General Psychology II (Enhanced)
General Psychology II (Enhanced) PSYC 1103
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Cleta Bechtelar II
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Cleta Bechtelar II
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Cleta Bechtelar II
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cleta Bechtelar II on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1103 at University of Connecticut taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see /class/205881/psyc-1103-university-of-connecticut in Psychlogy at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Chapter 1 Psychology The science ofbehavior and mental processes Positive psychology A field of research that focuses on people s positive experiences and characteristics such as happiness optimism and resilience Biological Psychologists Psychologists who analyze the biological factors in uencing behavior and mental processes Developmental Psychologists Psychologists who seek to understand describe and explore how behavior and mental processes change over a lifetime Cognitive Psychologists Psychologists who study the mental processes underlying judgment decisionmaking problem solving imagining and other aspects of human thought or cognition Also called experimental psychologists Engineering Psychology A field in which psychologists study human factors in the use of equipment and help designers create better versions of that equipment Personality Psychologists Psychologists who study the characteristics that make individuals similar to or different from one another Clinical and counseling psychologists Psychologists who seek to assess understand and change abnormal behavior Community Psychologists Psychologists who work to obtain psychological services for people in need of help and to prevent psychological disorders by working for changes in social systems Health Psychologists Psychologists who study the effects of behavior and mental processes on health and illness and vice versa Educational Psychologists Psychologists who study methods by which instructors teach and students learn and who apply their results to improving those methods School Psychologists Psychologists who test IQs diagnose students academic problems and set up programs to improve students achievements Social Psychologist Psychologists who study how people in uence one another s behavior and mental processes individually and in groups Industrial Organizational Psychologists Psychologists who study ways to improve efficiency productivity and satisfaction among workers and the organizations that employ them Quantitative Psychologists Psychologists who develop and use statistical tools to analyze research data Sport Psychologists Psychologists who explore the relationships between athletic performance and such psychological variables as motivation and emotion Forensic Psychologists Psychologists who assist in jury selection evaluate defendants mental competence to stand trail and deal with other issues involving psychology and the law Environmental Psychologists Psychologists who study the effects of the physical environment on behavior and mental processes Biological Approach An approach to psychology in which behavior and behavior disorders are seen as the result ofphysical processes especially those relating to the brain and to hormones and other chemicals Evolutionary Approach An approach to psychology that emphasizes the inherited adaptive aspects ofbehavior and mental processes Psychodynamic approach A View developed by Freud that emphasizes the interplay of unconscious mental processes in determining human thought feelings and behavior Behavioral Approach An approach to psychology emphasizing that human behavior is determined mainly by what a person has learned especially from rewards and punishments Cognitive Approach A way oflooking at human behavior that emphasizes research on how the brain take in information creates perceptions forms and retrieves memories processes information and generates integrated patterns of action Humanistic Approach An approach to psychology that views behavior as controlled by the decisions that people make about their lives based on their perceptions ofthe world Culture The accumulation of values rules ofbehavior forms of expression religious beliefs occupational choices and the like for a group ofpeople who share a common language and environment Chapter 2 Critical Thinking The process of assessing claims and making judgments on the basis ofwellsupported evidence Hypothesis In scientific research a prediction stated as a specific testable proposition about a phenomenon Operational Definition A statement that defines that exact operations or methods used in research Variable A factor of characteristic that is manipulated or measured in research Data Numbers that represent research findings and provide the basis for research conclusions Theory An integrated set ofpropositions that can be used to account for predict and even suggest ways of controlling certain phenomena Naturalistic Observation The process of watching without interfering as a phenomenon occurs in the natural environment Case Study A research method involving the intensive examination of some phenomenon in a particular individual group or situation Survey A research method that involves giving people questionnaires or special interviews designed to obtain descriptions of their attitudes beliefs opinions and intentions Correlational Study A research method that examines relationships between variables in order to analyze tends in data to test predictions to evaluate theories and to suggest new hypotheses Confounding Variable In an experiment any factor that affects the dependent variable along with or instead of the independent variable Random Assignment The procedure by which random variables are evenly distributed in an experiment by putting participants into various groups through a random process Chapter 12 Maturation Natural growth or change that unfolds in a fixed sequences relatively independent of the environment Zygote A new cell formed from a father s sperm and a mother s ovem Embryo The developing individuals from the fourteenth day after fertilization until the end of the second month after conception Fetus The developing individual from the third month after conception until birth Schemas Generalizations based on experience that form the basic units of knowledge Assimilation The process of trying out existing schemas on objects that fit those schemas Accommodation The process ofmodifying schemas when familiar schemas do not work Sensorimotor period The first of Piaget s stages of cognitive development when the infants mental activity is confined to sensory perception and motor skills Preoperational Period According to Piaget the second stage of cognitive development during which children begin to use symbols to represent things that are not present Conservation The ability to recognize that the importance properties ofa substance remain constant despite changes in shape length or position Concrete Operational Period According to Piaget the third stage of cognitive development during which children s thinking is no longer dominated by visual appearances Formal Operational Period According to Piaget the forth stage in cognitive development usually beginning around age eleven when abstract thinking first appears Temperament An individual s basic disposition which is evident from infancy Attachment A deep and enduring relationship with the person with whom the baby has shared many experiences Authoritarian Parents Firm punitive and unsympathetic parents who value obedience from the child and authority for themselves Permissive Parents Parents who give their child great freedom and laX discipline Authoritative Parents Parents who reason with the child encourage give and take are firm but understanding SelfRegulation The ability to control one s emotions and behavior Gender Roles Patterns of work appearance and behavior that a society associates with being male or female Gender Schemas The generalizations children develop about what toys activities and occupations are quotappropriatequot for males versus females Resilience A quality allowing children to develop normally in spite of severe environmental risk factors Ethnic Identity The part ofa person s identity associated with the racial religious or cultural group to which the person belongs Preconventional Moral Reasoning Reasoning that is not yet based on the conventions or rules that guide social interactions in society Conventional Moral Reasoning Reasoning that re ects the belief that morality consists of following rules and conventions Postconventional Moral Reasoning Reasoning that re ects moral judgments based on personal standards or universal principles ofjustice equality and respect for human life Identity Crisis A phase during which an adolescent attempts to develop an integrated selfimage Chapter 13 Health Psychology A field in which psychologists conduct and apply research aimed at promoting human health and preventing illness Stress The process ofadjusting to circumstances that disrupts or threatens to disrupt a person s equilibrium Stressor An event or situation to which people must adjust Stress Reaction The physical psychological and behavioral response that occurs in the face ofa stressor General Adaptation syndrome GAS A threestage pattern of responses triggered by the effort to adapt to any stressor Diseases of adaptation illnesses that are caused or worsened by stressors Burnout A gradually intensifying pattern of physical psychological and behavioral dysfunction in response to a continuous ow of stressors Posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD A pattern of adverse and disruptive reactions following a traumatic event Social Support network The friends and social contacts on whom one can depend for help and support Psychoneuroimmunology A field of research on the interactions of psychological social behavioral neural hormonal and immune system processes that affect the body s defenses against disease Health Promotion The process of altering or eliminating behaviors that pose risks to health as well as encouraging healthy behavior patterns Progressive Muscle relaxation training A procedure for learning to relax that involves tensing muscles and then releasing the tension in those muscles Chapter 14 Personality The pattern of psychological and behavioral characteristics by which each person can be compared and contrasted with others Psychodynamic Approach Freud s view that personality is based on the interplay of unconscious mental processes Id The unconscious portion ofpersonality that contains basic impulses and urges Libido The psychic energy contained in the id Pleasure principle The id s operating principle which guides people toward whatever feels good Ego The part of the personality that mediates con icts between and among the demands of the id the superego and the real world Reality Principle The operating principle of the ego that creates compromises between the id s demands and those of the real world Superego The component ofpersonality that tells people what they should and should not do Defense Mechanism A psychological response that helps protect a person from anxiety and guilt Psychosexual stages Periods ofpersonality development in which according to Freud con icts focus on particular issues Oral Stage The first of Freud s psychosexual stages in which the mouth is the center ofpleasure and con ict Anal Stage The second of Freud s psychosexual stages usually occurring during the second year of life in which the focus of pleasure and con ict shifts from the mouth to the anus Phallic Stage The third of Freud s psychosexual stages in which the focus of pleasure and con ict shifts to the genital area Oedipus Complex A pattern described by Freud in which a boy has sexual desire for his mother and wants to eliminate his father s competition for her attention Electra Complex A pattern described by Freud in which a young girl develops an attachment to her father and competes with her mother for his attention Latency Period The fourth of Freud s psychosexual stages in which sexual impulses lie dormant Genital Stage The last of Freud s psychosexual stages which begins during adolescence when sexual impulses appear at the conscious level Trait Approach A perspective in which personality is seen as a combination of characteristics that people display over time and across situations Bigfive model A view based on factoranalytic studies suggesting the existence of five basic components of human personality openness conscientiousness extraversion agreeableness and neuroticism also called the fivefactor model Socialcognitive Approach An approach in which personality is seen as the patterns of thinking and behavior that a person learns Functional Analysis Analyzing behavior by studying what responses occur under what conditions of operant reward and punishment Selfefficacy According to Bandura learned expectations about the probability of success in given situations Humanistic Approach A view in which personality develops through an actualizing tendency that unfolds in accordance with each person s unique perceptions ofthe world Actualizing Tendency According to Rogers an innate inclination toward growth that motivates all people Selfconcept The way one thinks of oneself Conditions ofworth According to Rogers the feelings an individual experiences when the person instead of the person s behavior is evaluated Deficiency Orientation According to Maslow a preoccupation with perceived needs for things a person does not have Growth Orientation According to Maslow a tendency to draw satisfaction from what is available in life rather than focus on what is missing Objective Personality test a test containing direct unambiguous items relating to the individual being assessed Projective Personality Test A test made up of unstructured stimuli that can be perceived and responded to in many ways Chapter 1 5 Psychopathology Patterns of thinking feeling and behaving that are maladaptive disruptive or uncomfortable for those who are affected or for those with whom they come in contact Impaired functioning Difficulty in fulfilling appropriate and expected family social and workrelated roles Biopsychosocial model A view ofmental disorders as caused by a combination of interacting biological psychological and sociocultural factors Neurobiological Model A modern name for the medical model in which psychological disorders are seen as re ecting disturbances in the anatomy and chemistry of the brain and in other biological processes Psychological Model A view in which mental disorder is seen as arising from psychological processes Sociocultural Model A way of looking at mental disorders in relation to gender age ethnicity and other social and cultural factors Diathesisstress approach Viewing psychological disorders as arising when a predisposition for a disorder combines with sufficient amounts of stress to trigger symptoms Anxiety Disorder A condition in which intense feelings of apprehension are long standing and disruptive Phobia An anxiety disorder involving strong irrational fear of an object or situation that does not objectively justify such a reaction Specific Phobia An anxiety disorder involving fear and avoidance of heights animals and other specific stimuli and situations Social Phobia An anxiety disorder involving strong irrational fears relating to social situations Agoraphobia An anxiety disorder involving strong fear of being alone or away from the security of home Generalized anxiety disorder GAD A condition that involved relatively mild but longlasting anxiety that is not focused on any particular object or situation Panic Disorder An anxiety disorder involving sudden panic attacks Obsessivecompulsive Disorder 0CD An anxiety disorder involving repetitive thoughts and urges to perform certain rituals Somatoform Disorders Psychological problems in which there are symptoms ofa physical disorder without a physical cause Conversion Disorder A somatoform disorder in which a person displays blindness deafness or other symptoms of sensory or motor failure without a physical cause Hypochondriasis A somatoform disorder involving strong unjustified fear of having a physical illness Somatization Disorder A somatoform disorder in which there are numerous physical complaints without verifiable physical illness Pain Disorder A somatoform disorder marked by complaints of severe pain with no physical cause Dissociative Disorder Rare conditions that involve sudden and usually temporary disruptions in a person s memory consciousness or identity Dissociative Fugue A dissociative disorder involving sudden loss ofmemory and the assumption ofa new identity and a new locale Dissociative Amnesia A dissociative disorder marked by a sudden loss ofmemory Dissociative Identity Disorder DID A dissociative disorder in which a person reports having more than one identity Mood Disorder Conditions in which a person experiences extreme moods such as depression or mania Major Depressive Disorder A mood disorder in which a person feels sad and hopeless for weeks or months Delusions False beliefs such as those experienced by people suffering from schizophrenia or extreme depression Dysthymic Disorder A mood disorder involving a pattern of comparatively mild depression that lasts for at least two years Mania An elated very active emotional state Bipolar I disorder A mood disorder in which a person alternates between deep depression and mania Schizophrenia A severe and disabling pattern of disturbed thinking emotion perception and behavior Hallucinations a symptom of disorder in which people perceive voices or other stimuli when there are no stimuli present Positive Symptoms Schizophrenic Symptoms such as disorganized thoughts hallucinations and delusions Negative Symptoms Schizophrenic symptoms such as absence ofpleasure lack of speech and at affect Personality Disorder Longstanding in exible ways of behaving that create a variety of problems Antisocial Personality Disorder A personality disorder involving impulsive selfish unscrupulous even criminal behavior Addiction Development ofa physical need for a psychoactive drug Alcoholism A pattern of drinking that may lead to addiction and almost always causes severe social physical and other problems Chapter 16 Psychotherapy The treatment ofpsychological disorders through talking and other psychological methods Psychiatrists Medical doctors who have completed special training in the treatment ofpsychological disorders Psychologists Among therapists those whose education includes completion ofa master s or usually doctoral degree in clinical or counseling psychology often followed by additional specialty training Psychoanalysis A method of psychotherapy that seeks to help clients gain insight by recognizing and understanding unconscious thoughts and emotions Clientcentered therapy personcentered therapy A therapy that allows the client to decide what to talk about without direction judgment or interpretation from the therapist Unconditional positive regard acceptance A therapist attitude that conveys a caring for and acceptance of the client as a valued person Empathy The therapist s attempt to appreciate and understand how the world looks from the client s point ofview Re ection An active listening method in which a therapist conveys empathy by paraphrasing clients statements and noting accompanying feelings Congruence A consistency between the way therapists feel and the way they act toward clients Gestalt therapy An active treatment designed to help clients get in touch with genuine feelings and disown foreign ones Behavior Therapy Treatments that use classical conditioning principles to change behavior Behavior Modification Treatments that use operant conditioning methods to change behavior Cognitivebehavior therapy Learningbased treatment methods that help clients change the way they think as well as the way they behave Systematic Desensitization A behavioral treatment for anxiety in which clients Visualize a graduated series of anxietyprovoking stimuli while remaining relaxed Flooding An exposure technique for reducing anxiety that involves keeping a person in a feared but harmless situation Exposure techniques Behavior therapy methods in which clients remain in the presence of strong anxietyprovoking stimuli until the intensity of their emotional reactions decrease Modeling Demonstrating desirable behaviors as a way of teaching them to clients Assertiveness Training and social skills training Methods for teaching clients how to interact with others more comfortably and effectively Positive Reinforcement A therapy method that uses rewards to strengthen desirable behaviors Token Economy A system for improving the behavior of institutionalized clients in which desirable behaviors are rewarded with tokens that can be exchanged for desired items or activities Extinctions The gradual disappearance ofa conditioned response or operant behavior through nonreinforcement Punishment A therapy method that weakens desirable by following it with an unpleasant stimulus Aversion Conditioning A method that uses classical conditioning to create a negative response to a particular stimulus Rationalemotive behavior therapy REBT A treatment designed to identify and change selfdefeating thoughts that lead to anxiety and other symptoms of disorder Cognitive Therapy A treatment in which the therapist helps clients to notice and change negative thoughts associated with anxiety and depression Group Therapy Psychotherapy involving several unrelated clients Family Therapy Treatment of two or more individuals from the same family Couples therapy A form of therapy focusing on improving communication between partners Empirically supported therapies ESTs Treatments whose effects have been validated by controlled experimental research Psychosurgery Surgical procedures that destroy tissue in small regions of the brain in an effort to treat psychological disorders Electroconvulsive therapy ECT Brief electrical shock administered to the brain usually to reduce depression that does not respond to drug treatment Neuroleptics Drugs that alleviate that symptoms of severe disorders such as schizophrenia Antidepressants Drugs that relieve depression Anxiolytics Drugs that reduce feelings of anxiety Community Psychology A movement to minimize or prevent psychological disorders through changes in social systems and through community mental health programs
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