[H] Classical and Christian Europe
[H] Classical and Christian Europe Hist 101
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Brody Howe on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 101 at Washington State University taught by Laurali Turner in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/205935/hist-101-washington-state-university in History at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
ID S STUDY GUIDE 1 Phoenicians Definition Canaanites whose civilization ourished about 1050750 BC in presentday coastal Syria where they established major trading ports ex Ugarit Master sailors they planted colonies around the Mediterranean many of which including Carthage became independent states Took part in the first international system of states the era documented by the Amarna Archieves ca 14501300 BC Served as the cradle of Western writing systems Spread the alphabet Prospered in the first millennium BC Spoke Semitic language Their heirs to the civilization prospered in Ugarit around 1400 BC 600 BC their ships accomplished the first known circumnavigation to Africa Began planting colonies around 93911 century BC Cyprus North Africa Sicily Malta Sardinia Italy Southern France Spain Portugal Colonies Greatest Phoenician colony Carthage39 founded by the city of Tyra around 750 BC Religious art is full of Egyptian sphinx coffins that look like mummy cases and women wearing wigs in the style of Egypt sNew Kingdom Art also contains Near Eastern Seals and figures out of Greek myths Sacrificed their first born to a god in return for divine favor 750 BC lost their independence to the Assyrians and in later years NeoBabylonians Persians and other foreign conquerors followed But their cultures survived and spread to western Asia and western Mediterranean Alphabet unlike pictographic or syllabic systems of Mesopotamia Egypt and China in an alphabet each letterithat is written symbolgstands for one sound in spoken language for several closely related sounds Was not the lst alphabet39 19001800 BC Egypt Middle Kingdom limestone inscription found in Semitic Script with Egyptian in uence 2 The Code of Hammurabi Definition An influential collection of various crimes and punishments this work was named after the famous Amorite King Hammurabi Amorite King Hammurabi 17921750 BC ruled in Babylon about 600 years after Sargon 3 l I Code became both a legal and literary classic in later days I 282 laws I Strict justice was not lenient at all39 where earlier codes were satisfied with payment in silver as recompense for crime Hammurabi Code was the first to stipulate such ruthless penalties as mutilation drowning and impaling I Dealt with family marriage domestic affairs I Women and lower class were ruled with more severe rulings I Also came up with law of retaliation for wounds eye to an eye I Even children could be punished for their parents crimes I Was inscribed in 49 vertical columns on a stone stele about 75 feet high and displayed in a prominent public place law belonged to everyone I But punishments were not egalitarian39 it was based on class crimes against a freeperson received harsher treatment than crimes against a slave or a semifree person Ancient Hebrews I Definition People who settled on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean around 1200 BC or perhaps earlier Their belief in one God directly influenced the faith of Christians Muslims and modern Jews I Originated from Abraham who was born in Mesopotamia I His two sons Isaac and Ishmael I Jacob and his sons I Joseph I Were seminomadic shepherds I Abraham migrated to Canaan39 his descendants migrated to Egypt due to a famine in Canaan I Enslaved by Egyptians returned to Canaan during the Exodus Moses leads them out of Egypt I 12 tribes sons of Jacob I Had troubles with the Philistines I Origins of United Kingdom l200lOOOBC Three kings Saul David Solomon I David was the greatest king I Solomon built Temple of Jerusalem I The divided Kingdom 1 Kingdom of Israel 10 Northern Tribes capital in Samaria Kingdom of Judah 2 Southern Tribes capital in Jerusalem Assyria conquers K of Israel 722 BC Chaldeans conquered K of Judah 586 BC Jerusalem destroyed Babylonian Captivity about 70 years N I Monotheism belief that there is only one God The Hebrew Bible places this belief as originating about 20001500 BC when God commanded Abraham to give up Mesopotamian polytheism for belief in one God I Ten Commandments According to the Hebrew Bible these then basic ethical and religious rules were given by God to Moses and the Israelites at Mt Sinai They have played an immensely influential role in Judaism and Christianity 4 Persia I lndoEuropeanspeakingpeople I A thousand miles east of Phoenicia I Arrived in what is now Tran around 1500BC with the Medes but they suddenly conquered Medes by the young Persian King Cyrus the Great 559530 BC I Built the first navy I Definition vast prosperous and lawabiding West Asian empire from about 550330 BC it presented the greatest success yet of a universal kingship I It took only 20 years for Cyrus to conquer most of western Asia and much of central Asia I Cambyses added Egypt and Libya I Darius corralled northwestern India and Thrace I Xerxes extended Persian rule to Greece Failed I Persian Empire survived until a GrecoMacenonian army under Alexander the Great king of Macedon 336323BC destroyed it I Why they were successful Military prowess political skill at administration and organization lawabiding and prosperous I Spoke Aramaic which was the most widespread language of western Asia became the empire s basic language of commerce and administration This built unity I Persian kings were not allpowerful bound by the rule of law and by the considerable power of Persia s proud nobility on whom they relied to fill the top administrative positions I Like the Assyrian Empire the Persian domain was divided into provinces called satrapies 20 satrapies was a unit of administration and tax collection I For the first time taxes could be paid with a stable official coinage the gold daric and the silver shekel I They developed a highly ethical religion in the first millennium BC I Zoroastrianism Religion founded about 1000550 BC by the Persian prophet Zarathustra Zoroastrians believe in a supreme deity and a cosmic contest between good and evil within each individual 5 Ar te I Definition Originally meaning warrior prowess or excellence ar te was a key term of ancient Greek culture It evolved over the centuries to apply to politics and philosophy and to women as well as men I Homer 750 BC lonia The Iliad and The Odyssey talks about Trojan War and the glorious days of past I Heroes Men and Women I Core value basis of Greek identity and education I Later founded in Athens and Sparta I If you lacked ar te the gods The Olympians will punish you I Loyalty to the family played an important role in social relations I Friendship was another important social institution 6 Polis I Definition Term for an ancient Greek citystate a system that reached its height around 700350 BC I Occurred during the Archaic Period Period of ancient Greek history from around 700500 BC I Urban area and countryside I Urban aria divided into two parts 1 Acropolis highpoint geographically easy to defend39 king or chiefs residence39 temples political activity 2 Agora meeting or market place39 women slaves were not included in citizenship I New lLilitary Systems Hoplites and Phalanx Hoplites heavily armed soldiers Phalanx formation like in the movie 300 I Athens was head of the Delian League 478477 BC many economic and political reforms during Solon s years getting close to democracy after Cleisthenes the father of democracy Reform I The Greeks came to call the polis a common thing koinon which means it belonged to its people not to a few nobles or to a king or a god I Emphasis was on equality 7 Sparta I Located in Laconia I Close and secretive39 Sparta was isolated I Three class system Helots slaves most were Messenians Perioikoi commoners Similars Elite hoplites Because of the slave revolts Sparta made all its hoplites into Sim ilars No democracy mixes 4combination of monarchy oligarchy and popular government Not many trades so I No colonies like Athens did rather conquered surrounding lands I Their currency consisted of heavy and clumsy iron skewers I Sparta schooled its sons from childhood to be soldiersia system known as the agage I Babies were examines by the Euphores to see if they were eligible to become Spartan soldiers I Age 718 boys went to be trained in barracks weren t fed well I 1820 served in the krypleia secret service living secretly in the hills of Messenia where they survived by hunting foraging and stealing I 2060 served as hoplites I Devoted all their time to fighting and training the next generation I Spartan women were trained as well as men but separately I Sparta and Athens was the two big rival poleis I Focus on lLilitarism I Different government system such as having two kings Euphors overseers and assembly I Was head of the Peloponnesian League 550 BC alliances with other poleis I Never developed culture I Spartan women had more independence compared to women of other poleis I If women died in childbirth they set up a monument as well as the death of a hoplite Cleisthenes I Athenian Eupatrid who led the revolution 500BC I Father of Democracy I Extinguished Eupatrid power equality was the watchword I He replaced 400 Solon s council with 500 of his men previous 4 tribes were reorganized into ten tribes each serving as a kind of executive committee for one of the ten months of the civic year I Council of 500 prepared Assembly agenda but those who attended felt free to vote as they wished Eupatrids were not in control I Only Areopagus council remained a privileged preserve I Cleisthenes devised system of Ostracism a sort of annual unpopularity contest that received its name from the pieces of broken pottery on which the names of victims were chiseled The winner was forced into ten years of exile although his property would not be confiscated Ostracism was meant to protect the regime by defusing factionalism and discouraging tyrants 9 Pericles 7 O l I 495429 BC Leader of fifth century BC Athens he established Athens as a great center of art and literature as well as a great empire I Stripped away the longstanding supervisory powers over the regime and redistributed those powers to the Council of 500 and the people s court council s I 450 BC payment for public service specifically for jurors who received a halfdrachma for a day ofjury duty I Respected the common people I Excellent orator who benefited from an education in philosophy I Honest and tireless worker I General who led in peace as well as war I Was much in uenced by woman Aspasia She belonged to the small group of noncitizen women called helairai courtesansiprostitues patronized by men of wealth and status She was Pericles mistress and bore him a son I Athenian democracy survived with occasional oligarchic intrusions for 150 years after Pericles death During which Athens became more egalitarian Herodotus I Historian 485425 BC born in Halicarnassus I Definition Credited along with Thucydides of founding historywriting in the West The word history comes from the word historiai used by Herodotus I Thucydides ancient Greek historian with Herodotus a founder of historywriting in the West I Herodotus and Thucydides are more rationalistic than their predecessors and their subject matter is war politics peoples and customsiwhat we think of as the tuff of historywriting today I He traveled widely eventually settled in Athens I He wrote not only about Greeks but also about Persians Egyptians and a host of other peoples in Europe Asia and Africa I Gathered information by interviewing older people in various countries as well as by checking what limited written public records existed I Also wrote about previous centuries and places he had not visited but with uneven accuracy I The thread through The Histories is the cyclical rise and fall of empires ll Aristotle Definition Ancient Greek philosopher student of Plato and tutor of Alexander the Great His scientific writings were the most in uential philosophical classics of Greek and Roman civilization and remained so during the Middle Ages From Macedonia 384322 BC spent most of his life in Athens first as a student at the Academy then as founder of his own school the Lyceum Like Plato he wrote dialogues but non survive His writing embraces politics ethics poetry botany physics metaphysics astronomy rhetoric zoology logic and psychology Aristotle was a far more practical than Plato placed great emphasis on observation and fieldwork and on classification and systemization Agreed with Plato about the existence of absolute standards of good and evil but he emphasized the relevance of such standards to everyday life Change was not an illusion but an important phenomenon Emphasized the goal of change Aristotle defined an object s aret as the fulfillment of its inherent function in the cosmos For the aret of a human being he agreed with Plato Only the philosopher achieved true aret Did not advocate democracy He advocated a government of wealthy gentlemen who had been trained by philosophersinot the best regime imaginable but in his opinion the best one possible He believed that men had stronger capacities to make judgments than women and so should rule over them His scientific writings not only were the most in uential philosophical classics of Greece and Rome as well but they remained so during the Middle Ages in the Arabic and Latin worlds Alexander the Great Greece falls to Philip at Battle of Chaeronea 338 BC Big Al reigns 336323 BC Charismatic handsome educated 331 BC Battle of Gaugamela completes Persian defeat Big Al s conquest begins with the Battle of the Granicus River in 334 BC 9 moved east 4 then south to Egypt esast through Syria Mesopotamia and on to India intelligent and we 11 In first three battles Persian power bases conquered Progress east until his men demanded to return home constant military action for eight years Heads west stopping in Babylon and dies Big Al s Tdealsipolitical and cultural fusion of conquered lands with Greek ideals and philosophy Big Al s Legacyispread of Greek ideals changes in Greek ideals due to in uences of new lands turning inward in philosophical ideas focus on the individual rather than poliscommunity39 emergence of economic based settlementsnot cultural l 3 Hellenistic Age Hellenism Term used to designate ancient Greece s language culture and civilization Hellenistic Kingdom 32330 BC Antigonid Kingdom of Macedonia Dynasty founded by ANtigonus Gonatas in 276 BC and governed by Macedonian rulers for about 140 years until the Roman conquest last of the three great Hellenistic kingdoms to emerge from civil war after Alexander s death Their new leagues were dominated by the wealthy yet the leagues federalism in uences the founders of US The Seleucid Kingdom Dynasty founded by Seleucus and governed by rulers of Anatolia from 31264 BC it established seventy throughout the Near East Controlled trade routes to the east colonie s Traded agricultural goods and manufactured products for spices from India and Arabia Addressed the security needs of their far ung realms by establishing over seventy colonies extending to central Asia Some Seleucid colonies developed into ourishing Greek cities particularly in Anatolia and on the coast of Syria Established colonies to increase their power Had three nerve centers Tonia Syria Babylonia The great Seleucid city was Antioch which beame one of the wealthiest and most luxurious of all eastern Mediterranean cities Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt Dynasty founded by Ptolemy l and ruled by Egyptian kings it was the wealthiest most sophisticated and longest lasting of the Hellenistic kingdoms Administration was a joint effort of both immigrants and natives Upper ranks of government were dominated by Greeks and Macedonians while native elites usually held low or midlevel government positions To create a hereditary military group in the countryside Ptolemy I settled his soldiers on land grants there Native Egyptians were excluded from the army at frist although they served as policemen but by the second century BC the dynasty needed native Egyptians too as soldiers Kingdom of Pergamum the intellectual and artistic capital of Greek Asia in Hellenistic times Rulers of Pergamum the Attalid dynasty of kings carved out a small kingdom that became independent of the Seleucids in 263 BC and fell into Roman hand sin 133 BC Showplace of Greek civilization the upper city of Pergamum was laid out on hillside terraces rising to a palace and fortified citadel Pergamum Altar a huge monument to an Attalid victory over the Celts who first invaded Anatolia in 278 BC and whose advance the Attalids checked Could not stop the Celts from settling in central Anatolia where they created their kingdom of Galatia Pergamum was famous for its sculptors and for a library second only to Alexandria s Pergamene writers focused on scholarship to the exclusion of poetry perhaps as a result of the in uence of Stoic philosophers who disapproved of poetry s emotionalism Hellenistic society Opportunities for Women Hellenistic women enjoyed small improvement in political and legal status and bigger improvements in economic and ideological status the most famous Hellenistic woman Cleopatra VII was queen of Egypt from 5130 BC Slavery slavery was an important part of the Hellenistic social and economic scene39 in Sicily and southern Italyslaves worked huge plantations in Mediterraneanslaves were commonly found in the household or in administration and in cities rather than in the countryside Hellenistic Culture Museum new institution39 was a residence study and lecture hall for scholars scientists and poets also a research center to keep the king s engineers up to date on new technology for warfare and agriculture Archimedes the greatest Greek mathematician Archimedes of Syracuse 287 212 BC calculated the approximate value of pi and invented the water snail The leading scientific beneficiary was Herophilus of Chalcedon 320250BC a practicing physician in Alexandria recognition against Aristotle Epicureanism Epicurus 341270 BC an Athenian citizen founded his philosophical ancient school at around the same time as Zeno founded Stoicism39 emphasis on the avoidance of pain and the pursuit of intellectual pleasure Stoicism Found by Zeno of Athens emphasis of the pursuit of wisdom the reliability of sensory experience and freedom from all passion Mystery religion Popular Hellenistic cults featuring the initiation of worshipers into secret doctrines they replaced the traditional Greek religion of the Olympian gods The Jews in the Hellenistic world Maccabees Traditionalist Jews led by the Hasmonean family who in 167 BC revolted against Hellenizing laws and influences Jews were divided into various schools of thought with Hellenizers and traditionalists representing the two poles of opinion 13 Etruscans Definition Inhabitants of twelve loosely confederated citystates north of Rome39 they were conquered by the Romans by the early their century BC They grew rich from the mining of iron copper and silver from piracy from trade and from a network of influential Etruscan emigrants throughout central Italy probably including Rome s last three kings Brilliant wealthy warlike Origin probably lay in Italy but possibly in Anatolia Power extended to many places in central northern and even southern Italy Were great artists and architects and very religious Etruscan women kept their own names and Etruscan children bore the names of both parents 1 4 Patrician amp Plebeian Most senators were patricians as early Rome s hereditary aristocracy was known They monopolized the senate and priesthood and they did not intermarry with plebeians Romans called these two social classes orders ian order is a social class whose members share a common rank Rest of the people who were not patricians were plebeians Free most like ordinary people some were wealthy Ordinary plebeians demanded relief from debt redistribution of land codification and publication of the law Ten tribunes elected annually by the plebeians People s champions 15 Paterfamilias 16 I Definition Oldest living male in an ancient Roman family who had supreme legal power within the household Before the Republic 753509 BC I Roman respect for the paterfamilias stemmed from Roman esteem for ancestors who were more important than in Greek culture I Had the supreme power within the household I Roman fathers rarely used their power to kill an errant wife or child I Many perhaps even most adult males were independent of a paterfamilias I Roman women never became legally independent even on the death of a paterfamilias I Roman society consisted of pyramidal and hereditary patronclient networks Punic Wars I Definition Three wars which Roman empire finally destroyed Carthage Carthage powerhouse mineral rich mines in Spain I First Punic War 264241 BC Rome not only built navy but outlasted the enemy in a long and bloody con ict Carthage built a new and bigger empire in Spain beginning in 237 BC under Barca family leadership I Second Punic War 218201 BC I Third Punic War 149146 BC I Acquired new provinces in Sicily Sardinia Corsica Spain and North Africa economic exploited Hannibal I The new Carthaginian commander 27yearold Hannibal Barca during the Second Punic War I Hannibal surprised Romans by marching overland to Italy making a dangerous passage across the Alps I Took elephants where most of them died on the way I Defeated the Romans in battle and cause them enormous casualties Battle of Cannae in Apulia 216 BC where Carthage gave Rome the bloodiest defeat in historyikilled fifty thousand Romans I Then a Roman military general Publius Cornelius Scipio 236183 BC appeared and conquered Carthage s Spanish dominions 4 forced Hannibal back to North Africa for a final battle in 202 BC near Zama I Hannibal ended his days in exile from Carthage fighting for the Seleucids in their unsuccessful war against Rome 18 20 Julius Caesar I Definition 10044 BC Roman general gifted at war and politics he was named dictator in 49 BC and was later assassinated by the members of the senate in 44 BC I Family connection to Marius I Career depended on oratory boldness and sheer talent at war and politics I Had many lovers among whom queen of Egypt Cleopatra I Assassins of Caesar called themselves Liberators I Conquest of Gaul Modern France I Crosses the Rubicon River 49BC I Defeats Pompey I Dictator in 47 BC39 Dictator for life in 44 BC I Reconstitutes senate adds 300 of his supporters I Pompey was an optimas who wanted land for his men statues for himself I Caesar was a popularis who wanted to be his own man land I Civil war followed Caesar s death for 13 years I The Liberators and Caesar s partisans fought to settle whether the Senate or a dictator would rule Rome I Final conflict pitted Mark Antony 8330BC Caesar s chief lieutenant and the man who inherited his love affair with Cleopatra against Octavian Caesar s grandnephew and adopted son and heir to Caesar s name and his huge fortune I Octavian s forces defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the naval battle of Actium in 31 BC39 their suicides followed shortly Augustus Caesar I Definition 3lBCl4AD Honorific title of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus whose fortyfiveyear rule laid the foundations of two hundred years of prosperous Roman peace I He was the first roman Emperor I The New OrderPrincipate Princeps first citizen an old title of respect in the senate Senate has power but under Augustus Armyreduced less tax burden no alternative power base lmperator commander German frontier at Rhine Senate I Augustus wanted advice wo descent I Used senate or rather a committee of senators and magistrates as a sounding board39 later evolved into a permanent advisory board I Senate granted Octavian honorific title AUGUSTUS Works Cited Manfred Wundram Art Of The Renaissance Universe Books New York 1972 This book was very informative about the history of the Renaissance The book tells about the history of the Renaissance The book even goes to a great detail about the many different artists work in the Renaissance Although some parts of the book was a tough read I still managed to get the information that Ineeded out of it and was very useful towards writing my paper This book was very informative and contributed much to my knowledge and understanding of the subject matter Peter and Linda Murray The Art Of The Renaissance Thames and Hudson 2004 This book taught me in detail about the pre and early Renaissance art The book also discussed many views about the different kinds of art in the Renaissance I would have never though existed Though this book went into great details of the art that the artists made I only used what was required to strengthen my essay but kept the rest for my general knowledge about the Renaissance I would definitely use this book again if I had to write another topic on the history of Renaissance and also recommend to my friends wanting to learn more about Pre or Early Renaissance or use it as a great source Geraldine A Johnson 39 Art A Very Short Introduction Oxford 2005 This book was very indepth regarding the topic of Renaissance Art It tells about from the works of the artists and why they drew it This book really made my views of the type of arts in the Renaissance a new idea The book also explores forgotten aspects of Renaissance art such as objects made for the home and women as artists and patrons This book helped me a lot on my paper and what s most important is that I learned a lot out of this book I would de nitely recommend it to a friend who needs an excellent source Ackerman James S The Architecture Of Michelangelo Article from Pdf This article was very detailed in telling about Michelangelo s creative mind in his architecture The article talks about the buildings designed by Michelangelo in Florence and Rome including the Medici Chapel Famese Palace the Basilica of St Peter and the Capitoline Hill This article really helped me tremendously in the writing of my essay as my topic was about the life history and art of Michelangelo I would de nitely recommend it to a friend who would want to know more about Michelangelo or needs a excellent source for an essay
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