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[T,D] Multicultural Perspectives on the Body and Dress

by: Mrs. Lucinda Kling

[T,D] Multicultural Perspectives on the Body and Dress AMT 417

Marketplace > Washington State University > Apparel, Merchandising, Design & Textiles > AMT 417 > T D Multicultural Perspectives on the Body and Dress
Mrs. Lucinda Kling
GPA 3.86

Linda Arthur

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Linda Arthur
Class Notes
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This 34 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Lucinda Kling on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AMT 417 at Washington State University taught by Linda Arthur in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see /class/205972/amt-417-washington-state-university in Apparel, Merchandising, Design & Textiles at Washington State University.

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Date Created: 09/17/15
Chapter One Introduction Dress H O O l I Intentional modi cation of appearance I Dress is a be avior Maintenance management and alterahon of appearance Attachments to the bodv Applicauon ofheat chemicals light Removing noticeable porhons ofihe bodv Hair fat liposuction rinse Jul I The dressed and undressed body is a project under continual consh39uc ion Dress and Appearance l Studied because it is laden with mmmngs I Clues about age gender ethnicity social status social ro es I A chronicle ofa time in history Cultural I A complex whole that includes any capabilities and habits held by members of a society I Learned I Reflected in behavior patterns I A holistic approach to culture is necessary in understanding the meanings of dress and appearance What People Think o o o o I Mentifacts What people know and thin I Ideas ideals values knowledge I Knowing how to dress is cultural I Jeans on your legs not on your head I Changing fashion I Culture that believes change and newness are positive I US Europe I Little fashion change I Culture that values tradition and doing things the old way I Amish groups I Meanings are cultural l Appearance stereotypes I Mentifacts shared by members of a group I Based on limited information I Prejudice is likely to follow What People Do I Sociofacts I Social behaviors I How people organize themselves in relation to one ano I Society I A group of people living and working together in a systematic way I Societies require coordinated interaction of individuals I Dress aids in this interaction I Know whom u ask r elp I Age and gender I Attractiveness dats I Desening of special respect I Should be avoided or ignored I Fashion l Requires a coordinated effort of a group of individuals wearing similar looks for a period of time I Requires coordinated interaction What People Make I Artifacts I Manufactured or handmade l Products of processes and technologies of a culture Meanings H o o o I Dress and the body have meanings relative to culture and history I Thin verses plump I Created by individuals interacting daily within a culture I Created maintained and modified as individuals collectively interact with other people wearing a form of dress I Media adds to the formation of meanings I Meanings will change as different groups within a culture begin to wear similar fashions I Age roles occasions activities o o o o I Time and the number of adopters alter meanings I Political dress on US campuses I From radical to liberal to normal I Fashion lifecycle The Individual Self H o o o I With all this interaction and collective thought when do I get to be an individual I Self is defined through interaction with other people I Define selfidentity through the items we I Interests roles membership age gender socioeconomic stains I Situations can limit selfexpression I School uniforms I Reviewing other reactions aid in assessing assigned meaning to the sel I De ne self through deciding which reviews are valid I Roles I Positions we occupy within a group or society I Multiple roles are common I Rois make up an identity Diversity I Most of us no longer exist in isolation I Multicultural societies I Ethnocentrism I Judging of people from other cultures or backgrounds based on ones own cultural beliefs I Pluralism I Accepting differences without necssarily wanting to adopt them Class Discussion H Chapter Two The Body in a Cultural Context Purpose Critical thinking about the body Dress appearance and the body are closely connected Cultural Ideals Defined The type of person that a culture identi es as highly desirable What are the characteristics of the US cultural ideal for women For men Where did these ideals come from When did these ideas develop Who do these ideas benefit Who do they hurt How many people can actually attain these ideals How realistic are these ideals to the average man or women What are the payoffs for approximating the ideals What are the risks for not being anywhere near the ideal or intentionally challenging it Cultural Ideals amp Gender 0 Is it easier for men to achieve the ideal than it is for women 0 Facts 7 Men exercise to add bulk and weight women to lose weignt 7 Men are resorurig to traditional female behaviors Cosrneuc surgery 7 More girls are gemng tattoos man boys Girls for rasnion boys for toughness 7 More men today suffer from eaurig disorders 7 11 of nign school boys are usii ig steroids 7 Both men arid Women are becoming less saus ed with their bodies Cultural Ideals ampthe Individual Body Image Mental picture that one has of his or her body at a given time Selfesteem Individual feelings of self worth Body Cathexis Degree of satisfaction with the body The difference between actual bodies and preferred bodies is growing Comparing oneself to the cultural ideal is self defeating for anyone What about teaching self acceptance Where will all the focus on the body lead us as a nation As a global player on economic and social issues All cultures define an ideal for its members Most individuals spend time and energy trying to attain this ideal As human beings we are simply not satisfied with what nature has given us Chapter Three Dress as NonVerbal Communication What is NonVerbal Communication I Communication that does not necessarily involve verbal expression throug speaking orwriting I Facial expressions I Physical movement and actions I Physical distances people maintain I Sound of the voice I Hand gestures Definitions of Communication I Communication is an interactive process among two or more people I To complete communication receiver sends a feedback message to sender I Compliments or insult I No comment I Getting a job I Accepting a date I Communication is ongoing and dynamic with meanings being negotiated and created I Sender and receiver must find a minimal level of agreement I Job interviews wedding dresses uniforms I Often complete agreement on dress meanings is never reached I Parents I Communication through dress is the production and exchange of meanings I Changing fashion continually modifies I Meanings of dress in the US are coding generally and imprecisely I Many traditional cultures are more stable Channels of Transmission I Visual I Hearing I Jewelry heels rustle offabrics I Smell I Perfume deodorants newleather I Touch I So slick l as e I Flavored lip stick or chap stick Grammar I The rules that are used to assemble dress components into attractive fashionable and appropriate combinations I Learned through media groups association family I Grammar rules can be broken I Laws I Strictly held traditions Perceptual Elements I Integral units of fabric and apparel I Color I Hue value lightness intensity brightness I Fabrics I Silk verses denim I Gender I Rounded verses angular I Fabric choice I Today these differences are becoming less de ned Context of Use I How elements are combined who wears them and in what situation they are worn I Condition of fabrics I Stains and tears ice cream h I Accessories I Body size I Height I Color and culture I Red Chinese verse American Post Modern Era I Characteristics of cultures at the end of the 20th century I Eclectic l Mix and match I Cultural in uences I Separates and accessories I Nostalgic I Flared pant legs from bellbottoms I Tiedye I Questioning of Traditions I Gender I Tearing jeans I Simulations I Animal prints I Fake fur I Cosmetic surgery Chapter 11 Fashion as a Social Process Trends I What are some examples I How do trends get started I How do they spread I Functional wear is often recycled as fashion I Fatigues I Cargo pants I The initial innovation of a trend is often impossible to trace I Fashion trends are influenced by cultural social and personal factors I These factors shape the meanings of dress Fashion I Different meanings to different individuals I What is fashion to you I Conformity I Something new and exciting I A threat to tradition I A means for economic gain The meaning of fashion I Fashion is a social process I According to the text fashion is a way of behaving that is temporarily adopted by a discernable proportion of members of a social group as socially appropriate for the time and situation I The fashion process can not be explained by any one theory Hamilton s MicroMacro Continuum I Jean Hamilton 1997 I Fashion influences are on a continuum from the micro or personal level to the macro or larger cultural level I Fashion results from I Individual action within products and style ideas offered I The fashion industry that is influenced by I Largertrends and forces in the surrounding culture I Hamilton 1997 I Social groups and choosing or not choosing by The Cultural System I Cultural values and ideologies I Cultures that I Technological progress I Individual expression I Freemarket exchange I Tolerance for youthful expression and searching for an ident39t I Economic situation allowing for discretionary income I Generation and population trends I Large social groups can have a profound influence on fashion I Baby boomers influence from the 605 through the 80 s I Economic rewards of catering to this larger group I Tradition verses change I In highly traditional culture39s fashion changes re slow I Representing membership and role is emphasized over individual expression I Show a rejection of modernism The Fashion System I Composed of business establishments entrepreneurs industry and government institutions trade unions and other agencies I Togetherthey impact what is offered to the consumer I Economic decisions drive most fashion system changes I Government can drive changes as well I Boycotts I No single agency has complete control over all fashion system decisions I The overall system will simplify the range of options to control complexity Kean 1997 I Style decisions are substantially influenced by retail buyers I Designers may show many styles that are never ordered by buyers Negotiation with Others I The consumer choice makes a style a fashion I Buyers may limit choices but consumers do not buy everything that is available I To become fashion a style must be adopted by a large number of consumers Fashion Diffusion I A process of style adoption and change involving face to face interaction strangers seeing each other on the street and mass media I Innovative consumers and early adopters Negotiation I Consumer fashion adoption from Ieaderto follower is a negotiated process I Meaning is negotiated I Leaders take risks I Communicate about the style to friends I Introduce new fashion I Much of this is nonverbal Why does fashion change I Trickledown theory I Trickleacross theory I Sub groups I Trickleup theory Negotiation with Self I Individual tastes and sense of style I Economic circumstances I Lifestyle I Individual speed at accepting new styles I We are constantly deciding on style changes I What to buy what to wear what to discard Chapter Five Appearance of Gender and Sexuality Culture 0 Norms and meaning are closely related to appearance Examples Indonesia 7 Sarong West Africa 7 Wrapper De nitions 0 Gender 7 Determined psychologically socially and culturally 7 Refers to appropriate behavior for males and females 0 Sex 7 Biological aspects ofmalerress or fernaleness 0 Primary sex characteristics 7 Those necessary for reproduction Secondary sex characteristics 7 Traits not necessary for reproduction such as breast development Voice facial air Socialization The culture in which a child is raised determines masculine or feminine appearance 0 Socialization 7 A learning process 7 Allows individuals to Intemalize norms values and beliefs I Gender is established Very quickly in life 7 Birth 7 Pink and Blue 7 The way parents dress infant 7 Research shows chi1dren as young as 2 classify gender based on appearance chi1dren experiment with gender through dress up Gender speci c toys Gender socialization is closely linked to leamed social roles Sexual Identity 0 Biological or constructed like gender 0 Answer is in uenced by social politics 7 Feminist movement 7 Feminist A men or Women that opposes gender dogma learned patterns of behavior expected from males or females 7 What to you picture When you hear the Word feminist Sexism 0 What do you think of when you hear the word sexism Sexism I De nedsystem of beliefs by Which a group of peo e are oppressed controlled and exploited because ofpresumed gender differences 7 Sexual hamssment 7 Research shows it is apower issue 7 Homophobia 7 Dress can be aambiguous form ofcommunication and should not be used to determine sexual intentions The traditional roles are changing 0 Up through the 1950 s dress codes where restricted for men 0 More elaborate for women but time consum1ng 0 Since the late 60 s the lines are blurring Androgyny 7 Mixing masculine and feminine qualities Unisex 7 Garments that can be WOITl by men or Women 0 Business attire for women 0 Men are becoming less masculine especially in casual dress 7 Pastel colors 7 JeWe ry 7 Cologne and skin producw Chapter 8 Dress from Infancy to Adolescence As we age aChanges in life shape the roles we take on in soc39et 6 Important developments occur Physical Knowledge Social These stages influence needs for dress and our involvement in appearance Childhood Major developmental stages lnfanc 0 Birth to six months Toddler 0 6 mo To 2 yrs Early Childhood yrs I Middle Childhood 0 610 yrs Physical Coordination a Infants Constantly moving Clothing should not be binding ei vToddler Begin to crawl and then walk Clothing should not impede these activities Clothing begins to become more important at this stage 0 Diapers to training pants 0 A big step in developing a feeling of indepen ence fa Early childhood Activity increases Fit flexibility and comfort continue to be crucial Durability and safety Dressing skills begin to develop 0 Clothing with big buttons zippers etc help aid in child development 5 Middle Childhood Involvement with sports Want cloths that are associated with sport figures Cognitive Development 6 Infants Tactile and visible environment Texture and color 9Toddler Begin ownership of clothing items Verbal skills emerge 0 Names of colors garment pieces gures 0 Aid in learning to talk ea Early childhood Cultural stereotypes triggered by appearance begin to develop Parents need to be aware of peer groups and media 59 Middle Childhood Association with brand names Acceptance and prestige Socialization Early childhood Development of roletaking skills Dress up 0 Movie stars cartoon characters a Middle age Playing with dress more an act of enjoyment or fantasy Halloween ei vThroughout childhood parents dress children to conform Socioeconomic Gender Religious Conformity becomes increasingly important to children as they age Conformity is highly important for middle aged children Conformity fosters a feeling of belonging Clothing can aid in conformity Uniforms 0 Sports clubs school 6 Gender is expressed through dress a ParentsGuardians invest in gender through gender specific clothing 1 Around the age of four boys especially become increasingly sensitive to teasing 0 Some parents are disturbed to see children cross dress 0 NO evidence that cross dressing as a child leads to homosexuality or transvestism Appearance Concerns 6 Link of social awards to appropriate dress are established early in life Children are very susceptible to images a Research finds children as young as four concerned with weight mimic dieting and restrict food intake By age 9 Independent purchasers become socialized to shopping skills Children are becoming a major target market Children39s clothing too adut looking Some say sexuality overemphasized at an early age s iAre children growing up too fast 3 Do children39s appearances reflect more maturity than they can handle at that young age Adolescence 6 Early adolescence 1114 years girls 1215 years boys 9 Late adolescence 15 or 16 20 years Physical Changes 6 Height VB Complexion o A wide variety of products a Concerns with sexual attractiveness and defining sexuality 3 Want looks that aren t too childish a Conflicts with parents arise 0 Media certain peers groups encourage sextualy attractive dress Body satisfaction increases in late adolescence o Maturity 6 Dangers of sports achievement ea Dangers of the cultural ideal Cognitive and Socioemotional Development 6 Everybody notices every little thing about me Over interpretation and over imagine reviews from others Adolescents who have appearance impairments or are overweight truly suffer during this time a High school students believe that the most popular students are attractive and well dressed Creekmore 1980 Teens use dress as a means of belonging 0 Searching for an identity Conformity through appearance is strongest during this stage 0 Many try on identities Shopping becomes a social activity Social consensus in purchases decisions Parents often allow more independence in adolescence 3 Impact of media very strong at this stage Learning to dress and manage appearance are key components of socialization to societal norms


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