Chemical Principles and Applications
Chemical Principles and Applications CHEM 1122
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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Esteban Towne on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1122 at University of Connecticut taught by Keith Oppenheim in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/205916/chem-1122-university-of-connecticut in Chemistry at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
CHEMISTRY 1122 FINAL EXAM REVIEW DI I e h C OppenheIm UI IIWSI SIIy 0f Cmnmcticu SIGNS CI What To Expect 50 multiple choice questions 2pts each BRING A 2 PENCIL I DO NOT HAVE ANY One question is poorly worded so everyone will get 2 points added to the exam The nal question of the exam is a gimmie get those two points Answer EVERY question It cannot hurt Should not take nearly two whole hours Your grades should be done Tuesday 14th Exam 1 Information Be able to convert between decimal notation and scienti c notation The names of the parts of the periodic table Use metric pre xes kilo centa milli micro Table 22 to make conversions Understand signi cant gures nothing too confusing Calculating density mass or volume Exam 1 Information Conservation of mass products have to equal reactants Nothing is made or destroyed in a chemical reaction Conservation of energy energy is neither made nor destroyed it is just converted from one type to another Temperature conversions be able to convert F C and K back and forth Chapter 3 slides Exam 1 Information Heat Capacity Know the difference between C and c Higher heat capacities need more energy to raise the temperature of the substance qmCAT qheat mmass Cspeci c heat capacity ATchange in temperature Tf Ti Any heat capacity would be given to you but you should know how to use them The Periodic Table of Elements Atomic number Si 2809 silicon 272 277 269 Copyright 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Tm39s quothurmluchn y Chemistry Chapter 4 Exam 1 Information Atomic numbers atomic masses and how we can use these to determine the number of electrons protons and neutrons Parts of periodic table Alkali metals Alkali earth metals Noble gases Halogens Lanthanides Actinides Where are the parts of an atom Protons and Neutrons in nucleus Electrons surround nucleus Exam I Information Ions cations positive anions negative Ion charge protons electrons Use periodic table to determine many ions Isotopes same element with different mass thus different number of neutrons Use isotopes to determine the molecular masses listed on the periodic table sum of the isotopes in their abundances Exam 11 Information Compounds atoms combined in a constant composition gives you a compound Compounds are shown as chemical formulas Where subscripts indicate the number of each atom in the formula Formula mass is the mass of a compound the sum of the atomic masses of the compound Exam 11 Information Ionic Compounds Type I binary metal name nonmetalide Type II binary metal namecation charge nonmetalide Naming Molecular Compounds pre xname of 1st element pre x nonmetalide Naming Acids Binary acids hydrobase name nonmetalic acid Exam 11 Information Ionic Compounds Type I binary metal name nonmetalide Type II binary metal namecation charge nonmetalide Naming Molecular Compounds pre xname of 1st element pre x nonmetalide Naming Acids Binary acids hydrobase name nonmetalic acid Exam 11 Information Polyatomio ions are single ions that contain more than one atom Name the cation rst then the anion 3A 4A 5A 6A7A 303393 C03392 No3391 Siog392 Po4393 so4392 Clo3391 Aso4393 Seo4392 Brog391 116042 1031 U Exam 11 Information What is a mole N A 6022X1023 things A compound can be broken down If we have 1 mol H20 then there are 2 mol H and 1 mol 0 We can use this information to determine relative masses or each element present The relative masses of elements Within a compound can be used to determine empirical formula Look back at your exam or Ch 6 slides to get an idea about how these work real formula 2 Factor used to multiply subscripts MM emperical formula Exam 11 Information Mass in a formula can be determined by 1 X 39 1 1 Percentage mass ofeement 1n mo X100 mass of 1 mol of the compound Exam 11 Information Balancing an equation Write skeletal equation Start with elements that occur in only one compound on both sides If an element occurs as a free element on either side balance it last Make sure all your coef cients are Whole numbers Double check it is balanced by summing the total number of each atom Exam 11 Information Use the solubility table to determine Whether something is soluble or insoluble in water From this information be able to determine a spectator ion Types of reactions Acidbase redox ionic Classi cations of reactions single displacement double displacement synthesis decomposition Exam 11 Information Stoichiometry the relationships between the amounts of reactants and products Remember the pancake analogy Mole to mole conversions and mass to mass conversions Limiting Reactant Theoretical Yield Percent Yield Enthalpy A 1 Y39 1 Percent Y1eld M X 100 Theoretlcal Y1eld Exam 11 Information Know the general pattern of the electromagnetic spectrum Energy and wavelength Radio waves to Gamma waves Know quantum numbers n is principal quantum number 11 l234 i corresponds to the orbital shape E 012 n 1 correspond to s p d forbital shapes mg describes the speci c orbital m ElOlE mS is electron spin either 12 or 12 No 2 639 can have the same four qn s Exam 11 Information Which quantum numbers have higher energy than other ones we have seen these on exams Write electron con gurations ls22s22p6 Periodic Trends Atomic size decreases across a period increases down a group Ionization energy increases across a period decreases down a group Metallic character decreases across a period increases down a group Exam 111 Information Lewis structures Use Lewis dot structures to predict the arrangements of electrons Numbers of lone pairs single bonds double bonds triple bonds Molecular Shapes Use the VSEPR geometry to determine molecular shapes and angles in a molecule Exam 111 Information Convert all gas law problems into PV nRT units these are SI units except P which is in atm Know STP means latm Pressure 273K Temperature Use PV nRT to solve for one of the other variables Exam 111 Information Intermolecular forces NOT Bonding Forces Dispersion Forces A11 molecules have dispersion forces Dipole Forces Only occur if there is a permanent dipole present Hydrogen Bonding When a H is bonded to N O or F Exam 111 Information Vaporization is going from liquid to a gas Fusion is going from a solid to a liquid Symbols are AHvapor A119 The heat of vaporization and fusion are state properties This means they are based on the number of moles in the given chemical equation Going from gas to liquid is AH VClp Going from liquid to solid is AHqu Exam 111 Information Understand the de nition of molarity M and how you can use that to your advantage You have molesL so you can convert to other values such as grams of solvent Be able to convert molarity into either grams moles or a volume The Molarity and Volume of one solution are inversely proportional to a nal diluted solution M1V1 M2V2 Exam 111 Information Be able to calculate the pH of something if you are given the H3O You should memorize this equation It is fairly easy Be able to spot a strongweak acid or strongweak base from a list Tables 143 144 145 146 Chapter 18 Review Look at Problems 57a 58a 59a and 60a in the book Can you name those compounds Then you should be ne Know methane ethane propane butane pentane hexane heptane octane nonane decane What is the molecular formula for alkanes alkenes and alkynes
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