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General Psychology I

by: Cleta Bechtelar II

General Psychology I PSYC 1100

Cleta Bechtelar II
GPA 3.65

Megan Dove-Steinkamp

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Megan Dove-Steinkamp
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cleta Bechtelar II on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1100 at University of Connecticut taught by Megan Dove-Steinkamp in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/205878/psyc-1100-university-of-connecticut in Psychlogy at University of Connecticut.


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Date Created: 09/17/15
Exam 1 Study Guide Chapters 1 3 Supplemental Articles Strayer et al 2006 and Greenberg 1988 0 Introduction 0 Psychology has its roots in philosophy I Who is credited as being father of psychology William Wundt is credited of being the father of psychology he founded the first psychology laboratory in Germany I Who is associated With Structuralism Functionalism 0 William Wundt is associated with structuralism because he was focused on identifying the structures of the human mind basic elements of mental processes Willi m 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 J z J 1 1 y wit functionalism tis myquot in individuals Jr 39 JL 1 0 Behavior is observable mental processes are private 39 The de nition 0 f psychology is short and sweet It is the scienti c study of mental processes and behavior Behavior is overt an can be analyzed by observation while mental processes are covert and we will use isolated questions to analyze them 0 Be able to contrast psychology PhD generally With psychiatry MD 39 Someone with a PhD practices psychology and they are focused on human behavior and mental processes generally and focus on one f 39 39 39ons of 39 A J39 I J MD 39 39 39 J focus on the derivation from proper function or mental illness I Research Methods 0 What is a variable 39 A variable is anything that varies or can chan e I Be able to identify independent dependent and confounding variables 0 The independent variable is what the experimenter is manipulating The dependent variable the value that is being measured A confounding variable is a variable that has an uncontrolled e ect on the dependent variable 0 Types ofresearch I Descriptive Be able to identify examples of case studies naturalistic observations survey research 0 is an indepth look at a single individual This is usually done when unique aspects of a person s life cannot be replicated or tested It provides information about anything that will help the psychologist understand the patient s mental processes and behavior ie Phineas Ga e O Naturalistic observations Careful observation requires that the researcher knows how to record their data know what they are looking for and that the observations made are accurate Naturalistic observations is observing behavior in realworld setting without making an effort to control what is going on ie going to a shopping mall and observing how mothers control their children 0 Surveys Asking people for the information that you are seeking It can be a direct interview or a estionnaire to see people s attitude about a certain topic I Experiments as opposed to descriptive studies 0 C ntrol v treatment condition 0 ontrol conditions refer to when the independent variable is not manipulated to offer baseline data something you can corglare to 0 Treatment conditions are those that manipulated the independent variable 0 Goal explain causal relationship 0 Relationship between two variables it can be established that one has a direct e ect on the other 39 39 39 39 quot J J n utwhetherthere39 39 39 39 quotI Tis is the goal of experimental research 0 De ne 0 Random assignment 39 his is when the assignment of resth participants is by chance 0 Within BetweenSubjects Desi s 39 W39t insubject designs is when one group receives both treatment and control conditions 39 D 39 design is separate I J J39 condition 0 Demand characteristics 39 When participants respond in a way that is favorable to the hypothesis This one of the quot 39 in 39l39 L39 J 39 sinceteygetb h I J on 0 Single doubleblind studies 39 Doubleblind an experimental procedure in which neither the subjects of the experiment 39 39 39 39 l 39 he 39 39 39 experiment 39 r 39 39 J remap um I sing Hm quot 39 whi h 39 J to which they have been assigned 0 Placebo effect 39 The situation where participants39 eq7ectations rather than the experimental treatment produce an experimental outcome not 7 O O O O O O O O O O 0 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapters 1 3 Supplemental Articles Strayer et al 2006 and Greenberg 198 8 Descriptive v inferential statistics 39 Descriptive 39 39 meaningful way It is how we analyze the data that we et Inferential statistics refers to mathematical methods that are used to indicate whether data suf ciently support or con rm a h hypothesis This is how we test our hypothesis math mnri n 39 39 are J J 39b J mmwmri J 79581176 Frequency distribution I Example Normal bell curve 0 3 properties 0 O T r r 39 39 39 39 39nmmtrinlr r 39 I Jh itisunimodal mode median and mean are all the same value Measures of central tendency 3 Purpose 0 The measures of central tendency include mean typical average mode number that occurs the most and median number right in the middle 0 The purpose is to describe the average value for a set of scores but depending on the set you may use a different way to describe it the mean may not always be the best way Measures of variability I Purpose 0 T escribe how scores within a group differ from one another I Example standard deviation As unit of measure 0 Remember given a normal distribution 95 of scores fall within 2 standard deviation units of mean Correlation r I Relationship between two variables 0 The measure of strength between two variables I Range 100 tol00 0 nythin above or below is wro I What does the absolute value of r tell you The strength of the correlation the closer to one the stronger the relationship 0 means no correlation I What does the sign of r tell you r 1 go m Hm opposite direction one increases the other must decrease Statistical v practical signi cance I i erion is set at 05 what does this mean 0 This means we are willing to accept a 5 error rate If p robability is greater than 5 then we will retain the null less than 5 Va we reject the null and go with our hypothesis Null hypothesis H0 I What does it predict 0 The null hypothesis predicts that there is no difwrence between the mean scores of your control and treatment conditions I When does one retain or reject the null hypothesis 0 We retain the null when the d rence between the means is determined not to be signi cant We reject the null when the means are statistically di erent from one another Reliability 39 This refers to how repeatable your results are Validity I Internal 0 Refers to when your study has been designed to measure what it intended to measure I External 0 This refers to being able to 7 39 39 um you J 39 I Remember it is possible to have a measure that is reliable but not valid But your data is valid it has to be reliable Sample Population I Convenience v Random sample r WM of yo ur population A random sample means every participant has an equal chance of being selected out of the population Peer review v popular science articles I udience r 1 that you are trying to study reach but y 39 0 In peer review articles the audience is intended for researchers experts in the eld journal editors Popular science articles are made for a nontechnical communi 9 I Language Exam 1 Study Guide Chapters 1 2 3 Supplemental Articles Strayer et al 2006 and Greenberg 1988 0 Peerreview articles use technical detailed and speci c language while popular science articles are written simply like a story with casual language Expert review J 39 39 go h h 39 1 they can be published popular science articles are not reviewed at all Ethics I Informed consent 0 Researchers must acquire informed consent from their participants Con dentiality v anonymity 0 Studies are con dential always however it cannot always be anonymous Debrieiing O Theymustu39eluieJ HIM udyx r Iquot I J 39 39 Alert them e 4 what was found to the nature of the study 0 Brain amp Nervous System 0 Neuroscience de nition of 39 Neuroscience is focused on the anatomy physiology and origins of the nervous system Neuroscience says that for every action that you make there is some physiological process going on in the nervous sy em 0 Nervous system I Divisions 0 Primary components structures 0 Primary purpose functions I Re ex activity I Fight or ight response in terms of sympathetic NS Physiological processes that are aroused Suppressed o Nerve cells 2 types I Glia support cells unctions o I Neurons transmit information o T srnission descri e ithin neuron electrochemical I Action potential Direction of transmission I Myelin origin function 0 Between neurons chemical Be able to label a diagram of a neuron dendrites soma nucleus axon terminal button 0 Comparecontrast neurotransmitters amp hormones 0 Brain I Hernispheres 2 7 identical in structure but not function I Lo es 4 0 Function of frontal lobe in particular Result of damage to this area I Largest part of brain I Plasticity Supplemental Articles 0 Variables lVDV continuouscategorical Sample characteristics of recruitment strategy 0 Design descriptive v experimental Context


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