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by: Daniel Scovotti


Daniel Scovotti

Dr. Maleckar

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These are this week's lecture notes for Chemistry 0110 for Dr. Maleckar. Enjoy!
Dr. Maleckar
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This 19 page Reader was uploaded by Daniel Scovotti on Friday August 29, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of Pittsburgh taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 96 views.


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Date Created: 08/29/14
Chem 1 10 Fall 2014 Maleckar Chapter 2 Atoms Molecules and Ions I Progression of Ideas About Atoms 1 Democritus and Leucippus 5 century BC Ancient Greece Matter is composed of small invincible particles called atomos which means uncuttable 2 Aristotle and Plato Aristotle and Plato didn t agree and the idea was rejected for 2000 years 3 John Dalton 1766 1844 Self taught 13 Begin School at age 12 English Schoolteacher and Quaker Kept a diary of meteorological weather observations over 200000 entries Laid in state in Manchester 40000 people attended Dalton s Postulates Each element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms True Today All atoms of a given element are identical Not correct today He doesn t know about isotopes which gures out the amount of neutrons 1932 When the neutron was discovered Atoms of an element are not changed into a different type of element by chemical reactions atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions Not correct today You identify atoms by the amount of protons it has atomic number Nuclear Chemistry changed identity Compounds are formed when atoms of more than one element combine a given compound always has the same relative number and kind of atoms Correct Today Same ratio same make up 4 J J Thomson 1856 1940 Won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1906 his son won the same in 1937 He discovered the electron in 1897 Performed Cathode Ray Experiments Proposed the Plum Pudding thought the electron looked like it model of an atom Thomson s Cathode Ray Experiments httpwwwvoutubecomwatchvO9Govscbazk Summary Thomson s Plum Pudding Model of the Atom Thought it was rum raisin ice cream Overall atoms are neutral They re made up of positively charged matter with negatively charged electrons embedded throughout 5 R A Millikan 18681953 American Physicist Conducted the oil drop experiment Awarded the Nobel Prize in 1911 for determining the charge on an individual electron Thomson Milliken We can calculate the mass of a single electron 910 x 10quot 28 g 6 Ernest Rutherford 1871 1937 0 Research student for J J Thomson tried to figure out the atom with him 0 Won the Nobel Prize Physics in 1908 0 Used the gold foil test to develop a new model of an atom It changed the working model of an atom and what people thought of an atom Rutherford s Gold Foil Experiment 0 In the lead box there is an alpha emitter 0 The nuclei are shedding pieces of themselves in attempt to be stable radioactive 0 Alpha emitter giving off particles that have a positive charge to them 0 If you put it in a lead block it prevents the alpha particles to get past the lead 0 But there is one whole inside the lead Pb block 0 The alpha emitter releases the particles and then you have a stream of positive particles 0 They pass through the electron cloud Gold Foil because those are occupying most of the space 0 They pass through and the particles hit the uorescent screen One of the two detectors on the other side since they hit the gold foil and go right through it 0 Then they are detected by one of the two detectors 0 If it hits the nucleus of the gold foil it de ects right back 0 Ernest Rutherford concludes that something in the nucleus is very dense and that s why the particles bounce sharply off of it and he does not use the idea of J J Thomson s Plum Pudding Model but instead tries to nd out why the density of the nucleus causes the particles to bounce sharply off them The Neutron 0 Mass of electrons Mass of Protons DOES NOT EQUAL the atomic mass 0 1932 Sir James Chadwick 18911974 proved the existence of neutrons 0 Bombarded a sheet of Beryllium Be with alpha particles 0 It caused neutrons to be generated he showed they were neutral and had a mass similar to protons II The Parts of the Atom Charge Mass gamug Proton 1 1 0073 Neutron 0 1 0087 Electron 1 5534 X 10quot4 The Nucleus 0 Contains the protons and neutrons 0 Tiny 10quot 4 A Angstrom and the Whole atom is 15 A 0 Angstrom A number to the quot10 value 0 An atom is 100000 times larger than a nucleus 0 Nucleus Extremely dense l0quotl3 10quot4 gml 0 A matchbox full of nuclei would Weigh over 25 billion tons Protons and Neutrons 1 They make up almost none of the volume because they take up the nucleus 2 Make up about 12 of its mass each 3 Involved in nuclear reactions only Nucleus is the chemistry of protons and neutrons Electrons 1 Make up most of the volume of the atom cloud of ufi 2 Make up almost none of its mass 3 Very involved in the atom s reactions All atoms of an element have the same number of protons ex all carbon atoms have 6 protons We give atoms a name based on their Atomic Number If an atom is neutral then the number of Protons Electrons What about neutrons Fluctuates That s how you get isotopes An element can have the same amount of protons and same identity even if the atomic mass changes which means the amount of neutrons changes III Abbreviations Atomic number Z Subscript Number of Protons Number from the periodic table Mass number A Superscript top number Number of Protons Number of Neutrons 5224CI E protons Q neutrons E electrons Neutral so 24 electrons 23 1 1Na gprotons Qneutrons Q electrons 1 charge Has 1 lost electron So 111 10 electrons 19 9F 9 protons 10 neutrons 10 electrons 1 Charge Has 1 gained electron So 91 10 electrons IV Isotopes Definition Atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons 24Mg 2398504 gmole 12 Protons 12 Electrons 12 Neutrons 7899 25Mg 2498584 gmole 12 Protons 12 Electrons 13 Neutrons 1000 26Mg 2598259 gmole 12 Protons 12 Electrons 14 Neutrons 11001 Percent comes from the percentage of these samples existing on the planet Q What is the average atomic mass of Mg A 23985047899 2498584010 259825901101 243060 gmole 2431 gmole on the Periodic Table Average atomic mass gmolepercentage in a decimal same same V Dmitri Mendeleev 1834 1907 Claim to fame IA He organized the periodic table in 1861 Predicted problems of molecular Weights that We found later to be true He proposed the modem periodic table Organized by increasing atomic number Remember Atomic Number Number of Protons which wasn t discovered yet for another 4050 years Columns are also called Groups Elements that are in the same group column often exhibit similar properties Rows signify an additional Valence shell a T EA 3An39 lA5 L h TA Lanthanides A1tiniu1es Blue Metals Yellow NonMetals Pink Metalloids Group Names of the Periodic Table Group 1A Alkali Metals Group 2A Alkaline Earth Metals Group 7A Halogens Group SA Noble Gases Groups 3B 2B Transition Metals Atoms 5770 Lanthanides Atoms 89102 Actinides w Periodic Table Table Eold Q Eilo Eit Eiow Eerio group Ioolo it oI39I elo 1511 51 on llerloll Hlllerlxll wllell wlllI l uFiewringAtnn1ir weight 1 E U Eu1V LZE ZjjZE jrZ l 3kai Metal 5otinidE3 2 Alkali Earth LanthanidE23 I 1Etal Nonmetal Trano Mot Halogen 3 NolIo GEE B TIquot 8 9 Lanthanide Series Flrtinirle Series Copyright 395 39EIEI39 1 EIEI Sh1 Corporation For Help D1333 F1 HUM FIE39139D Amedeo Avogardo 1776 1856 0 Italian Savant 0 He did Fundamental Basic Research 0 Resolved the difference between atoms molecules and gases 0 He is most noted for contributions in the theory of molarity molecular weight and AVogadro s law 0 People felt that he didn t get enough recognition when he was alive The Mole A unit of counting like the dozen 1 dozen 12 somethings 1 gross 144 somethings 144 pencils 1 ream of paper 500 somethings 500 sheets of paper 1 mole 602 X 1023 AVogadro s number atomsmoleculesionswhatevers Spreading 1 mole of marbles over the Earth would produce a layer about 3 miles thick Q How many atoms are in 518g of P A 518 g X mole 6022 X 10quot23 101 X 10quot23 atoms 3097 g 1 mole Q A pure titanium cube has an edge length of 278 inches How many Ti atoms does it contain d 450 gcm3 A 278 in X 254 cm 70612 cm 1 in Volume V 70612 cmquot3 35207528 cmquot3 35207528 cmquot3 X 450g mole 6022 X 1A23 199 X 10quot25 atoms cmquot3 4787 g 1 mole Q Two samples of carbon tetrachloride CCI4 were decomposed into their constituent elements One sample produced 389g of C and 448g of C1 The other sample produced 148g of C and 134g of Cl Are these results consistent with the law of definite proportions Law of definitemultiple proportions when two elements form more than one compound the masses of one element in these compounds for a fiXed mass of the other element are in ratios of small Whole numbers Sam le 2 Or in moles What is an Ion Definition Cations Anions How many electrons will an atom gainlose What types of elements form cations Predictable Cations Group 1A tends to form a cation Group 2A tends to form a cation tends to form a cation What about the Transition metals What types of elements form anions Predictable Anions Group 7A tends to form a anion Group 6A tends to form a anion tends to form a anion Ionic Compounds Covalent Compounds Determining Oxidation Numbers from a Formula FCSO4 Fe2SO4 Fe2SO43 C11NO32 Z1 13PO42 K2C1 2O7 Cations That You Need to Know Anions That You Need to Know 02 C032 N03 SO42 PO43 CI39O42 lV1 lO4 C104 C102 uoride iodide oxide sulfide carbonate nitrate sulfate phosphate chromate permanganate perchlorate chlorite Cl Br N3 OH N02 S 032 C2H3 O2 Cr2O72 CN39 C103 C10 chloride bromide nitride phosphide hydroxide nitrite sulfite acetate dichromate cyanide chlorate hypochlorite SCN39 thiocyanate O22 Creating Neutral Ionic Compounds K amp Br Cu amp C1 NH4 amp C032 Ca amp phosphate Naming Ionic Compounds Case I The metal isn t a transition metal peroxide CaC12 CS1 A1203 Case II The metal IS a transition metal CuSO4 Cu2S O4 NH4OH FeCN2 K2C1 O4 Naming Binarv Nonmetals Which element comes first in the formula Prefixes 1 mono 2 di 3 tri 4 tetra 5 penta N203 CO P205 SF6 6 hexa 7 hepta 8 octa 9 nona 10 deca Naming Oxvacids Anion Suffix Anion Names C10 C102quot C103quot C104quot More Examples C032quot Acid Suffix Acid Names HCIO HCIO2 HCIO3 HCIO4 H2CO3 PO43 H3PO4 N03 HNO3 N02 HNO2 SO42 H2SO4 SO32 H2SO3 Naming Hvdrates What is a hydrate MgSO4 0 7H2O CuSO4 0 5H2O CaSO4 0 2H2O Exceptions HC1 HBr HI HF HCN H2S H2Se H2Te Exceptions With H B2H6 PH3 SiH4 H20 NH3 H2S


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