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Research Methods

by: Mrs. Lucinda Kling
Mrs. Lucinda Kling
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This 59 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Lucinda Kling on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AMT 519 at Washington State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see /class/205977/amt-519-washington-state-university in Apparel, Merchandising, Design & Textiles at Washington State University.

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Date Created: 09/17/15
I Rules and Ethics in Research Adopted from CayLR mdeehlPL 1992 Research methods for businss and managemem Macrmllan NeumznWL 2mm Seaalreearch methods Qualitative mdguanu ve approachs Allyn andBacen Toulmtos andcompmnNH 1992 Rsearch methods m human ecologyhome econormcs Unxva39sxtyl rss Why be Ethical More importantly why be unethical Lack of awareness Pressures to make ethical shortcuts Ethical research Taks longer Costs more money 15 more complicated More likely to be terminated before completion Unethical research if caught Public humiliation A ruined career Possible legal action The ethical researcher is low on praise The scientific community emphasizes honesty and openness General considerations Scientific Misconduct ud Data Data collection Plagiarism Stealing of ideas or writing Unethical but legal Copyright Example The 1988 Eastern New exico University book and the 1978 Tu s University Dissertation Neuman pg 91 Power The abuse of power and trust The responsibility to guide protect and oversee the interests of those being studied Employees research assistants and committees My experience General Ethical Guidelines Never cause unnecessary or irreversible harm to subjects secure prior voluntary consent when possible never unnecessarily humiliate degrade or release harmful information about specific individuals that was collected for research purposes These are minimal standards Neuman 2000p 92 Human subjects Protection Physical harm StraightfonNard Psychological abuse Stressful embarrassing anxietyproducing or unpleasant situations Stanley Milgram s Obedience Study The strength of social pressure to obey aut ority The Zimbardo Prison experiment Legal Harm Risk of arrest US Dept ofJustice Waivers for those studying criminal behavior What if you learn of an illegal activity when collecting data Police batings Mental patient mistreatment Participant observation study of waiters and the New York restaurant fire What would you do Wanted to protect his subjects but avoid obstruction ofjustice penalties Ethics versesjail After years of legal battles the situation was resolved with limited cooperation by the researcher and a judicial ruling upholding the confidentiality of field notes Took years to resolve and cost the researcher in time money and personal issues In general Covert research on illegal behavior and supplying that to law enforcement is unethical Failing to report illegal behavior can make you an accessory Informed Consent A written agreement to participate given by subjects after they learn something about the research procedure Participation must be voluntary Should know what they are participating in Protects against fraudulent research Protects legitimate researchers Optional for field studies surveys and secondary data research Mandatory for experimental General rule The greater the risk of harm to subjects the greater the need for consent Humphrey tearoom trade study Nueman pg 93 What do you think The study is under controversy Subjects never consented Deception was used Names could have been used to blackmail subjects Marriages could have ended Criminal prosecution could have been initiate Special populations Incompetent people Children Prison inmates Mentally disabled Must get legal permission from a guardian Researcher must follow all ethical principles against harm Studentemployee coercion Creating new inequalities A group is denied service or benefit for participation in a research study Animals Children Informed consent is an issue When are they old enough General guidelines Infants Parents consent Toddlers Parents consent and full discloser Schoolaged Signed informed consent and parental consent Privacy 7 Anonymity Disclosure of subjects identity Could be breached unknowingly in small samples Confidentiality Researcher knows identity but keeps it secret Certificate of confidentiality Issued by the National Institute of Health Covers the data not the researcher WSU student example Neuman pg 100 Problems with Specific Designs When the study is in itself scientifically invalid all other ethical considerations become irrelevant Rulstein 1969p 524 Field Studies Disguised and undisguised observation Purposes forjoining a group General guidelines Deceive as little as possible Give maximum informed consent in line with research goals Plan the study to assure ethics Fully inform research assistants Experiments Withholding interventions on control groups Creating inequalities Use best known option on the control group Surveys Privacy and confidentiality Include sponsoring organization Your name General purpose of the study How the data will be used Con dentiality statement Voluntary involvement Freedom to quit or omit questions Research Sponsorship Researchers need to set ethical boundaries where by they will refuse sponsors demands Findings Methods Suppressing findings What should you do if a sponsor tells you what results to come up with Mall example Neuman pg 103 What would you do After the study the researcher exposed the rvey organization to a local news paper and was fired Several years later a whistleblower law suit was filed and the researcher was awarded more than 60000 in back pay mental anguish and punitive damages against the survey organization An ethical researcher should refuse to participate if they are asked to arrive at speci c results Can a sponsor limit research by defining what can be studied or what methods can be used What do you think A sponsor can legitimately set conditions on research technique Can limit research costs Researcher must follow generally accepted research methods Full budget disclosure upfront What happens if you conduct research and the findings make the researcher look bad If asked to suppress or adjust findings what would you do Example Roman Catholic Priest Neuman pg1os After 24 years as a priest he resigned and made the results public Negotiate conditions for release before the study begins Get it in writing Help How do I know what to do Professional Codes of Ethics American Anthropological Assoc American Sociological Assoc Society for Research in Child Development Legislation Buckley Amendment Rights of parents and students 1974 National Research Act of 1974 Formed the National commission for the Rrotection of Human Subjects Biomedical and BehaVIoral Research Department of Health and Human Services 1981 Regulations on scienti c misconduct and data con dentiality Amended in 1989 Most importantly Use your Head 326 319 939 Reliability and Validity Validity 7 Term most often used to judge the quality or merit of a study Found on truth or fact capable of being justified or defended Webster 1997 Is the studyinstrument measuring what it says it measuring Reliability Fit to be trusted or relied on trustworthy dependable Webster 1997 Consistency throughout a series of measurements Cronbach 1960 p 127 If you measure a variable more than once with the same instrument you will obtain similar results Operabjehs and I Measurement External Validity Validity for me Study for memory Overall Research Validity ofthe Study Overall validity of a research study depends on the four ma or aspects or M asunement Reliability and validity othe several variables Four Major Aspect of Research Validity Internal validity External validity Measurement reliability and statistics Operations and measurement validity I Operations and R39ellabillty and rem for the Study Overall ResearchVah Ity ofthe Study the approximate validity with which we can infer that a relationship is causal Cook and Campbell 1979 Dependant on design Influences that ability to conclude cause and effect 2 Main Threats Cookand Campbell Equivalence of groups on participant characteristics Control of extraneousexperienceenvironmental variables Equivalence of Groups Research which compares groups Groups equivalent on alaspects prior to the introduction of the IV Randomized experimental Equivalency achieved through random assignmen Other methods Random assignment of treatment to intact gr u Better than self assignment Example Choosing a certain teacher in school Matching Matching participant characteristics other than the IV Age gender educational level Pretest to test for equivalence Associational research One group Are participants who scored high on the IV equivalent to those who scored low Control of Experience Environmenta Variables Do extraneous variables effect on group more than the other Ex One groups nds out they are the control May give up May tiy extra hard eliminating potential differencs Associational Are the experiences for those high on the IV different form those that are low Is something other than the IV affecting the DV for bothall groups Historical events maturation Longitudinal studies Maturation IS a variable Very complex issue Operations and Measumem Validity for theSLudy for LheSLudy Overall Research Validity ofthe Study External Validity Answers the question of generalizability To what populations or settings can this effect be generalized Two aspects Population validity Ecological Validity Population Validity Is the actual sample representative of the theoretical population To determine need to identify Theoretical population Accessible population Sampling design and selected sample Actual sample It is possible to use probability sampling but have an actual sample that is non representative Low response rate Accessible population not representative of the theoretical EcologicalValidity Are conditions settings times testers andor procedures representative of real life Can results be generalized to real life outcomes Field research higher than lab Questionnaires lower usually not representative of real life behavior Sampling and InternalExternal Validity Internal validity not directly effected by sample de ign Randomized experiments on a convenience sample High internal validity Randomization control for extraneous variables and group differences Careful about the word random Random selection of participants high external validity Random assignment of participants to groupstreatments high internal validity Measurement Reliability and Validity r 2 aspectsdimensions Measurement reliability and statistics Operations and measurement validity Operations and eaauremenl External Validity Validity fob the Study39 Overall Research Validity ofthe Study Measurement Reliability and Statistics Also called statistical conclusion validity Measurement reliability is involved more on this later Four important issues Reliability of instrumentsmeasures Where the variables measured reliably A test or measure cannot be valid if it is not reliable Appropriateness of power Can a statistically significant relationship be detected assum39n 39 This ability is called power Ways to increase power Large enough n Incrase the reliability of the DV Meailrementreliabil39ty Incrase stren th and consistency of administering the dependant variable Too much power Too large ofa n Look to effect size to assess Appropriateness of statistical technique Using the right statistic Violation of assumptions Use the charts from Gliner amp Morgan Appropriateness of the interpretation ANOVA and posthoc tsls Interactions between IV39s yield more info than an Overall Research Val icy ofthe Study Operations and Measurement Validity re variables appropriately operationally de ned Do they measure the concepts or constructs under investigation The key is whether operational definitions are representative of the intended concept or construct Operations and t Validity for the Study for mesmdy Overall Research Validity ofthe Study Methods to assess TestRetest Reliability Common Same sample take test A and later take test B Correlate the two sets of scores Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coef cient 8 or higher the test has good testretest reliability Considerations Do not establish reliability du 39ng re study Usually alrmdy established by someone else Develop own instrument When selecting an instrument Reliability meailre above 8 Length of time between tests similar to time in study As ume increase rellablllty decreases Samples used to find reliability facmr similar m sample in study Coefficients of Equivalence Parallel Forms Tatretest has a carryover effect This method eliminates that Two similar yet different forms ofan instrument Eliminate the time between test issue Reliability mmsure the same as testretest Correlation Coef cient Internal Consistency Reliability Consistency among items on an instrument The instrument is measuring a single conceptconstruct 3 methods Splithalf KRZO Cronbach39s Alpha Splithalf Correlate two halves of the same test First half to second half Odd to even Best Random sample of half Problem Cut the n in half May underestimate reliability Kuder Richardson 20 KRZO If items are score dichotomoust Truefalse Cronbach s Alpha Multiple choices for items Likert scals Interrater Reliability When there is something subjective to so ve Measures consistency among judges Qualitative research 3 methods Percentage Agreement 2 or more judges Before the study Mmsure ofsimilar observations Intraclass correlation en obsenation of the behavior is the DV Calculate the reliability between 2 or more judges Must be intenal scaled data Kappa Intraclass correlation with nominal data Overall Research V ty ofthe Study Measurement Validity How well does the instrument assess the characteristic construct or behavior the user desires to measure Cromack 1989 An instrument may be consistent reliable but not valid There are measurements for reliability but not validity 4 ways to assess validity Face Validity Not really considered to be a recognized measure of validity Does the content appear to be appropriate for the purpose of the instrument Example The title and table of contents of a book Content validity Refers to the actual content of the instrument Is the concept in the instrument representative of the content you are trying to measure Questionstasks are about the content being asured Questionstasks are representative of real life Establishing content validity No statistic Begin with a de nition of the concept that the researcher is attempting to measure Include a discussion of how the concept is presented in the literature Generate a list of items which might measure the Reduce this list to formchoose the nal test Criterion Related Validity Validating the instrument against some form of external criterion Usually involves establishing a correlation coefficient between instrument and external criterion 2 types Predicative Concurrent Predictive validity An instrument that predicls how someone will do in the fumre GRE39S Good predictive validity StudenE who perform well on GRE s will perform well in graduate school Criterion would be grades or successful defense of thesis Draw back Time between test and criterion resulls Concurrent Validity Similar to predictive Mmsure instrument against an external criterion Have current graduate students take GRE and then correlate scores Not as good as predictive Assuming no difference between undergraduate and graduate school students Major draw back Finding a criterion and being able to measure 39t Egtltample Are the GRE a good measure of success in graduate school Asking the question what makes a good graduate student Construct VVaIidity The most complex Constructs Hypothetical concepts which can not be observed directl Intelligence achievement angtltiety We know they exist through other observable behaviors Cannot observe angtltiety but can observe angtltious behavior ie sweat pacing Construct validity must be grounded in This can take time A process of several studies where the researcher attempts to demonstrate validity Qualitative Research In generalthe nature of Qualitative research Types Reliability and Validity Data collection and analysis Traditions Based in Anthropology Sociology Psychology General idea Meaning is socially constructed by individuals in reaction to their world Unlike quantitative meaning is not Figtlted Single Agreed upon Or measurable There are Multiple interpretations of reality Things change over time Interpretation at a particular point in time In a particular context Key characteristics Understanding meaning About subjects world Subject experiences How they make sense of them The researcher is the primary instrument The human is the ideal means of collecting and analyzing data Non verbal and verbal communication Immediate processing of information Check with respondent for accuracy Explore the unusual or unanticipated With a human instrument bias is introduced Qualitative doesn t attempt to eliminate Ias Rather identifies and monitors the impact on collection and interpretation of data Qualitative research is inductive Data is gathered to build concepts and theories rather than deductiver deriving hypos to be tested quant Forms themes categories concepts tentative hypothesis and substantive theory Qualitative research is richly descriptive Use of words and pictures rather than Deep descriptions of context subjects and activities Data is Quota from documents eld nots interviews excerpts rom video pictures electronic communication or a combination In summary An attempt to make sense of a phenomena from the participanls perspective Can be interpretive or critical Characterized by a search for meaning and understandin Researcher is the primary instrument Inductive Richly descriptive General types of Qualitative Research Basic interpretive Phenomenological Narrative AnalysisBiography Critical Basic Interpretive Understanding the meaning ofa phenomena mhose involved This meaning is not discovered but constructed Very similar to phenomenology and symbolic interactionism Phenomenology Inmrpretive in nature People inmrpret everyday evens through the meaning that 39 them M a i onstructed around daily evens Symbolic interactionism Meanings are formed through interaction in society Meanings are socially constructed or mutually defined Meaning is constructed through interaction with others Back to Basic Interpretive How people interpret their experiences How people construct their worlds Meanings that people attribute to their experiences Overall purpose is to understand How does this differ from other types of qualitative research Others have additional purposes 7 Grounded theory Build a substantive theory about a phenomena Phenomenolog Understand the essence and structure ofa phenomenon Narrative analysis Uses stories Ethnography Focuss on the culture Case study Indepth holistic look at a case or system Once again back to basic Most common Data collected through interviews observations document analysis Looking for reoccurring patterns To uncover and interpret meaning Findings are these patterns supported by data from which they were derived Interpretation is researchers understanding based on their biases of the participants understanding of the phenomenon of interest Examples Understanding the nature of learning for older adults in Malaysia The link between spirituality and social action of women educators Interpretation is framed by some disciplinary based concept Cultural values Spiritual development Phenomenology Describes the meaning of lived experiences about a phenomenon Focuses on the subjective experiences of individuals Search for the essence or structure of experiences Outward Inward Memories images and meanings Focus is not on the human or the human world but the interaction Questions everyday human experiences Ie love being a cancer patient becoming a parent changing gender roles Describing the essence of an experience from those that have experienced it Based on four philosophical tenets r A return to the traditional tasks of philosophy Philosophy has become limited by science A search for wisdom without empirical science Philosophy without presuppositions Must suspend all judgment about what is real Intentionally of consciousness Meaning can appear in both the outward and inward consciousness Refusal of the subjectobject dichotomy Meanings of objects are based on individual experiences Baseball bat Sport defense offence Many different kinds of phenomenological studies Two common Social and Psychological Social Deals with meanings from social acts and interactions Psychological Deals with meanings in individuals and their experiences Procedures Understand the philosophical perspectives behind the approach An understanding ofthe four tenefs Write interview questions that will explore meanings from everyday lived experiences Primary data collection is typically interviews Collect data from individuals who have experienced the phenomenon Report ends with a better understanding of the essence of the experience The structure of experiences Ie G 39 I understand better what it is like for n someone to experience that Challenges Requires a solid grounding in the philosophy Careful selection of sample Must have experienced the phenomenon Data analysis is difficult Researcher needs to decide how to introduce their personal experiences into the study See page 117 in text for an indepth discussion Examples Worship Capturing the lived experience of inchurch and televised worship Choosing battles Why women chose certain battls and not others t si Grounded Theory To generate or discover a 39 theory that relates to a particular situation Theories are grounded in data from the eld Actions interactions and social processes of ople Purpose is the development of a theory closely related to the phenomenon being 2030 interviews consisting of many trips to the field Idea is saturation Explore a category of information such as an event until no new information is found Data analysis begins immediately Zigzag type of structure Gather data analyses gather more data etc until saturation is reached Constant comparative analysis Procedure Systematic Three level coding process Open codin initial categories Axial coding runner categorize open codes inm more central themes In uences actions conditions Selective coding ite a story that integrates axial coding Development of theory 10 Challenges Must set aside all theoretical ideas or notions Systematic process with speci c steps Difficult to determine saturation point Need to understand the outcome is a theory Central phenomenon Causal conditions strategis Context Consequence or outcome Components of Theory Prescribed categories of information A central phenomenon Sunival and coping from childhood abuse Causal conditions Thrmtening or dangerous feelings helplessness powerlessness lack of control Strategies Strategies used in cope Conditions and context Family dynamics victim39s age etc Consequences Coping healing empowerment Theoretical Model for surviving and coping with Childhood abuse 11 Four Criteria Theory must fit the data Work in terms of useful explanation Be relevant to actual problems Capable of being modified by future Inquiry Example the model of multiple dimensions of identity A study of women college students sense of self and personal identity Variations in ethic racial and religious affiliations Case Study Less a methodology and more of a what to study Exploration ofa bounded system or case Study over time Detailed and indepth data collection Case is bounded by time and place Program event activity individual Use multiple sources of information 12 Procedure Identify the case Purposeful sampling Chose cases that show different perspectives Cases may also be ordinary accessible or unusual Extensive data collection Multiple sources Observations inteniews documents etc Data analysis Holistic Analyze the entire case Embedded Analyze a specific awect Provide a description of the case Analysis of themes or issues Interpretation from the researcher about the case Discuss major events chronologically Up close or detailed perspective about a few incidents Multiple cases Describe each case Discuss themes Final step Report lessons learned 13 Challenges Identification of case Single or multiple cases Establish a rationale for the sampling Gather enough information to make the case study useful Deciding on case boundaries Time or events Ethnography Description or W interpretation of a culture of social group Behaviors customs ways of life Prolong observation oneonone interviews Researcher becomes intricately involved in day to day lives Procedure Began by observing the people in ordinary settings Look for patterns life cycle events themes What people do say tension between what they really do and ought to do things they make and use artifacts Social structure Relationships among members of a group 14 Requires extensive fieldwork Gain access to certain groups Gatekeepers Access to research site Key informants Reciprocity Reactivity Impact of researcher on the site Deception is unethical Begin with a description of the group An analysis of the themes or perspectives Interpretation of the meanings Social interactions Generalizations about social life Goal is a holistic cultural portrait Challenggs Need grounding in anthropology and the meanings of socialcultural systems Time to collect data is extensive Possibility of going native 15 Examples An ethnography of an electronic bar The study if a lesbian community created in cyber space Theorized ethnography of a heavy metal subculture Gender structures from a feminist and post modern perspective Narrative Analysis The study of an individual and their experiences Data from stories It doesn39t matter what type of life An attempt to reconstruct the history of a life Includes individual biographies autobiographies life histories oral historis Biographical Study Life story of an individual written by someone other than the individual Uses archival documents and records Autobiography Life stories written by persons about themselves 16 Life History Found primarily in social sciences and anthropology A report on persons life and how it re ects cultural themes ofsociety personal themes and cultural histories Oral Histories A rsmrch report about personal recollections of events their causes and t eir effects Interviews ofan individual or several individuals Procedure Select the type of biographical study Written objectively with little interpretation Strong on history Chronological Begin with an objective set of experiences Life Stags Childhood Adolescence early adulmood Life experiences Education marriage employment Gather concrete biographical materials Can use interviews Basically gathering smries 17 Draw out themes epiphanies from stories Explore meanings of stories May rely on individual to interpret Look for multiple meanings Look for larger structures within meaning Social interactions Cultural issues Also called the historical context Provide an interpretation of life experiences Challenges Need for extensive information Need to have a clear understanding of the culture and history to obtain larger trends Takes a keen eye to nd meaning in stories If interpretive need to be able to bring yourself into the narrative and establish a viewpoint Example 7 The story of Cathy A Black woman who returned to college as an adult 18 i There are other forms of Qualitative Research These are simply the most common 19 Independent Variable IV I Input variable I Factorthat is measured manipulated or selected to determine the relationship to what is being observed I Independent because the researcher is concerned with how it affects other variables not what affects it I IV s are a presumed cause of any change in the outcome I It can be manipulated or measured I What will happen to Y if I make X greater or smaller X is the IV Dependant Variable DV I Output variable I The factor that appears disappears or varies as the researcher introduces removes or varies the IV I It is dependant because its value depends on the value of the IV I DV s are measured NOT manipulated I What will happen to Y if I make X greater or smaller Y is the DV Levels I Variables have to have at least two levels I Levels do not imply order I Example the presence or absence of a particular treatment or approac How to Study Course Never took the Course Completed the Course Dependant Variable GradePoint Average I Ordered I Values that vary from low to high I Largervalue indicates more ofthe variable than the smaller value I Some variables are continuous Many levels I Weight time I Variables can have more than two levels I Example I Educational level Cumpleledegh Schuul Sums Cullege Cullege Degas Income Level I Continuous I Observations usually in a numerical term indicating degree or amount Amount oftime spent studying low high Grade Point average Scales of Measurement I Certain rules within the operational definition which determine how the participants responses will be translated into numerals I Nominal I Ordinal I Interval I Ratio Nominal Variables I Numbers assigned to each category I No implied order I Females 1 males 2 does not mean females are higher than males I Mutually exclusive nonoverlapping clearly defined categories I Not to be used in formulas I Example Average marital status makes no sense I Dichotomous variables are a special case I Two levels I Means Averages can be interpreted I In more complex studies dichotomous variables can be considered interval Ordinal Variables I Mutually exclusive categories I Categories are ordered I They can be ranked I Example I First Second Third I Intervals between variables are not equal I Example econd place may be only seconds behind rst however third is several minutes behind IntervalRatio Variables I Mutually exclusive categories I Ordered I Equally spaced I Scores on an attitude scale I Ratio variables have a true zero I Length weight money Example I Under intangible reinforcement conditions middleclass children will learn significantly faster and more easily than lower class children Example I Girls who plan to pursue careers in science display more aggressive less conforming more independent attitudes and express stronger needs for achievement than girls who do not plan such careers Example I In a group of children at elementary school age those above average height are more often chosen as leaders by their classmates than those below average height Example I Perceptions of the characteristics of a good or effective teacher are in part determined by the perceivers attitudes toward education Moderator Variable l A special type of IV I Selected to determine if it has an affect on the relationship between the IV and the DV I A researcher is interested in the effect ofX on Y but suspects that the nature ofthis relationship is altered by Z and will include Z as a moderator variable Illustration I A study ofthe relationship between the conditions under which a test is taken IV and test performance DV I Two levels on the IV I Ego orientation write your name we are interested in you I Task orientation no name we are interested in the test I Test anxiety level is included as a moderator variable I Results I Highly anxious people function better under task orientation I Low test anxiety people function better under ego orientation Examples I Greater differences in achievement remain between good readers and poor readers after they receive written instruction than after they receive oral instruction Example I More highly structured instructional procedures will provoke greater achievement among students who practice concrete thinking where as less structured approaches will provoke greater achievement among students who practice abstract thinking Control Variables I Some factors must be controlled to avoid having an impact on the relationship between IV s and DV s I Factors that are controlled by the experimenter to cancel out or neutralize effects I Examples I Gender intelligence socioeconomic status I Noise task order Extraneous or intervening variables I Underlying or intervening relationships I Things that get in the way I Affects the phenomena but cannot be seen manipulated or measured I Maturation economic conditions frustration mangers selfesteem Operational Definitions I The translation of constructs to empirical terms I Specify the activities or operations involved in measuring or manipulating variables I Observable characteristics I Examples I Satisfaction I Unsa e I Success A Tale of Two Paradigms E What is a Paradigm i o The beliefs a scienti c community share 7 Kuhn 1970 o A system of beliefs and their accompanying methods 7 Lincoln amp Guba 1985 0 We will consider it a way of thinking about and conducting research 0 Notjust a methodology a philosophy which guides how the research is conducte Two overarching Paradigms Quantitative Also called positivist Qualitative Also called constructivist 5 axioms that describe the differences in views


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