The Process of Communication
The Process of Communication COMM 1000
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Popular in Communication
This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Reggie Adams on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 1000 at University of Connecticut taught by William Farrar in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/205885/comm-1000-university-of-connecticut in Communication at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
4172010 120100 AM 1 How do we de ne a small group according to lecture What is the optimal size for small group 0 Small group is a collection of individuals who 0 Interact with each other Have some purpose or goal In uence one another See selves as part ofthe group Have rulesnorms for behavior 0 O O O 0 Are dependent on one another 0 3 or more people but fewer than 20 0 Optimal size 57 2 What is cohesiveness What happens when cohesiveness increases What about when group size increases 0 Cohesiveness is a group con dence degree of closeness how attractive a group is to its members 0 When cohesiveness increases 0 Communication and participation increase 0 Satisfaction increases 0 Productivity may increase 3 What are the four phases of group development What types of behaviors occur in each and what are the outcomes 0 Four Phrases o l Forming identity and learn about the group I much intragroup agreement in this stage little ghting little disclosure I few novel ideas I not much work gets done 0 2 Storming I assertion of individuality I confusion over goals tends to increase I minimal work is accomplished I control and affection are common issues 0 3 Norming I balance achieved in response to the storming phase I group unity begins to emerge I group starts functioning more smoothly as a unit I too much agreement is as problematic as too much con ict 0 4 Performing the period of consensus and maximum productivity I few negative or unfavorable comments are expressed I focus can now be on the task rather than only on group formation 4 What is groupthink and under what conditions does it occur What are the symptoms of groupthink What are six ways to avoid groupthink o Groupthink is a problem solving process which ideas accepted by the group are not examined and opposing ideas are suppressed o Conformity and getting along are the group s highest priorities 0 They can be small decisions or huge ones 0 Conditions in which groupthink occurs 0 Authoritarian style leader with pet proposals I Someone who loves to tell people what to do are liked by the group first 0 Group isolated from the real world 0 Group does not have a definite decision making procedure 0 Group members have similar views 0 The decision to be made is complex not an easy decision 0 Symptoms of groupthink o Illusion of invulnerability you think that you cannot lose 0 You think opposing parties are wrong while you are right 0 Warning signs of potential problems are discounted any sign of bad ideas fade away Opponents perceived as evil powerless stupid Members who stray away from group are pressure to conform Members privately decide to keep feelings of doubt to themselves Illusion of unanimity o Membersleader screened from certain info 0 Six ways to avoid groupthink o 1 Have a critical evaluator someone who questions the ideas brought up by the group 0 2 Leader doesn t state preferred course of action until late in the process don t voice opposing opinion right away wait until the group forms a view 0 3 Consult outside people ask others opinions o 4 Divide group into subgroups create a board of trustees instead of having just one leader 0 5 Rehash earlier decisions what decisions worked and what didn t o 6 After plan is implemented search for any loopholes that would cause the plan to fail 5 What is the purpose of brainstorming and what are the rules 0 Purpose 0 To offset tendencies of conforming groups 0 To promote creative problem solving and original thinking 0 To help groups be more creative 0 Rules 0 No criticism of others ideas 0 The more ideas the more bene cial brainstorming is o Jumping off others ideas is encouraged 6 5 types of communication networks according to the text 0 1 Wheel one person usually becomes the leader and focuses comments from each members of the group 0 2 Chain network 3 people can communicate with those on either side of them but the other two with only one member of the group 0 3 Y Network 3 of the 5 can communicate with only one person 0 4 Circle each person may communicate with two others on either side 0 5 All channel all communication lines are openstar structure 7 What are the correlates of effective groups according to your text 0 Get results 0 Have specific and shared purpose 0 Have mutual internal accountability 0 Have each member responsible for numerous roles and tasks 0 Exhibit high quality in their standards of performance 0 Continuously try to improve 0 Exhibit high credibility and trust 0 Focus on task and avoid getting distracted by extraneous events 8 What is organization communication What are its three essential characteristics 0 Organization communication 0 Human communication that occurs within an organization 0 Structural factor require members to act a certain way 0 3 essential characteristics 0 Division of labor organizations are more productive when they allow people to specialize in certain areas aka different jobs within an organization 0 Span of control limit authority of individual superior O Pyramid of control hierarchy of supervisors and upper level managers 9 What are the speci c functions of communication within an organization What are the four types of communication within an organization 0 Functions of communication 0 The command function I Allows coordination of interdependent members and work 0 Relational function I Create and maintain productive business and personal relationships within an organization 0 Ambiguitymanagement I Coping and reducing uncertainty natural in organizations 0 Four types of communication within an organization 0 Downward communication I Initiated by management then filters down through the chain of command I Redundancy is helpful I One characteristic is lack of accuracy like the game telephone I By the time a message reaches the lower levels its often distorted o Upward communication I Ideas feelings and perceptions of lower level employees communicate to higher levels I It s importance because high level employees receive feedback from lower level to see if decisions are effective or not 0 Horizontal communication I Exchanges between people of the same level I Four functions of horizontal communication I Task coordination I Problem solving I Information sharing I Con ict resolution 0 Informal communication I The grapevine rumor mills I Who sits together at lunch who hangs out after work etc I Ineffective downward comm can lead to an information vacuum in which rumors are started 10 What is organizational culture 0 Totality of socially transmitted behavior patters in an organization 0 Ex how people dress how hard they work etc 0 Organizations are to be understood like living in a particular culture llKnow the law of diminishing returns 0 busy people need more reminders to act on downward communication but more is only better up to a certain point 12 What 3 types of changes do rumors undergo as they pass from person to person 0 3 types of changes 0 Leveling details are omitted o Sharpening exaggeration of some parts of the rumor o Assimilation people distort message to fit their own view of things 13 What are the different types of power within organizations as mentioned in your book 0 Legitimate power 0 Authority a person has by virtue of his her position I Ex boss can hire give orders authorize paychecks o Reward power 0 The ability to use rewards to in uence other people 0 Coercive power 0 Ability to in uence individuals by withholding rewards 0 Expert power 0 Ability to in uence another based on one s possession of knowledge experience or judgment that the other person needs I Ex Dr Kissinger is consulted by president because of his expertise when he does not hold a position in the cabinet 0 Referent power 0 Ability to in uence someone because of his desire to identify with some power source I Someone willing to please the boss just so they stay on the boss good side 14 According to your text what communication behaviors on the part of organization leaders create a positive climate 0 Task functions 0 Activities that help the group achieve its goal 0 Consideration functions 0 Any activities that improve the emotional climate or increase the satisfaction of individual members I Showing agreement support and encouragement 15 What are two characteristics of systems 0 Requisite variety amp wholism 16 What are the characteristics of effective health care teams from reader 0 17 What is distance spanning according to health communication researchers 0 Distance spanning o Enables utilizing expertise that ordinarily wouldn t be accessible I Idea that using networks of people to get in touch with more knowledgeable people 0 You talk to your significant other who talks to their mom who is a nurse and talks to a doctor and gets you information about a disease 18 What are three health related outcomes that are linked to communication behavior between patients and providers 0 Health related outcomes 0 l Satisfaction with care commitment to treatment health improvement 0 2 Commitment to treatment 0 3 Health improvement 19 What specific diseases are linked to family communication patterns Describe the relationships 0 Family communication patterns linked to anorexia and bulimia o Bulimia related to dysfunctional comm patterns during adolescence o AnoreXics have a reduced orientation towards family conversation 0 Collaborative or compromise con ict styles can help preventthese two diseases 20 What is culture What are some characteristics of culture What is the difference between mainstream and cocultures 0 Culture amp characteristics 0 way of life developed and shared by a group of people and passed down from generation to generation 0 widely held view that cultures are created through interactions 0 cultures evolve and are not static 0 culture is not part ofbiology I aka you cannot tell culture just by looking at someone o Mainstream culture 0 basic culture that enables all of us to coexist within a larger single society 0 in a diverse society like ours its consists of I the most common language I the basic social institutions Material artifacts and technology in use I values to which most people subscribe o Cocultures 0 Unique of specialized ways of thinking and speaking that characterize particular groups I Racial and ethnic groups I Social classes I Regions of the country religions etc 21 Know the ve dimensions along which all cultures vary Be able to recognize examples of the different levels of each dimension 0 Individualismcollectivism focuses on the group identity 0 Individualism I Individual goals emphasized I Selfreliance competition between individuals I 1 identity I direct precise communication 0 collectivism I emphasizes group goals I competition between groups not individuals I we identity I avoid confrontation I indirect imprecise comm o highlow context cultures meaning gatherd from words or situation 0 high context I focus on nonverbals use contextual cues to interpret meaning indirectnessspeak less listen more I linked with collectivist cultures 0 low context not as much emphasis on nonverbals I direct and explicit comm I linked with individualistic cultures 0 power distance degree to which people accept authority 0 high I value placed on social status birth order occupationalpolitical rankings I less access to and direct com with individuals of higher status I less likely to question authority gures 0 low I equally valued as a way of life I no one inherently superior I can speak to whomever they want I more likely to question authority 0 masculinityfemininity aka achievementnurturance o masculinity I value work strength competition assertiveness I sex roles more strictly de ned 0 femininity I value affection nurturance compassion interpersonal relations I sex roles exible o uncertainty avoidance extent to which culture avoids uncertainty 0 high I less tolerance for diversity I like rules and predictable behavior I like lots of info and little random things 0 low I more open to diversity I tolerate change better I tolerate randomness better 22 What is chronemics 0 Use and experience of time o Cultures also vary on this dimension 0 Monochromic vs polychromic o In the west we re very time conscious and structured monochromic o In south American people show up an hour late or early polychromic 23 What are ethnocentrism and stereotyping o Ethnocentrism using ones own group and customs as standard to judge others rather than just one way of doing things 0 Stereotyping assuming one characteristic is shared by ALL group members or one representative IS the group 24 What is group polarization according to your text 0 Some con ict between two groups 0 Move away from each other rather than try to work together 0 Can interefere with the accurate perception of other 0 After deliberation people are more likely to move toward a more extreme point in the direction to which the group s members were originally inclined 25 What are the characteristics of mass communication In what important ways does it differ from the other levels of communication that we have studied 0 Characteristics 0 Mediated encounters are different 0 Sensory input limited you are not using all of your sense you are just using sight and sound 0 Receivers have little control over sources I You can turn off the TV but it won t stop the messages from being received Sources are unknown to receivers amp vice versa Audience is large and all different from one another Intended for rapid consumption by large number of people 0 O O 0 Public rather than private Delayed feedback the only feedback is writing to the TV station 0 26 What is a gatekeeper in mass comm What do they do 0 Gatekeepers 0 Someone who selects messages and decides what gets broadcasted to the large audience 27 What is the magic bullethypodermic needle model of media effects What does it assume What are the assumptions of the Two Step Flow Opinion leader model of media effects 0 Magic bullethypodermic needle model 0 Hypothesis by watching violence it would directly impact you 0 Assumed that media has direct effects on audiences o The effects are large immediate and harmful 0 Two Step FlowOpinion leader Model 0 No longer see media as affecting audience directly 0 Media affects opinion leaders 0 These effects then lter down to masses 0 Audience is still mindless 28 What are limited but direct effects How does this differ from the hypodermic needle model and the twostep ow model of media effects 0 Limited but direct effects 0 At first the audience is assumed to be passive 0 But the media directly affects audience I These effects are small and consistent 0 Audience is then not always considered passive I We assume limited but direct effect 29 Be familiar with selective exposure amp selective attention 0 Selective exposure 0 The tendency to choose communication that will confirm your own opinions attitudes or values 0 Selective attention 0 The receiver process certain of the available stimuli while ltering out others 30 Be able to explain the uses and gratifications perspective on media 0 Uses and gratifications o More active audience 0 Assumes I People are motivated to use mass media I They are conscious of their motivations I Ex you come home from work and turn on the news because you want to know what s going on in the world I We try to understand why you watch what you watch 0 Rubin s findings 0 People watch the news to learn 0 People watch sitcoms to escape or kill time 31 How do the media influence social attitudes 0 In uence our perceptions about what the real world is and normal behavior Socialization of young people TV is part of our culture Maintain and mold cultural norms Provide important and believable messages about the content 0 Messages are very realistic even if the show is a fantasy 32 How do Social learning and Cultivation theory apply to mass media What is the mean world syndrome 0 Social Learning Theory 0 We learn by imitating 0 People can learn behaviors by modeling after characters on TV 0 Modeling is more likely to occur when I Models are attractive I Models are rewarded for their behavior D Ex if you see someone steal something on a TV show and they get away you tend to follow them 0 Cultivation o Heave TV viewers will over time come to see the world on TV as an accurate depiction of reality 0 TV is a powerful story teller in our culture 0 Shows us realistic messages that the receiver of messages tends to believe soap operas 0 Mean World Syndrome 0 We think the world is scarier than it is because you see so much violence on the news 33 Describe the sexual landscape of television 0 68 of all shows contain some sexual content 0 41 scenes per hour talk or behave in a sexual manner 0 10 shows include intercourse 34 How are video games related to aggression How might they be differentsimilar to TV in terms of effects 0 Video games amp aggression 0 Not immediate large effect incremental effects over time 0 Different from TV 0 Actively participating in story 0 You make the choice to do the violent behavior 0 Rewards take place immediately after the action is done 0 Similarities to TV 0 Still not real life 0 No reason social learning theory wouldn t work 0 Recent metaanalysis shows effect 35 What is the digital divide 0 Along economic lines there are technologic haves and havenots 0 There is a gap between those who can and cannot access the internet and technology 0 This is closely tied into income levels and cost of technology 36 What is convergence Bandwidth Narrowcasting Polarization 0 Convergence o The merging of computing telecommunications and median in a digital environment 0 Bandwidth 0 The amount of information that can go through a medium I Ex a ber optic can carry a lot more information through a wire than a cable wire can 0 Narrowcasting o If the audience is very large narrowcasting is the niche or something that a small group has in common I Ex there is a golf channel for those who like golf 0 Polarization o Tendency of groups to go towards extreme opinions I Ex racist groups 7 they all have the same belief and they all reinforce their beliefs which go towards the extreme opinion of the group 37 What is the FCC Why are they important 0 FCC 0 Federal communications commission 0 5 members 5 year terms 0 Nominated by president and confirmed by congress 0 Why are they important 0 Establish rules for granting licenses o Decided which use gets frequency based on who will best serve public interest 38 What are obscenity and indecency How are they different What implications do they have for broadcast regulation What is the relationship between first amendment rights and broadcast content 0 Obscenity 0 Never been protected speech in broadcast 0 Average person applying contemporary community standards would fine the dominant theme is prurient O Depicts patently offensive sexual conduct 0 Lacks serious artistic literary political or scientific value o Indecency 0 Protected by and subject to FCC regulation in broadcast settings 0 Content that describes or depicts sexual actiVities or organs 0 In terms patently offensive to contemporary community standards 0 Difference 0 Unlike obscenity indecent speech is not banned but merely regulated 0 Protected speech 0 Regulation only applies during certain hours of the day with indecency 0 First amendment 0 Congress has consistently upheld restrictions in interest of protecting kids 0 Broadcast content doesn t receive same rst amendment protect as other communication because of I Scarcity I Public interest I Mode of interest broadcast comes unaided into our homes through TV 4172010 120100 AM 4172010 120100 AM