side of the mans brain suggested this region of the brain is a center for speech Brocas Area is necessary for speech production Wernicke39s area is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex linked since the late nineteenth century to speech the other is Broca39s area It is involved in the understanding of written and spoken language It is traditionally considered to consist of the posterior section of the superior temporal gyrus in the dominant cerebral hemisphere which is the left hemisphere in about 90 ofpeople Measures of central tendency mean mode median a statistical measure used to characterize a value of items in a sample of numbers Measures of variability Range standard deviation a statistic that describes the degree to which scores in a set of numbers differ from one another Statistical significance what does p lt 001 actually mean the likelihood that an observed relation or difference between two variables really exists rather than to be due to chance factors Chapter 9 Carlson Persistent vegetative state a condition similar to coma except that the individual intermittently appears to be awake Minimally conscious state a condition in which the individual shows occasional arousal and organized behavior but otherwise appears to be asleep Conciousness the awareness of complex private processes such as perception thinking and remembering Blindsight the ability of a person who can not perceive objects in a part of his or her visual field to reach for them accurately while remaining unaware of seeing them Visual agnosia Fig 98 page 259 inability to recogognize or interpret objects in the visual field Is prosopagnosia a form of visual agnosia yes a disorder of face perception where the ability to recognize faces is impaired Stages of sleep Stage 1 NonREM sleep Light Sleep We drift in and out of sleep and can be awakened easily Stage 2 NonREM sleep body temp drops eye movements stop brain waves become slower with occasional bursts of sleep spindles Stage 3 NonREM sleep Decrease in spindles delta waves begin to appear if awakened one does not adjust immediately and often feels groggy or disoriented Stage 3 and 4 are often grouped together as quotDeep Sleep Stage 4 NonREM Sleep Stages 3 and 4 referred to as deep sleep almost exclusively delta waves blood pressure falls breathing slows and body temp drops difficult to awaken dreams cryptic and emotional Stage 5 REM Our breathing becomes more rapid irregular and shallow our eyes jerk rapidly in various directions and our limb muscles become temporarily paralyzed dreams recalled when awoken from REM are more lucid and more likely related to events during awake later suggest that dreams during REM involve rehearsalconsolidation of information Fig 912 page 264 Fig 913 page 265 Table 91 page 265 Fig 914 and 915 page 267 Night terrors predomintately 24 year olds involves difficulty in transitioning in and out Sleepwalking also known as sonambulism Insomnia Can t sleep Narcolepsy excessive and often sudeen daytime sleepiness and abnormal rem sleep invasion of rem sleep during waking period Hypocretin chemical in the brain that helps to regulate narcolepsy Circadian rhythm an endogenoust driven roughly 24hour cycle in biochemical physiological or behavioural processes People with circadian rhythm sleep disorders are unable to sleep and wake at the times required for normal work school and social needs They are generally able to get enough sleep if allowed to sleep and wake at the times dictated by their body clocks Unless they have another sleep disorder their sleep is of normal quality affect body temperature alertness appetite hormone secretion etc as well as sleep timing Suprachiasmatic nucleus a tiny region on the brain39s midline situated directly above the optic chiasm It is responsible for controlling circadian rhythms The neuronal and hormonal activities it generates regulate many different body functions in a 24hour cycle using around 20000 neurons Chapter 8 Carlson Fig 81 page 217 Shortterm memory Shorttenn memory is the temporary memory store accessed after recent exposure to a stimulus to be recalled Shortterm store is probably the most commonly accessed portion in this model It is where the input is analyzed and the response output is generated It also controls important processes such as rehearsal coding decision and retrieval strategies Longterm memory Longterm memory is defined as the permanent memory store accessed after a considerable period between the presentation ofa stimulus and its recall Longterm memory is not a single entity but is composed of several separate systems The two major categories are declarative memory and nondeclarative procedural memory which is distinct from each other with respect to the kind of information processing involved Declarative memory refers to the aspect of memory that stores facts and events Nondeclarative memory is a memory of skills and procedures Modal model of memory see figure 8 1 Sensory inputgtSENSORY REGISTERS attention WORKING SHORTTERM MEMORY rehearsal9 encoding LONGTERM MEMORY retrieval back to WORKING SHORTTERM MEMORYrehearsal Fig 83 page 219 Working memory is the ability to actively hold information in the mind needed to do complex tasks such as reasoning comprehension and learning Working memory tasks are those that require the goaloriented active monitoring or manipulation of information or behaviors in the face ofinterfering processes and distractions Fig 85 page 223 Levels of processing approach Consolidation a process in which information is stored in various parts of the brain and then put together fairly quickly to quotrecallquot an event or memory The neurons in one part of the brain establish pathways or connections to neurons elsewhere so that even if one part is destroyed other types of memory could be preserved In the 1960s a patient who had part of his brain surgically removed was shown to lose some long term memory but not his childhood memories He lost his temporal lobe but it appears that nervous interaction with other areas of the brain such as the lateral cortex resulted in those childhood experiences being stored elsewhere We can compare Consolidation to the backup disk that we use to store some of the documents in our hard drive Retrograde amnesia A form of amnesia resulting from brain injury in which the individual loses memories for the time period just prior to the injury This time period may stretch from a few minutes to several years and typically it is worst for event which occurred just before the injury Very rarely there have been reported cases in which an individual sustains pure retrograde amnesia as a result ofa physical brain injury More often retrograde amnesia occurs in an individual who also has anterograde amnesia In this case the individual will have near total loss of memory for events occurring after the injury and some loss of memory for events which occurred before the injury Maintenance rehearsal Maintenance Rehearsal is the process of repeatedly verbalizing or thinking about a piece of information Your short term memory is able to hold information about about 20 seconds However this time can be increased to about 30 seconds by using Maintenance Rehearsal For example late at night you have been out partying all night you get back home and you are hungry you decide that it39s time for pizza So you pick up the phone and call information to get the number ofa local pizza delivery place When the operator gives the number you say the number over and over so that you don39t forget it in the time it takes to hang up and dial the number This process of repeating the number over and over is maintenance rehearsal It won39t help get the information into long term memory but it will help keep it in short term memory a little longer Elaborative rehearsal Elaborative rehearsal is a memory technique that involves thinking about the meaning of the term to be remembered as opposed to simply repeating the word to yourself over and over For example you need to remember the term quotneuronquot In order to permanently commit the term to your memory you look up what it means it is a nerve cell find out its purpose transmit information from or to the central nervous system look at a diagram and study its parts and think about how it relates to things that you already know like how different it its from other kinds of cells assuming you are familiar with other cells If you do this several times rehearsal then you will be more likely to remember the term Effortful processing learning or storing encoding that requires attention and effort We have the capacity to remember lots of things without putting forth any effort However there are lots of times when we must practice rehearse and try to remember things When we engage in any technique to help remember information better we are engaging in effortful processing EX studying for a test Automatic processing refers to thinking that is nonconscious unintentional involuntary and effortless what psychologists call processing ofinformation that guides behavior but without conscious awareness and without interfering with other conscious activity that may be going on at the same time for example driving slowly down a street automatic processing while looking for a specific address conscious processing Explicit memory declarative conscious willful rememb eringpart of longterm memory 1 Episodic memory memory for events in life part of explicit memory Remembering things 2 Semantic memory memory for facts part of explicit memory Implicit memory Procedural memory in the absence ofwillful remembering knowing how to do thingspart oflongterm memoryriding a bike playing a guitar Anterograde amnesia inability to form new episodic memories Fig 88 page 231 Fig 814 page 239 Fig 815 page 239 Proactive interference Difficulty in learning new information because of already existing information For example an English speaking person may have greater difficulty learning Spanish because of his or her tendency to want to apply English grammar to the new language Some people have a harder time learning how to drive an automatic vehicle because of their preexisting knowledge of how to drive a stick shift The driver may want to use his or her left foot for the break where they are used to having the clutch The same person may have learned to drive an automatic more easily without his or her knowledge ofa standard car Retroactive interference Retroactive interference is when a person has difficulty recalling old information because ofnewly learned information For example you may have difficulty skiing because of recently learning how to snowboard Eyewitness testimony human reports based on visual perception Fig 816 page 240 Schemas An organized pattern of thought or behavior A structured cluster ofpreconceived ideas A mental structure that represents some aspect of the world A specific knowledge structure or cognitive representation of the self A mental framework centering on a specific theme that helps us to organize social information Structures that organize our knowledge and assumptions about something and are used for interpreting and processing information Terms and Concepts Most Likely Mentioned in Lecture Psychostimulants caffeine amphetaminelike drugs cocaine Seroquel Major neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA Other neurotransmitters norepinephrine dopamine serotonin acetylcholine anandamide What is an SSRI Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor are a class of compounds typically used as an antidepressent in the treatment of depression anxiety disorders and some personality disorders They are also typically effective and used in treating some cases of insomnia increase level of serotonin available to bind to the postsynaptic receptor Name two speci c SSRI39s citalopram dapoxetine Natural selectionartificial selectionspeciation On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection australopithecushomo erectushomo Neanderthalhomo sapiens NucleotideDNA chromosomes and proteins Chromosome 23 X or Y determines sex Lunesta would be used for what Treat insomnia What might be the side effects Headache drowsiness Broca39s area and Wernicke39s area speech productionfronta lobe Measures of central tendency meanmodemedian Measures of variability Rangestandard deviation Statistical significance what does p lt 001 actually mean descriptive studies or descriptive research Independent Dependent and Confounding variables Within subject experiment design and Betweensubject experiment Descriptive statistics as compared to lnferential statistics Rene Descartes rationalism knowledge comes from pure thinking John Locke empircism knowledge comes from sensory experiences Materialism matter is the only substance Fig 14 page 12 Determinism John Dewey and Maria Montessori Charles Darwin Behaviorism John B Watson acting feeling thinking all behaviors Chapter 3 Carlson Charles Darwin Artificial selection Natural selection Variation Selection Genes DNARNA Bipedalism Regulatory genes Hominids Fig 35 page 65 Australopithecus Homo erectus Homo neanderthalsis Homo sapiens Fig 35 abd 36 page 65 Fig 37 page 67 Genome Enzymes proteins that catalyze Chromosomes Sex chromosomes Genotype Phenotype Polygenic control Mutations Down s syndrome Huntington s disease is a neurodegenerative genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination and leads to cognitive decline and dementia It typically becomes noticeable in middle age Heritability Concordance research Knockout mutations genetically engineeredsingle gene turned off Evolutionary psychology examines psychological traits such as memory perception or language from a modern evolutionary perspective It seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations that is the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection Sociobiology is a field of scientific study which is based on the assumption that social behavior has resulted from evolution and attempts to explain and examine social behavior within that context Reproductive strategies Monogamy only one spouse Polygamy more than one spouse Parental investment time energy invested in child Sexual selection struggle between the individuals of one sex generally the males for the possession of the other sex Read Chapter 3 Summary Fig 430 pg 115 Endocrine glands Hormones Autonomic nervous system Gray matterwhite matter Fig 45 page 90 Dendrites Soma Axon Neurotransmitter Fig 46 page 92 Action potential a shortlasting event in which the electrical membrane potential of a cell rapidly rises and falls following a consistent trajectory Ion channels Synapses junction Presynaptic Postsynaptic Neurotransmitter receptors Reuptake Fig 410 page 95 Fig 411 page 96 Glutamate GABA Acetylcholine a neurotransmitter Antianxiety drug Benzodiazepine Nicotine Dopamine Parkinson s disease Serotonin Norepinephrine Cannabinoid Anandaminde THC Table 42 page 101 Functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI MRI EEG Chapter 9 Carlson Persistent vegetative state a disorder of consciousness in which patients with severe brain damage who were in a coma progress to a state of partial arousal rather than true awareness Minimally conscious state a disorder of consciousness distinct from coma or the vegetative state 1 in which a patient exhibits deliberate or cognitively mediated behaviorlZ often enough or consistently enough for clinicians to be able to distinguish it from entirely unconscious re exive responses


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