Pomology Hort 310
Popular in Course
Popular in Agricultural & Resource Econ
This 33 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rowena Rath on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hort 310 at Washington State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see /class/205948/hort-310-washington-state-university in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Washington State University.
Reviews for Pomology
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/17/15
Orchard Systems Orchard Systems Integration of the following system components into an orchard production system 1 Cultivarrootstock combination 2 Tree density 3 Tree arrangement 4 5 Tree training Support system Objectives Provide optimum light interception amp distribution within tree canopy gt entire tree volume produces high yields of quality fruit amp ensures good return bloom Optimize bearing volume of orchard relative to land area as quickly as possible gt dwarfing rootstocks high density support systems Achieve early fruit production precocity Produce trees amp fruit easily accessible for cultural practices amp harvesting FreeStanding Systems Open center vase cherries peaches apricots apples amp pears Low density 100200 treesA Scaffold branches may require support Central leader apples peaches cherries Medium density 250400 treesA Conical shape Modified central leader pears cherries peaches plums Medium density 250400 treesA Hybrid of open center amp central leader OpenCenter Vase L AWJE I M y a Umbrella Pears Modified Central Leader Historical Developments High density systems on M9 rootstock first developed by the Dutch slender spindle amp French vertical axis in early 19703 occurred when PNW apple growers were first moving from open center low density orchards 100200 treesA on seedling rootstocks to central leader mediumdensity orchards 200350 treesA on semivigorous rootstocks MM111 MM106 M7 Washington Central Leader Spur Red Delicious New Zealand Slender Pyramid Adapted for NZ climate Moderate density 270450 treesA Dominant central leader with basal tier of scaffold branches Temporary fruiting laterals in a slender array above basal tier to optimize light interception Minimal pruning early amp replacement pruning later Can achieve 50 tonsA yields Cherry Central Leader Other Cherry Training Systems Vogel Steep Leader Central Leader Oregor w Span39Sh BUSh Australia Spanish Bush High density 300 treesA gt high yields Vigorous rootstock in infertile soils amp dwarfing rootstock in fertile soils Good light interception gt high quality fruit Numerous branches which control vigor are established by heading cuts hedging HighDensity Systems Slender spindle Netherlands High density 7001100 treesA to very high density super spindle 15002000 treesA Slender conical canopy Dwarfing rootstock M9 size Supported by posts Vigor controlled by bending central leader Vertical axis France Moderately high density 600800 treesA Tall relatively narrow tree with dominant central leader Dwarfing to semivigorous rootstocks M9 to MM106 size Supported by wires Vigor controlled by fruiting central leader Hybrid tree cone HYTEC Washington Canopy volume of vertical axis with vigor control of slender spindle Adapted for higher light intensities sunburn Slender Spindle Netherlands Vertical Axis Planar Orchard Systems Vertical planes Espalier France classical system of training to wall or arbor Palmette Italy Hedgerow Britain Horizontal planes Lincoln canopy New Zealand Ebro espalier New Zealand Espaliers Candelabra Horizontal Palmette Palmette 9050 Vt r m my lab u W W U B111 Fm tim 4 gtquot Tf 39 3113 UMwUHlHE 9 SV r J13 L WSUProsser Fruiting offshoots Lincoln Canopy 39and Lincoln Canopy Canopy architecture Ebro Espalier New Zealand Tatura trellis Australia gt V amp Y trellis High density 4001800 treesA gt early high yields Close tree spacing to control vigor pears amp peaches dwarfing rootstocks apples Fills canopy volume quickly Higher establishment costs trellis system Orderly array of branches amp uniform distribution of leaves gt light interception Easy to train labor use equipment amp mechanical aids platformsharvesters Narrow canopy gt spray penetration Fruit hang underneath canopy gt less sunburn amp bruising Tatura Trellis Australia HQULH Hf J 1v H l VTrellis Cumulative yield tonsA in 10 yrs Orchard Systems Trial 39Red Delicious39 New York 60 50 treesA 40 598 30 20 10 0 Central Slender YTrellis leader M7 spindle M26 M9 Robinson et al 1991 Cumulative yield mtonslha in 6 yrs Orchard Systems Trial 39Gala39 amp 39Mclntosh39IM9 British Columbia Canada li ht interception Slender Vertical Axis YTrellis Spindle