Special Topics in Entomology
Special Topics in Entomology Entom 490
Popular in Course
Popular in Entomology
This 72 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victor Schaefer Sr. on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Entom 490 at Washington State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see /class/205992/entom-490-washington-state-university in Entomology at Washington State University.
Reviews for Special Topics in Entomology
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/17/15
e i ii quotmwf j iii quot J 399 m r r r ier 7 H 77 If 7 in 7 A Lecture 4 by Felsot Specific Mode of Action Pesticide Label Sprayer Technology Characteristic symptomology exhibited by pest species How a pesticide protects the plant How a pesticide interacts with the function of specific biochemical components macromolecules Applicable to situations where the crop plant has been poisoned by use of a pesticide For example it is possible for crop to experience some phytotoxicity from use of herbicides that are actually registered for the crop Under certain weather conditions some fungicides or plant growth regulators may cause phytotoxicity Drift from crop to crop Applicable to understanding types of symptoms exhibited by weeds or insects after use of herbicide For example how long does it take for the weeds andor insects to die Can insects feed until death Two basic types of pesticides Nonsystemic Systemic Nonsystemic Contact Pesticides Little or no ability to penetrate plant tissues leaves or roots and translocate from site of contact to distal parts of the plant Thus pest must either feed directly on residue deposit following spraying or Spray must contact pest directly Systemics Pesticide can penetrate plant tissue and be translocated to other parts of plant Chemical diffuses through the cuticle of leaves sprays or through the outer layer of roots soil applications into the epidermal cells Chemical crosses into either the xylem or phloem Some chemicals are only xylem mobile and thus can only move upward in the transpiration stream from the site of first contact Phloem mobile chemicals can move either up or down from the site of first contact the true systemics Some chemicals are transported translaminarly from one side of leaf to the other Some chemicals move only locally Le a short distance from the site of contact How toxicity is manifested Specific interactions with macromolecules like enzymes or cytochromes to cause inhibition of function Example some fungicides and insecticides function by inhibiting the function of cytochromes important for electron transfers and thus energy production during normal respiratory metabolism located in the cell mitochondria Strobilurin fungicides In some cases normal function of macromolecule is mimicked thereby enhancing its effect to the detriment of the pest Example mimicking of plant growth hormones like auxin 24D triclopyr clopyralid dicamba Preemergence vs Postemergence Use Some herbicides for example simazine and oryzalin are applied directly to the soil before weeds emerge Some herbicides are sprayed directly on germinated weed Glyphosate Roundup is a true phloem mobile systemic Paraquat Gramoxone is a nonsystemic contact herbicide Specificity Selectivity Some herbicides are broad spectrum and will kill both monocots grasses and dicots broadleaf plants Glyphosate Inhibits aromatic amino acid synthesis Paraquat Causes extensive oxidation of cell macromolecules Oryzalin lnhibits root elongation by inhibiting cell division and elongation Some herbicides are specific for grasses or for broadleaf plants Simazine is used as a preemergent herbicide to control broadleaf plants although it has some activity on grasses Inhibits photosynthesis 24D is used as a postemergent herbicide to control broadleaf plants Mimics the action of the auxin hormone Insecticides tend to have limited mobility within the plant Systemics are xylem mobile only Can often be soil applied although they may also be sprayed Example imidacloprid Provado for aphid control Some insecticides have translaminar activity Characteristic of the neonicotinoids includes imidacloprid and acetamiprid Many insecticides are neurotoxins and kill insects rapidly Carbamates amp organophosphates OPs inhibit the neuromodulatory enzyme acetylcholinesterase resulting in excessive nerve signal transmission in the central nervous system and utlimately death by respiratory failure Tend to be broad spectrum in activity Thus not selective for pests and natural enemies However selectivity has been achieved when the chemical is more quickly metabolized in the pest vs the nontarget organism Carbamate examples carbaryl methomyl OP examples dimethoate chlorpyrifos malathion Neonicotinoids aka chloronicotinyls This comparatively new group is also neurotoxic but they function as mimics of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine by binding to its receptor at nerve endings Selective for pests including aphids and some moths May show lower bioactivity against natural enemies The acetylcholine receptor of vertebrates is insensitive to binding Examples imidacloprid acetamiprid Avermectins Represented by abamectin these compound are also neurotoxins and are used as acaricides Block the action of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA gamma aminobutyric acid They can be harsh on predatory mites Propargite Strictly used as an acaricide May not be safe for predatory mites Adverser affects cellular energy production by inhibiting the enzyme ATPase Diacylhydrazines Fenozides Represented by methoxyfenozide these compounds mimic the action of the insect molting hormone ecdysone and cause premature molt Take longer to kill then neurotoxins but can make insects lethargic and stop feedings Soft on natural enemies Spinosad spinosyns These also function as neurotoxins but they are naturally derived and produced by fermentation One formulation is registered as certified organic Very low hazard to natural enemies and other nontarget organisms Um UC IPM Online 3 university of How ta Manage Pests UC Pest Management Guidelines E GENERAL PROPERTI Reviewed 1202 updated 12 IN THIS GUIDELINE PUBLICATION ES OF FUNGICIDES USED IN GRAPES 02 Common name Mode of Resistance trade name cnemicai ciass Activity action Potential Comments Ampelamyce bioiogii contact myooparasiie low qulsquaIs AC 10 simmiunn can act singiersne nign azoxyslrobln Abound 1 systemic Nonsystemic fungicides act as protectants and are applied to prevent establishment of disease organisms lnorganics Sulfur Soaks up electrons that would be used for energy production in the electron transport chain located in the mitochondria Copper compounds Nonspecific denaturation of proteins Binding amino acid in enzymes thus inhibiting activity Nonsystemic Organics Chlorothioalkyl heterocyclics captan Nonspecific mode of action probably affects multiple biochemical targets Dicarboximides iprodione Disrupts mitochondrial membranes and thus affects energy production can also affect DNARNA synthesis Strobilurins trifloxystrobin and Kresoximmethyl lnhibit electron transfers and thus energy production in the electron transport chain of the mitochondria Hydroxyanilide fenhexamid Inhibits sterol biosynthesis if 9 in lltglv Systemics Can be applied after an infection is detected because they can diffuse into leaf and they are at least xylem mobile All organic compounds Strobilurins axoxystrobin Abound lnhibit energy production in electron transport chain of mitochondria Triazoles triflumizole tebuconazole lnhibit sterol biosynthesis Pyrimidines cyprodinil lnhibit amino acid methionine biosynthesis Formulations are actually registered but the risk assessment necessary for registration is conducted on the active ingredient Formulations will contain solvents and adjuvants that help dissolve the pesticide but also contribute to its activity Adjuvants are formulant ingredients that enhance the properties and bioactivity of active ingredients Adjuvants such as surfactants may also be added to a tank mix containing the formulation lTLnl liit l ifllf 1 lllll Solvents and adjuvants having no pesticidal activity are called inert ingredients Adjuvants serve basically two purposes Help reduce the surface tension of water so that the spray droplets are spread out over a greater leaf surface area Help the active ingredient to stick on the leaf surface after spraying The label is the law Learn how to read it B 8 B Fungicicle Label and MSDS Links 1 i byquot iiiQtp m ultwgu gufilabelsa fungicl fhtmh I App Mac Amuun eBay Ynhuu News Felsut39s Fannritlasquotlr WSLI Libraries Mahmgun state University Tree Fruit Extensiun Team Fungici da Labels and MEDS Sheets httpfruitwsuedulabels Fungicide Index by Pruduc t Name Hum Page EIEIQIDIEIEIGIHILI J IEILIMINIQIEIGIEIEIIIUIMIHIXIYIE Atrnbnt Render may be raquirad For free saftwara dawninnd think me Icnn above Each product 513d befow is Fabe ed for disease commm on some but no a fruit crops As ahaavg mud The What careful l y Fungichde by Company IInsectr mde Info I Greenback Label r5 MSDS l Reentry Interval TRICTED USE PESTICIDE ms Ancerthevduaa invemm ammo m Guthion Solupak 50 WETTABLE POWDER CROP INSECTICIDE IN WATER SOLUBLE PACKETS STATEMENW 0F PRACTVCAL TREATMENT m mm mm we cm ammmpm ACWEWG aw nusedvmscmn ca an39yscmmnma ma y 000w mum ZZKbenzmaxr mmmmmww umum mm Jam y mex yb a wsvhnmmx u e gt msmwsazu 75 as mums mm m w mam m m amawwm bmnmhdcwmungm 7mmva m Danny s Em w 5mm amewALPAchls um comm suME mum wArERsoLuaLEPAcKEYs mm N m at W NnkYaFIysmnn Arrnevi smh e m Arie mm m mepmmnnamanm Hum mws em m an mm m in ammame s m nuiwes ar I Fun 5 imam m w my case 1 g STOP 7 Read the lanai belare use Keen out of rezcn demurequot F OISON m m m mm mm mmquot imam Pmsanms Am WWWm DANGER PELIGRO chm S sz Cm mme WW5 smmwms Wmmm For insect and disease management basically two types of sprayers are used Air bast Proptec Airblast Sprayer 9hug ygmpemgggxmmquotEnxgmwmglgmpesayalvmn m Amaznn hy Vahun ansv Fusnx39sraunvimsv wsu ubmrlu NORT WEST xwmm J EI RYAJ R WE quot 1quotka I h u JLVineyard Airblast Sprayer Calibration Worksheet Edward w Hell an Nm m wnxumeue Research amp Exlensaun Center Omgml Sm Univeraily Spuycxcahhmmu mould m dune u luu am pct taxon hm pmk mbly awry iru l um difference m m dam Spray volumz galJun rm L39xnmplera ygtnaun nppllcnlmmcuml 1 mm mom and lhcrclmc R39qu u lawn splay Volunx fonhnmugh cmc cnmpmid m mmppnuuom m a run mom 39Nm vurbkeel u mended m We ynu lepwn Lhmugh lhz akinalum pmcm lime Hum u a m m LDcrnrminehacmywecd 2mm a pwlened awnmug speed In 1 mm gm Nou g1 and Ulmme n x m u Blueline 6 Head Telescoping Vertical Boom Proptec Sprayer Proptec Spray Head Nozzle amp Fan Atomized Spray from Proptec Head Proptec Mounted on a TBoom quot h 1 n Blueline 8 Head WrapAround Proptec Sprayer if A W I 13 6 PA Proptec SprayerDeposition Pattern Dark Areas Did Not Intercept Spray Yellow Green Area Intercepted Fluorescent Dye in Spray ENTOM 490 Grape Pest Management Lecture 2 Pesticide Technology Use of pesticides on grapes Regulatory control of pesticides Human amp Ecological Toxicity Testing for Registration Instructor Allan Felsot afelsottricitywsuedu Products Registered Intensity of Product Use amp Trends WSPRSWash gmn 5mm Fest Managemem Resnurm SENKE Washington State Pest Management Resource Servnce infm39mun u on mmmguuent pest 5110 1mm commcrdul usn Wm DN mm niu rm uNK now to usnms 3m Issues Conference 39cncknmw hummm an m mam Na hwau Agnmum SalLy mm m Mamm an mm ran vs 2004 e s e i i P l 3 lil 8mm lDlmknhawsue lALahlealemmeJ uml LII Apple Ma Amunn hon Wm ansv rnlsmlsravmimsv wsu Libmin ESl kidE lnfnrma nn Czntev on Llne Pesticide Information Center OnLine verslun lE 4 or Nelscape 4 Thls dalaba e mains lnmrmaliun peslicide labels we and led an Oregon a eral supplemental labels ll es nnl cunarn any mmrmallun an Seclun18 s and U Sacha 39 nd Washinglun n18infuma un 3 may be elm an me PNN Web sue at wwwann wsuedu lnlmmalian in the PICOL label dalabase ls updaled daily The PICOL the label 5 a legal daeumenL VSL and WSU This dalabase contains inlarmallun an oerances relevanllo agricultural commudmes in he Paci c Nunhwe l PICOL luleranc s e lnlormahun is updaled munlhly Please adv Calherlne Daniels ledanielsmem wsuedu of any e eimar dalabase FK OI ise Um in Chemical name amp common chemical name approved by lnt l Union Pure amp Applied Chemistry Carbaml common name of an active ingredient Chemical name is 1naphthyl methyl carbamate Product name Name given to a formulation of the active ingredient Contains other chemicals in addition to the active ingredient Solvents Adjuvants Emulsifiers Data obtained from the PICOL Pesticide Information Center OnLine Database httpwsprswsuedu Acreage of All Grapes Grown in California amp Washington 1991 2001 50000 2 45000 40000 35000 WA Acres 39 30000 E 25000 E 20000 E 15000 E 10000 E 5000 1991 1995 Year 1999 2001 Z1000000 900000 3800000 E700000 39 CA Acres E500000 E500000 400000 E300000 E200000 E100000 USDA NASS 3 i i ii iii v 45 I CA Table 40 I CA Wine 3 WA All 35 I 30 USDA NASS Database 2 5 2 Note More Insecticides Used 3 on Table Grapes than Wine 1 5g Grapes in CA WA All Includes wine and 1 0 processing grapes 5 3 03 Herbicides Insecticides Fungicides Trends in Percentage of Grape Acres Treated with Pesticides I Herbicides I Insecticides I Fungicides 1991 1995 1999 2001 CA 2001 V Washington State California Year USDA NAss Trends in Total Pounds of Pesticides Used In Grapes lbs x 1000 Pesticide Use on Grapes PoundsAcreCrop Year 100 I Herbicides I Insecticides I Fungicides 10 I 1991 1995 1999 20 CA 2001 V Washington State California Year USDA NASS Usage of Specific Herbicide Al in WA Grapes 2001 I lbs x1000 I Area Appl Simazine Paraquat Oryzalin Glyphosate O 10 20 30 4O 50 6O 7O USDA NASS Usage of Specific Insecticide Al in WA Grapes 2001 Propargite Petroleum distillate Dimethoate Chlorpyrifos Carbaryl Abamectin I lbs X 1000 I Area Appl Usage of Specific Fungicide AI in WA Grapes 2001 USDA NASS Triflumizole Trifloxystrobin Tebuconazole Sulfur Myclobutanil Kresoximmethyl Fenhexamid I lbs x 1000 I Area Appl Cyprodinil Calcium 39o 2 lt n c I1 0 CD 01 1 10 100 1000 What Pesticide Use Statistics Can Tell Us Trends in use of particular products Adoption of new products Trends in outbreaks of certain pests What Pesticide Use Statistics Cannot Tell Us Nothing about hazard nor risk Nothing about implementation of IPM nor sustainable agricultural systems Study by FernandezCornejo 1998 Environmental and economic consequences of technology adoption IPM in viticulture Agricultural Economics 18145155 quotl IPM is a management approach that encourages natural control of pest populations by anticipating pest problems and preventing pests from reaching economically damaging levels All appropriate techniques are used such as enhancing natural enemies planting pest resistant crops adapting cultural management and using pesticides judiciously 77 1L v quot1777 5qu l 39rU 3 Wilfilljgil 1715531 ll l iz l ll ligjl Agricultural Chemical Use Survey 1994 Economic FollowOn to the Ag Chemical Use Survey 1994 Grower surveys all types of grapes Represented 743000 acres Pest management surveys completed by 691 grape producers 1993 Most producers grew wine grapes 80 Estimated an environmental quotient index Takes in to account pesticide toxicity to humans Variables to describe environmental quality Lower the number the better ii H Farmer reports having used both scouting for insects ampor diseases and economic thresholds in making pesticide treatment decisions Farmer reports the use of one or more additional pest management practice among those considered to be IPM techniques X 4 2 I 7 U 0 1 f r 7 1 2 1 4 Pheromone use Resistant varieties Alternating pesticides to slow resistance Adjusting planting dates to lessen pest problems Soil testing for pests Pruning Purchasing biocontrol organisms Adjusting application rates riming and frequency to protect beneficial organisms Use of insecticides less harmful to beneficial insects Survey of IPM Adopters Among Grape Producers USA 32 30 124 40 44 133 16 14 110 na 20 107 26 22 107 35 28 691 30 26 FernandezCornejo 1998 Averaged Results for Econometric Variables FernandezCcrnejc 1998 IPM Insects IPM Diseases Averaged Results for Environmental Variables FernandezCornejo 1998 IPM Insects IPM Diseases Parameter Yes No Yes No Farm Size 0 1 scale 028 013 032 011 1 gt300 acres Infestation Level Insects 01 009 018 scale 1 worse than normal Infestation Level Disease 01 012 021 scale 1 worse than normal Number insecticides applyr 134 139 Number fungicides applyr 267 443 Environmental Inderuotient 2469 2524 456 456 Federal Law State Law 2 39r H r quot l ll l x x v a FIFRA Federal Insecticide Fungicide amp Rodenticide Act FFDCA Federal Food Drug amp Cosmetic Act FEPCA Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act FQPA Food Quality Protection Act FHM 1947 gt Risk Assessment gt Tolerance M RL lt V Labeling gt Registration 7 FFDCA 1938 FEPCA 1 Miller 1954 1972 Delaney 1958 l FQPA 1996 7 7 139 VIN quotv 5quot 39 V7 quot 7 quoti ll l l Jll llll lull lino Registrant had to show that a pesticide could perform its intended function without unreasonable adverse effects on the environment Use in violation of product label becomes a crime Classification of Pesticides Restricted Use Pesticide could cause unreasonable adverse effects to environment or applicator if additional regulatory restrictions were not imposed Muse be certified to buy Initiated training and certification programs by the states General Use no license required available to public FHM 1947 gt Risk Assessment gt Tolerance M RL lt V Labeling gt Registration 7 FFDCA 1938 FEPCA 1 Miller 1954 1972 Delaney 1958 l FQPA 1996 Manufacturer petitions for tolerance Name amp chemical composition Application procedures Safety data Residue tests Method for removing excess residue Proposed tolerance Manufacturer obtains certificate of usefulness from USDA or exemption Food sold with residues above tolerance considered adulterated FHM 1947 gt Risk Assessment gt Tolerance M RL lt V Labeling gt Registration 7 FFDCA 1938 FEPCA 1 Miller 1954 1972 Delaney 1958 l FQPA 1996 All registered active ingredients formulated into commercial products All individual products must be registered but registration not given until label developed and approved The label is the governing law Identification of active ingredient and contents Legal uses crops maybe specific pests Rates of application application methods Personal protective equipment Restrictions on use no drift no application near water sometimes regionrestricted Directions for disposal FHM 1947 gt Risk Assessment gt Tolerance M RL lt V Labeling gt Registration 7 FFDCA 1938 FEPCA 1 Miller 1954 1972 Delaney 1958 l FQPA 1996 Tolerances will be safe Le a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure All tolerances will be reassessed by 2006 Changed the standards of proof for safety and thus registration The registration process relies on risk assessment Hazard amp DoseResponse Assessment Dietary Drinking Water Residential amp Worker Exposure Nontarget Organism Exposure Risk Characterization Tc lilallim Factors To Consider As Mandated by F QPA Infants amp Children Threshold vs Nonthreshold Effect Endocrine Disruption Aggregate Exposure Assessment Cumulative Exposure Assessment Enforce FIFRA under a mandate from EPA Enforce requirements for applicator training FEPCA mandated that commercial and private pesticide applicators amp handlers mixersloaders pass certificationlicensing if using restricted use pesticides Pesticides classified as restricted use when deemed risky to environment andor humans State registration of pesticides must approve labels of products sold in states Inspections for record keeping proper pesticide use etc Can impose pesticide use restrictions in local areas
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'