Week 5 ANT 102
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Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Gaudette on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 102 at Illinois State University taught by Fred Smith in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Human Origins in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Adaptive advantages A Cystic brosis 1 Deleterious hereditary disorder characterized by excessive production of mucus in all organs notjust the lungs and malabsorption of nutrients 2 Most people die young in their 2039s3039s from lung failure you drown in your own uid 3 1 in 3900 children are born with cystic brosis 4 Several hundred mutations cause CF 5 Not speci c to any particular ethnic group 6 1 in 15000 mutation rate 7 Heterozygote advantage 8 Selective advantage i Asymptomatic and have signi cantly less frequent typhoid fever cholera e coli infections ii Because of the extra mucus and uids disease washes out of body more quickly than a normal body iii Carriers also more fertile iv Carriers less likely to develop breast cancer 9 Breast cancer i Suggestion that breast cancer is an infectious disease ii Always viral in lab animals iii Tumors always originate in milk ductsdirectly connected to external environment iv Breast cancer is differentially distributed throughout the world ex high in the US but low in Japan v Distribution of breast cancer mirrors the distribution of the house mouse 10PKU i Point mutation that destroys the ability in the body to produce a certain enzyme that is necessary in metabolizing a certain amino acid ii Left untreated can cause problems with brain development leading to mental retardation and seizures iii One of the few genetic diseases that can be controlled by diet low in phenylalanine and high in tyrosine 11PTC I Has to do with thyroid gland endocrine gland that controls metabolism and how body makes proteins and whether or not body is sensitive to hormones ii Goiter enlargement of the thyroid gland sometimes caused by absence of iodine or iodine de ciency iii Goiters associated with cretinism pregnant women will give birth to children with ADHD and IQ of 13 points lower joint stiffness lethargy iv Early 20th century northern US was endemic to goiters v lodine is used in the production of hormones by the thyroid gland regulates the conversion of fat to energy help form vi vii Viii ix our bones should have 150 micrograms per day is the indicated iodine intake Phenylthiocarbamide PTC 39l39l39 very bitter Tt somewhat bitter tt taste nothing Bitter taste caused by a group of chemicals called thiocyanates that are found in cabbage turnips mustard greens broccoli and Brussel sprouts Substance is part of a chemical which blocks iodine absorption quotfussy eaterquot hypothesis 12Allergies and asthma vi vii Viii ix 1819 John Bostock English physician describes exotic disease to Royal society Hay Fever 285000 56 in the English countryside had hay fever Not known in the US before 1850 and rare in Japan before 1950 Today 2025 Americans have allergies 510 of children have asthma Allergens trigger excessive immune response Immune system role detect and destroy quotnonselfquot creates protective proteins called antibodies antibodiesimmunogobulins lgG lgM lgA lgD lgE The allergy antibody is lgE the rst time someone who is allergy prone comes across an allergen such as ragweed he or she makes large amounts of ragweed lgE antibody Crohn s disease in ammatory bowel disease with a dramatic increase in the past 60 years Dr Joel Weinstock controlled symptoms by using worms 10 of all humans have pinworms hookworms must avoid detection to survive and thus damp down humans immune systems with proteins Because we are not living in our aboriginal environment 13Theories for allergies Skin color Antitoxin theory allergins associated with or produce chemical toxins initial exposure arms immune system subsequent exposuremassive response Too clean theory our immune system is set up to expect to be educated by soil mycobacteria early in childhood when they are not the result is an unbalanced system prone to allergy Parasite immunity theory widely accepted Mauke Polynesia 20 years ago stamp out endemic parasitic worms after 18 years worm problem solved but new problem emerged rampant allergy to shell sh octopus A Nichesavannahequatorial east Africa hunter gatherer 1 Adaptive advantageplastic growth development material culture buffer 2 5 3 6 Ecological changesnew selection environmentlatitudealtitude humiditytemperature 3 Diseases agriculture urbanism medical intervention 4 Ongoing selectionon going human evolution We are in the quotwrong nichequot and suffering health consequences Epicanthic eye fold Melanin 1 2 3 Melanin responsible for skin color and is produced in melanocyte Comes in eumelanin brownblack and phaeomelanin redyellow Skin color has everything to do with latitude farther North you get less sunshine Rickets 1 2 Our aboriginal condition is black skin we39re all from Africa IndianPakistani people not native to London invited to live in London in the 196039s 50 of the children had rickets US 1920 s African American kids had rickets at 23 times the rates of EuroAmerican in the same economic condition Post industrial revolution in the UK 190039s 90 urban kids had rickets window tax in the 18th century Vitamin Dthe sunshine vitamin i Not a vitamin but a hormone ii Triggered by UVB radiation 23 day process iii Diffuses into blood vessels where it binds with protein iv Primary function of absorption of calcium from your diet v Vitamin D can39t be obtained from natural diet it is added to milk and other foods vi Food high in vitamin D herring mackerel cod salmon cod liver oil This is the Eskimo diet vii Experiment Europeans and Africans exposed to minimal vitamin D Europeans exhibited signs of vitamin D in 48 hours Africans did not Eskimos have dark skin because sunshine re ects off snow don39t need light skin because of the oily sh Above the 40 latitude if you are not light skinned you are at a great risk for rickets Viii E Other variables that we associate with skin color 1 Nose i Respiration humidi er warms the air lters particulate matter ii Variation has to do with nose lengthwidth more humidbroader nose less humiditybeakier nose Eye color I Eye color is determined by amount of melanin pigment in anterior layers of iris ii Also affected by optical phenomenon called tyndall scattering which opens the opportunity for more colors iii Two kinds of melanin blackbrown yellowred brown eyes have blackbrown melanin blue eyes have very little melanin and green eyes are light passing through a lter of melanin Individuals with light colored eyes are known to be photo sensitive eye colornatura sunglasses Oculocutaneous albinism ll blue eyes were a freak occurrence that happened 600010000 years ago all people with light eyes are resulted from random genetic drift Blond hair only happened 11000 years ago Lactose intolerance Lack the enzyme lactase Ability to have milk past weaning age 7 means that your body produces lactase Hypertension ii iii iv v vi Blood requires pressure to circulate through the body to counter the problem of gravity Excessive pressurehypertension Hypertension causes damage to blood vessels and kidneys To control hypertension medication and a diet without salt Salt is the primary cause of hypertension African Americans predisposed to hypertension
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