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Introduction to Surveying

by: Myrtis Mraz PhD

Introduction to Surveying C E 302

Myrtis Mraz PhD
GPA 3.54

Karl Olsen

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About this Document

Karl Olsen
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Myrtis Mraz PhD on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to C E 302 at Washington State University taught by Karl Olsen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 112 views. For similar materials see /class/205969/c-e-302-washington-state-university in Civil Engineering at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 09/17/15
Mean Average of a set of numbers ZMn 2 Connection E C M Total Number of Shots 3 Shots Each time you set up an instrument ResidualsTheoretically Identical to errors With the exception that errors a then rofvaluesyou haveforH cannot be calculate bctrue values are never known vabsMeanvaue E Adjusted Elevationorigina measure correction 3 Allowable Error Std Deviation Spread of the data standard deviation covers 68 of data v a C M K 5 iJ i CTota Misclosure or error of closure in mm ii MConstant Depends on Rank of suney Standard Errors ESD 06745 r a Em 16449 r 5 E25 19599 r a iii KLeve loop perimeter distance in km Types of Errors Mista kesUser Error Misreading tape or EDM Systematic Errors Can be corrected using direct calculations Total Station not level environment instrument obsener Random errors Can be accounted for using probability and statistics Caused by factors beyond the observei s control Error ofa Product Epmdun i AZE BZEj Error ofa Sum Emm 1 Signi cant Figures a Addition and Subtraction 4 Errors in Leveling i The lowest column value 1 27 9137 07 271163 2 Random Eyesight increments on rod b MultiplicationDivision b TSthatl infraquot d H i T e least number ofsig figs In any measured factors 5 2 I ontErSR E a ea mg m Incorrec y ii Doest no include constants quotg as e lg vs c Howto Deal With Fractions i What is value in decimal form wcorrect sig figs ii Find numberof smallest units 3 1 6 1 1 1 2 6quot r 4Z units1quot 3 1 units 27 Z units 68 Surveying The science art and technology ofdeterminingthe relative T t f t h d h b k d positions of points above on or beneath the earth s surface They perform raverse39 5e 0 consecu we mes w use an S ave een mar 5 property boundaw and contour maps etc in the field and whose lengths and directions have been determine from measurements 1 Types of Surveys 0 Steps 3 CPNtml 5 Nays 0 Place total station at A i Establish a network of horizontal and vertical monuments 0 Take Azimuthbearing to B that serve as a reference framework for other surveys b Topographic Surveys 0 Move total station to B i Determine location of natural and artificial features and O Lookm backsight39 measure angle to A elevations 0 Repeat for remaining corners of traverse c Land Boundaw and Cadastral Suneys i Establish property lines and property corner markers d Construction Suneys i rovide line grade and control elevations 2 Leveling LoopsDifferential Leveling a Instrument is kept level differences in Elevation read from graduated Rod b Benchmark BM Points on known elevation c BacksightBS dded d ForesightFSsubtracted e Leveling Procedure i Set up instrument between BM and 15 Turning Point ii Take Backsightto BM iii Take Foresight to 15I TP iv Balance 35 amp FS to find elevation ofTP 1 Elev EZEVEM 35 7175 2 Elevmnumm EZEVEM 35 f Leveling Adjustment i Error of closure ECActua elevation Measured Elev ii To Adjust 1 Correction EC Distance from Start Length of Level Metes amp Bounds description requirements 0 Earthwork calculations 0 Point of Commencement PoC 0 Cut When soil is removed POSITIVE 39 Establishes reference to start at 0 Fill When soil is added NEGATIVE 39 Similarto a bench mark 0 All Fills have an expansion coefficient associated with a 0 Located off property certain soil 39 Soil is compacted to a density greaterthan the soil in its natural state 0 Point of Beginning PoB 39 First cornerofthe property Cross Section method 0 o Definite corners o Lengths shapes Lines arcs etc and directions of all 39 Consistent cross section property sides 0 Volume AreaLength 0 Names of adjacent property owners 39 Cross section changes 0 Area in acres forthe property 0 Known Cross sections A1 A2 Example metes amp Bounds description V A1M2 L 0 Given Beginning at a concrete monument in the I Length in Nevin terms Stemming northwest section of the line of locust circle and the o 00 100 southerly cornerof the lot B1734 21734 0 Thence along the said northwesterly line of a circular I Need to multiply quot by compaction factor arc curving to the right at a radius of 19110 ft a to nd actual quot needed distance of 15075 ft and a central angel of45 1239 to a o Borrow PIt Method concrete monument atthe easterly corner ofthe lot I Divide area into Squares and calculate cut The chord of said arc running N52 0539 E 14688 ft and ll at comers o Thence along the line now orformerly of RT Smith I For each corner nd N12 32 W 2327 ftto an iron pipe at the northerly corner of the lot 0 Elevation 0 Desired Elevation Mapping 0 helev desIred elev 0 Initial poInts f of d b 37 in the United States set by astronomical n Squares use y comer 39 Find volume for cuts and fills using obsenation A o Meridians and baselines Val 20L Xquot 39 Meridian vertical 0 Answer in cubic yards 39 Baseline horizontal o Multiplyfills volume by 39 Principle ortrue north meridians run compaction factor through initial points 0 Add two togetherfortotal 39 Baselines run eastwest volume Difficult to layout because of cunature ofthe Earth 0 Use meridians and baselines to create quadrangles Quadrangles are 24 miles in both directions 0 Break areas into townships and ranges 39 Evew quadrangle has 16 sections 39 Townships run NorthSouth 39 Ranges EastWest o ContourArea Method 39 Draw a contour at elevation of proposed o Townships and ranges are broken up into sections 39 Each section is 1 mile square surface 0 Quadrange 24 mi X 24 mi 368640 acres 39 Find contours at specified intenals to base 0 Township 6 x 6 23040 acres lowest elevation ofground surface 0 section 1 x 1 640 acres 39 Use planimeter used to find areas 0 V section y x y 160 acres 39 Need scale of map to convert from area on o M section M xx 40 acres mapto area in thefield o 1683 inquot2 on map 0 1quot50039 500 2 o 1683 mZ 1 420750 ftz 43560 ftz 1 Litre Volume between contours 0 vol A1A2 z 0 Units acreft Countour Length 0 Horizontal Cunes 0 Used to connect straight sections of highways railways and pipelines o 2types 39 Circular arcs wconstant radius 39 Spirals wvawing radius 0 How do we find horizontal curves on a map Labels intersection angle Ddegree of cu natu re M Middle ordinate LCLength of chord PC Point of Cunature PPoint of Intersection LLength ofArc PTPoint ofTangency o RRadius Equations All angles in radians L 1 00000000 0 100 o D I LStations 100 o D I L Feet 0 LRl O R 5729 58 n 1 r o 239 7 1 o T 7 R tan E 0 LC 2R sin o ETtanG Feet 1 o MEcos Stationing along the cune Roadways o Arc definition Railways o Chord definition Vertical Cunes o Needed to connect different scopes with a calculable shape 0 Need a shape to be derivable 0 Use parabolic curves 39 Scope changes at a constant rate 0 2 types 39 Crest 39 Sag BVC Beginning ofvertical curve 0 EVC End ofvertical cune VPI vertical point of intersection


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