New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Introductory Biochemistry

by: Carol McDermott

Introductory Biochemistry MBioS 303

Carol McDermott
GPA 3.59

Ronald Brosemer

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Ronald Brosemer
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Molecular Biosciences

This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carol McDermott on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MBioS 303 at Washington State University taught by Ronald Brosemer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see /class/205941/mbios-303-washington-state-university in Molecular Biosciences at Washington State University.

Similar to MBioS 303 at WSU

Popular in Molecular Biosciences


Reviews for Introductory Biochemistry


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/17/15
TOPICS Chapters I Nucleic Acids Structure and Chemistry 8 24 II Manipulation of DNA 9 III DNA Replication 25 IV RNA Transcription 26 V Posttranscriptional Modi cation of RNA VI Protein Synthesis 27 VH Protein Processing and Folding 27 44 VIII Regulation of Expression 28 Study Guide for Nucleic Acids Packets 1 and 2 for Dr F armerie s Section What is the difference between a nucleoside and a nucleotide Be able to recognize all 5 bases and how to number them correctly Be able to number the ribose sugar ring for a nucleic acid Know the structural differences between RNA and DNA Know for sure the following linkages o Anhydride o Ester o BetaNglycosyl bond The phosphate groups Be able to name the nucleic acids in the RNA and DNA form Know the 5 and 3 ends of RNA and DNA and be able to recognize which is which What is Chargaffs Rule How does DNA base pair What are the general differences between the A B and Z structural forms Why is a GC bond stronger than an AT bond 0 What does this have 0 do with melting temperature How does RNA structure differ from DNA structure What types of damage can occur to DNA What can happen to RNA but not to DNA What is supercoiling o How would you determine linking number 0 What are Topoisomerase I and Gyrase What is chromatin What do the histones do 0 How many are there Study Guide for DNA Manipulation and DNA replication Packets 3 and 4 for Dr F armerie s Section How does DNA Replicate o What is the difference between Conservative SemiConservative and NonConservative replication What experiment demonstrated the way in which DNA replicates How was it done IS A V A Orn A 7 O O J o In which direction is it synthesized o What is required for synthesis at is an Okazaki Fragment o How do the fragments piece together 0 What is a lagging strand What is an origin of replication What are DnaA DnaC DnaB What do they do What are the following proteins and what do they do 0 SingleStranded Binding Protein 0 Gyrase o Helicase o Primase o Ligase Why is RNA important for DNA replication What does DNA Polymerase 111 do What does DNA Polymerase I do What does telomerase do Why is it important What is proofreading activity What is excision repair What is mismatch repair Why is methylation of DNA important What are two methods of DNA Sequencing 0 One of them you should know in detail Explain How would you determine the sequence of a piece of DNA if you were given a gel with the sequencing results What is an oligodeoxynucleotide and how would you make one How would you detect a speci c sequence of nucleic acids 0 What is a Northern Blot o What is a Southern Blot o How would you perform these experiments How could you speci cally cut a DNA sequence What is PCR 0 Why is it useful 0 How would you perform a PCR experiment Study Guide for RNA Transcription Packet 5 for Dr F armerie s Section Know what is required and not required for transcription 0 What are important characteristics of RNA polymerase What is a polycistronic message Know what types of RNA there are and what they do What is the coding versus the noncoding strand What is necessary for transcriptional initiation o Is there a difference between bacteria and eukaryotes If so what are they What is sigma factor Why is it important What are the steps of transcriptional initiation What s a consensus sequence What are the ones that you need to know How does transcriptional elongation and termination work What are the steps What is important about magnesium and RNA Polymerase How is RNA polymerase different from DNA polymerase What is the difference between rhodependent and rhoindependent transcriptional termination What are some characteristics about rho How does eukaryotic transcription work How is it different from bacteria Study Guide for Protein Processing and Folding for Dr Farmerie s Section Study Guide for Regulation of Expression as well What are some ways that a protein is modi ed after translation How are secreted proteins translated and how are they secreted in general What is glycosylation and why is this important with regards to secreted proteins Why is protein folding rather than misfolding important What is Hsp70 and what does it do How does this pertain to protein folding What is GroEL Does it have another name What does it do What types of diseases are associated with protein misfolding What is Hsp90 What does it do What is ubiquitin and how is it related to protein degradation Study Guide for the Metabolism Section of MBioS 303 by Ronald Brosemer GENERAL COMMENTS What is the major theme of the lectures on metabolism the relationship between the chemical structures of metabolites and the function of those metabolites in biological processes What are you responsible for Everything covered in lecture no more and no less If you have a question about metabolism what do you do This is essentially a repeat of the same topic in the course introduction In no particular order 1 Review your organic chemistry 2 Consult the text which is an excellent reference source Note that the text covers far more material than you are responsible for You may have to use the table of contents to find the information you are seeking 3 Consult the quotr I 39 y Topics on 39 39 39 quot quot file at the MBioS 303 website 4 Ask during your recitation session This allows the answer to be shared with your colleagues who likely are too shy to ask the same question 5 Review your organic chemistry 6 Send an email to the instructor I have found this to be an especially effective way to ask a question since you must be able to phrase the question lucidly and the instructor must be able to respond in a concise and clear manner 7 Ask the instructor in person 8 Although one must be extremely careful I have found Wikipedia to be surprisingly helpful on biochemical topics But remember Reader beware You never know who posted the information you are reading 9 Review your organic chemistry 10 I have found quotMolecular and Cell Biology for Dummiesquot to be a good introduction to biochemical topics Do you have to learn the structures and names of all those compounds Yes but The quotbutquot is that you will have three pages attached to the exam with the structures of most ofthe compounds we discuss however no names will accompany these structures Refer to the sample exam below to see what I mean Thus you must be able to recognize but not write the structures of all the compounds we encounter and to name them Of particular note is that you should recognize the difference in structure between the oxidized and reduced form ofa redox couple eg NAD vs NADH FAD vs FADHZ FMN vs FMNHZ ubiquinone vs ubiquinol etc You must be able to recognize the names of all the enzymes we discuss Reminder the exam has a multiple choice format so you need not write the names of enzymes or draw structures You will also have a Metabolic Map accompanying the exam as an aide in remembering metabolic pathways again Study Guide for the Metabolism Section pg 2 refer to the sample exam below to see an example ofthis map Enzyme nomenclature is described in any text as well as in one of the files in the quotSupplementary Topicsquot folder on the course website I might mention here that the medical board exams given after the second year of medical school ask many questions where the budding physician is expected to know the names of enzymes Even I do not know some ofthem Although you might not expect to enter medical school there is a good chance you will be required someday to be conversant with enzyme names Intelligent shopping at Safeway nowadays entails some knowledge of enzyme names With one exception this section will consider metabolism only in mammals with emphasis on human beings The sole exception is alcoholic fermentation in yeast Emphasis will be placed on the topics outlined below CARBOHYDRATE STRUCTURE The structures of the trioses glucose fructose ribose hemi acetals and acetals glycosides maltose and cellobiose glycogen starch and cellulose The relationship between the chemical structure and biological function of glycogen and starch and of cellulose The structure of lactose and the enzymic basis for lactose intolerance lactase deficiency in the majority of adults in the world NUCLEOTIDE STRUCTURE The structures of three ofthe purine and pyrimidine bases A G U nucleosides nucleotides especially the adenine nucleotides including ATP The chemical basis of high energy bonds and high energy compounds especially ATP The role of high energy compounds in cells which will become more evident during the course of the lectures VITAMINs Definition Some examples especially the B vitamins niacin riboflavin and pantothenic acid which we will encounter later in metabolic pathways Vitamin C and fat soluble vitamins but without your being responsible for details REDOX REDUCTIONOXIDATION REACTIONS The transfer of electrons from the reducing agent to the oxidizing agent The transfer of two electrons in most biological redox reactions although there are several with one electron transfers Structures and roles of the oxidized and reduced forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and of the flavin nucleotides flavin adenine dinucleotide and flavin mononucleotide The difference in structures of the oxidized form and the reduced form of these and other compounds INTRODUCTION TO METABOLIC PATHWAYs Study Guide for the Metabolism Section pg 3 Overview of what will be covered during the next few lectures Catabolic degradative and anabolic biosynthetic pathways The role of ATP in coupling catabolic and anabolic pathways The general architecture of eukaryotic cells especially the cytosol or cytoplasm and mitochondria GLYCOLYSIS Digestion of carbohydrates Transport of glucose into cells Names of the 10 enzymes in glycolysis together with names and structures of all the substrates and products Emphasis on the single redox reaction glyceraldehyde 3 P dehydrogenase and on the 4 kinases involving ADPATP The cellular location ofthese enzymes in the cytosol The general convention for enzyme nomenclature The role ofthe B vitamin niacin in this pathway The role oflactate 39 g in the quot 39 of NADH r I Iby the on 1 dehydrogenase reaction in mammalian tissues Lu 390 The role of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase in the reoxidation of NADH produced at the glyceraldehyde 3 P dehydrogenase reaction in yeast cells The biological role of glycolysis especially in terms of generation of ATP under anaerobic conditions such as during strenuous exercise The biochemical basis for the difference between red slow and white fast skeletal muscle The major functions of glycolysis produce some ATP anaerobically and generate pyruvate THE TCA TRICARBOXYLIC ACID OR CITRIC ACID OR KREBS CYCLE Transport of pyruvate from the cytosol into mitochondria The reaction catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Coenzyme A and acetyl coenzyme A The names of the 8 enzymes in the TCA cycle together with the names and structures of all the substrates and products The cellular location ofthese enzymes in the mitochondrial matrix or in the case of succinate dehydrogenase in the inner mitochondrial membrane The role of B vitamins niacin riboflavin pantothenic acid in this pathway The function of the TCA cycle in producing the reduced compounds NADH and FADHZ and in generating GTP There is one form of succinyl CoA synthetase that generates ATP instead of GTP but it is of no significance for this course Study Guide for the Metabolism Section pg 4 RESPIRATORY CHAIN The morphology of mitochondria including the outer mitochondrial membrane the intermembranse space the inner mitochondrial membrane cristae and the matrix The series of redox reactions located in the inner mitochondrial membrane that oxidize reducing agents under controlled conditions The names of the enzyme complexes in the respiratory chain together with the structures and names of the substrates and products The role of B vitamins niacin and riboflavin in this process Complex NADH dehydrogenase Coenzyme Q oxidized ubiquinone and reduced ubiquinol forms Complex ubiquinonecytochrome c oxidoreductase or cytochrome bcl The structure and function of cytochromes heme the oxidized Fe3 and reduced Fe2 forms of heme Iron The Qcycle and its function Complex IV cytochrome oxidase and the reduction of oxygen to water Reactive oxygen species ROS Complex II succinate dehydrogenase The major function ofthe respiratory chain generate energy through a series of redox reactions this energy then being coupled to pumping of protons OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION The role ofthe respiratory chain in pumping protons against both a concentration gradient and an electical gradient from the matrix side to the intermembrane side of the inner mitochondrial membrane The mechanism whereby ATP synthase utilizes the energy of protons returning to the matrix down an energy gradient to drive the condensation of ADP and inorganic phosphate to form ATP The role ofthe three conformations O L T of the three sets of alpha beta subunits in ATP synthase The pumping of about 4 H per 2 electrons by complex I The pumping of about 2 H per 2 electrons by complex I We ignore the controversy whether this is 2 or 4 H The pumping of about 4 H per 2 electrons by complex IV We ignore the controversy whether this is 2 or 4 H The pumping of no H by complex The requirement of 4 protons re entering the matrix to make 1 ATP Study Guide for the Metabolism Section pg 5 PO ratios and their importance in calculating how much ATP can be generated via the degradation of various biological fuels The generation of 25 ATP per 2 electrons passing through the respiratory chain starting with NADH The generation of 15 ATP per 2 electrons passing through the respiratory chain starting with FADHZ or FMNHZ The function of shuttles especially of the glycerol 3 P shuttle in the reoxidation of cytosolic NADH by the mitochondrial respriatory chain during aerobic catabolism of fuels The ATP GTP yield from the aerobic degradation of glucose compared with the anaerobic degradation of glucose The reason that we breathe oxygen rather than spend our whole lives holding our breath GLYCOGEN METABOLISM NOTE THIs TOPIC Is NOT ALWAYS COVERED IN THIs COURSE The function of glycogen in liver and kidney and in muscle The location of both glycogen degradation and synthesis in the cytosol The names of the enzymes in glycogen metabolism together with the structures and names ofthe substrates and products The degradation of glycogen glycogenolysis as catalyzed by glycogen phosphorylase the conversion of the glucose l P product to glucose 6 P The function of glucose 6 phosphatase in generating glucose in liver but not in muscle The synthesis of glycogen glycogenesis via reactions catalyzed by glycogen synthase and UDP glucose pyrophosphorylase using glucose l P as the starting metabolite A brief overview of the role of hormones especially glucagon epinephrine and insulin in control of glycogen metabolism and of the levels of glucose in the blood The role of liver glycogen in homeostasis of blood glucose levels The role of muscle glycogen in providing a quick source of fuel FATTY ACID CATABOLISM NOTE THIs TOPIC Is NOT ALWAYS COVERED IN THIs COURSE The structure of fats fatty acids glycerol The role of C C double bonds in the shape and melting points offats and fatty acids The conversion of fats to fatty acids and glycerol as catalyzed by lipase Conversion of glycerol to glycolytic intermediates briefly mentioned Activation of fatty acids by conversion to the coenzyme A thioesters in the cytosol Transport offatty acyl coenzyme A across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the matrix via the carnitine shuttle The 4 enzymes of beta oxidation for converting fatty acyl coenzyme A to acetyl COA with concomitant generation of FADHZ and NADH Study Guide for the Metabolism Section pg 6 The function of beta oxidation to generate acetyl CoA FADHZ and NADH with subsequent generation of ATP in oxidative phosphorylation For a fatty acyl group with n C atoms n2 1 beta oxidation cycles generate n2 acetyl CoA nz 1 FADHZ and nz 1 NADH Calculation of ATP yields from beta oxidation using PO ratios for FADHZ 15 and NADH 25 See the question in the sample exam as an example of assessing the beta oxidation cycles THE HOUR EXAM ON METABOLISM The exam will consist of 24 multiple choice questions worth 4 points each The sample exam on the website is an accurate reflection ofthe exam format It is critical to understand why the answer to a question on the sample exam is correct it is not particularly helpful to simply come up with the correct answer and then move on The exam will emphasize understanding not memorization Yes it is necessary to know a lot of nuts and bolts about metabolism however it is also important to understand the principles governing the relationship between chemical structure and biological function Keep asking yourself Why did Nature choose this compound for this function If you can answer this question more often than not you will ace this section ofthe course Absolute guarantee for the metabolism exam There will be from one to four quotanalogy typequot questions ie questions in which you are asked about a reaction you have never seen before Although you will not have seen that particular reaction you will have seen reactions similar to it If you understand the principles behind metabolism rather than learn only how to regurgitate memorized information you will have no problem at all and perhaps even have some fun A metabolic map and pages with structures of metabolites similar to those below will accompany the hour exam on metabolism Study Guide for the Memboh39sm Sec on nmvmnxer G yceya dehydaarP acewneP 26 28 i LarmsPrG ycera39e G ynsmlrarF 3 29 3 arPrGWyceva e Mwmnndna 30 2mm 31 quotsome momma r p nmpwmm spams 1 Lemme W Pymme Mwmmnana 2m Palmnale c161 Repem unm 7 K ole Fany new ACF Enny ADP arm39dmxvacw ACF gtT WWW WWW mm mm m a O H 7i 39 Wm AcemcuA A 5 Chalesmm m cm a A a 4 V 1 V 1 WWW Mm Pymate 7 quotCymplasm 40 Cymplasm mum 4 mth m mm M 2er mm m 62 as 9 so 64 swam 57 Cymp asm Cymplasm anyam 47 FauyacylcuA 49 mecylcammne i 7 i m Km m c m We pm me so 56 A Cammne FallyanleDA Ace leoA FaWaMCnAteICY 2m 5 5w m 54 53 52 CW arKemacyW CM 7 Hydmxyacy anlt gt Enuyl CaA msquot mcamazymiamwgas 243 at n1 1 a min 4 z o 01 1 1amp 1003 4 I o I 461 ax non 1amp AV 045 o I 44 oxmn 9544 4 mo 9 Job 1 1 n3 a o 3 E 3 5 E Imp N zN I zx 0 4 4 or g E 44 44 I L z x zwmwawowabewm wm 6xN I u I u u a a I 1 dune a IN msquot mgnm 3 1 55933 25 a mxmonth noo GIN an 6 E a a 2 mwanIN awmwmwnwan wm wm amp 1 a I o 1 WI 039 av zrm gg 1N m MAT 3 4 0 4 6 our m m 2ampwn1N61N wmwnxn wm wm amp N I o I E a a I I I I 1 I duvo o 95 a I o XN 3 3 12 a a dxm xm os u u I 1 I a o E E nxn un z 1 rm smdv Gmde For the Metabohsm Semen pg10 DJPOCHZ HzcoPo ojmcHZ HZCOH H HO H HO H OH H OH M5 M6 H 9 DH H4040 1 Hr e e N szai mr acw o39 o39 H H H H OH OH Study Guide for the Metabolism Section pg 11 SAMPLE EXAM ON METABOLISM Choose the single best answer for each of the following questions Choose the single best answer for each of the following questions Use the truncated metabolic map and the three pages of structures of metabolites that are shown above 1 Glycolysis in the erythrocyte red blood cell produces pyruvate that is further metabolized to A C02 B ethanol C glucose D hemoglobin E lactate no 2 3 Refer to the quotTruncated Metabolic Mapquot which accompanies this exam Four different vitamins required in human nutrition are vital components ofthis enzyme complex A 61 B 40 c 59 D 31 E 30 4 Consider the enzymes shown in the table below Indicate whether they are located in the cytoplasm C or mitochondria M of mammalian cells Succinyl CoA Lactate Phosphofructo Aconitase quot dehydrogenase kinase A C M C C B M C C M C M M N C D M M C C E C C M M 5 Fully reduced coenzyme Q QH2 Ubiquinol A is a component of complex IV in the respiratory chain B carries electrons from complex II to complex I in the respiratory chain C is part of the rotating subunit in ATP synthase D is located mainly in the matrix of the mitochondria E is part ofthe proton channel in the ATP synthase complex 6 Refer to the quotTruncated Metabolic Mapquot which accompanies this exam The numbers in the first row ofthe table below refer to enzymes shown on the map Which names of the enzymes correctly match each of the numbers Study Guide for the Metabolism Section pg 12 22 25 1 A Phosphohexose Adolase Lactate isomerase dehydrogenase B Hexokinase Triose phosphate isomerase Pyruvate kinase C Phosphofructokinase Adolase Enolase D Phosphohexose Triose phosphate isomerase Enolase isomerase E Hexokinase Glyceraldehyde 3 Pyruvate kinase phosphate dehydrogenase 7 Refer to the quotTruncated Metabolic Mapquot which accompanies this exam Which enzyme catalysis the reduction of NAD to NADH in the glycolytic pathway A 24 B 27 C 31 D 2 E 30 8 Refer to the quotTruncated Metabolic Mapquot and the quotStructures of Metabolitesquot which accompanies this exam The enzyme located at position 58 on the truncated metabolic map contains the prosthetic non amino acid portion of a protein group A K2 B J4 c N1 DJl E N3 9 Refer to the quotStructures of Metabolitesquot which accompanies this exam One ofthe substrates of the glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase reaction is A M8 B 13 c N3 D N2 EJl no 10 11 Oxidative phosphorylation is dependent upon the passage of S from the T side ofthe W membrane to the X side through the Y ATP is made by the rotation of Z S T W X Y Z A ATP intermem inner matrix proton channel the TCA cycle brane space mitochondrial Study Guide for the quotquot 39 quot Section pg 13 B electrons matrix outer cytosolic respiratory ATP synthase mitochondrial chain C protons cytosolic outer intermem proton channel ATP synthase mitochondrial brane space D protons intermem inner matrix proton channel ATP synthase brane space mitochondrial E electrons intermem cell matrix respiratory the TCA cycle brane space chain 12 Refer to the quotTruncated Metabolic Mapquot which accompanies this exam Which enzyme catalyzes the production of ATP in the glycolytic pathway A20 m24 027 D31 329 13 Refer to the quotStructures of Metabolitesquot which accompanies this exam Which ofthe following is a substrate for one of the enzymes in the beta oxidation pathway AF2 B 4 CM3 DN3 312 14 Saturated fatty acids are degraded by the stepwise reactions of beta oxidation producing acetyl CoA Under aerobic conditions how many ATP molecules would be produced as a consequence of removal of each acetyl CoA A2 15 Which of the following does NOT participate in nor is a component of the electron transport chain A Coenzyme A B Non heme iron sulfer proteins C Coenzyme Q D Cytochrome c1 ENADH 16 One mole of V condenses with one mole of acetyl coenzyme A to form W in the TCA cycle During one turn ofthe TCA cycle W is converted back to V and X moles of NADH Y moles of FADH2 and Z moles of GTP ATP are produced Study Guide for the Metabolism Section pg 14 V W X Y Z A oxaloacetate citrate 2 1 1 B citrate isocitrate 2 1 2 C malate isocitrate 3 2 1 D oxaloacetate citrate 3 1 1 E citrate fumerate 3 2 1 17 The reason that large quantities of lactate are produced during strenuous exercise is that A acetyl coenzyme A is being oxidized to C02 B NADH in the matrix must be reoxidized C NADH in the cytoplasm must be reoxidized D a substrate for the glycogen synthase reaction must be available E the inner mitochondrial membrane is permeable to NADH and FADH2 18 Lack of niacin nicotinic acid is a cause of pellagra The clinical manifestations include quotthe four D squot diarrhea dermatitis dementia and death Because dietary can be metabolized to niacin foods rich in this amino acid eg dairy products meat poultry and fish can compensate for inadequate dietary niacin A Tyrosine B Phenylalanine C Leucine D Tryptophan E Lysine 19 Fatty acids are activated to acyl CoAs and the acyl group is further transferred to carnitine because A acyl carnitines readily cross the mitochondrial inner membrane but acyl CoAs do not B acyl CoAs easily cross the mitochondrial membrane but the fatty acids themselves will not C carnitine is required to oxidize NAD to NADH D fatty acids cannot be oxidized by FAD unless they are in the acyl carnitine form E carnitine is required to oxidize FAD to FADH2 20 Refer to the quotTruncated Metabolic Mapquot which accompanies this exam The numbers in the first row of the table below refer to enzymes shown on the map Which names of the enzymes correctly match each of the numbers Study Guide for the quotquot 39 quot Section 61 63 58 A Citrate synthase Isocitrate dehydrogenase Succinate dehydrogenase B Pyruvate dehydrogenase ot ketoglutarate Fumarase complex dehydrogenase complex C ot ketoglutarate Aconltase Succmyl CoA synthetase dehydrogenase complex D Citrate synthase Aconitase Fumarase E Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Isocitrate dehydrogenase Malate dehydrogenase pg 15 21 Consider the conversion of ONE mole of GLUCOSE 6 PHOSPHATE to TWO moles of 3 PHOSPHOGLYCERATE How many moles of ATP are produced or utilized in this conversion Consider only the overall net change if any in ATP number of moles of ATP produced in this reaction sequence number of moles of ATP utilized in this reaction sequence 0 no net production or utilization of ATP ie the amount of ATP remains constant A B C D E 2 1 0 1 2 22 Since fructose forms one half of the sucrose molecule the metabolism of fructose is very important at least for most Americans In liver the first reaction in fructose metabolism is the phosphorylation offructose to fructose 1 phosphate with ATP and the enzyme fructokinase hexokinase does not use fructose as substrate in liver The next step is catalyzed by ALDOLASE in a reaction that is analogous to the aldolase catalyzed reaction in glycolysis Note that the substrate for the aldolase reaction in this case is fructose 1 phosphate What are the two products of the aldolase catalyzed reaction with fructose 1 phosphate Note that we did not see the compound fructose 1 phosphate in lecture but you should be able to predict the products based upon analogy with reactions you have seen A B C D E dihydroxyacetone P and glyceraldehyde dihydroxyacetone P and glyceraldehyde 3 P fructose 6 phosphate dihydroxyacetone and glyceraldehyde 3 P 3 P glycerate and dihydroxyacetone 23 Beta oxidation of one mole of the following unusual fatty acyl CoA to four moles of acetyl CoA yields how many moles of FADH2 and NADH Although you have not seen the beta oxidation of this type of unusual fatty acid the enzymic sequence is the same as that for saturated fatty acids except that some ofthe intermediates of course do not have to be formed 0 CHa C39H C HE CHz C Hz CHdZH ll SCOA OH Study Guide for the Metabolism Section pg 16 Explanation of answer to this question First beta oxidation cycle Skip oxidation by FAD start cycle with hydration Form NADH Second beta oxidation cycle All 3 reactions occur in this cycle Form FADH2 and NADH Third beta oxidation cycle Skip both oxidation by FAD and hydration start cycle with oxidation by NAD Form NADH Thus Atotal of 1 FADH2 and 3 NADH are formed during the three beta oxidation cycles ALMOST ABSOLUTE GUARANTEEll You will see a question similar to the one above on the metabolism exam


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.