[B] Insects and People A Perspective
[B] Insects and People A Perspective Entom 101
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victor Schaefer Sr. on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Entom 101 at Washington State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see /class/205993/entom-101-washington-state-university in Entomology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Insects and People Entomology 101 Insects in Religion and Mythology 1 Egyptian Civilization unity of Upper and Lower Egypt in 3100 BC by Menes a Hieroglyphics and symbols bee net or bat y at grasshopper senehem scorpion serq b The Sacred Scarab of Egypt the sun gods Ra Re and Kepher rolling the sun across the sky scarabs as symbols of the afterlife heart scarabs 2 Insects and the Bible a 120 or so references to insects in the Bible insects used to symbolize destruction and evil add color or to make a point to point to a moral insects as food b The Wrath of God The Insect Plagues lice flies locusts 3 Insects in Greek Society a Psyche The Soul a butter y b cicadas c ies 4 Miscellaneous Items a Australian Aboriginal Peoples b African Bushman c Ancient Mesopotamia d Philistines e Irish Tradition f The Mormon Cricket 5 Insects in Everyday Expressions Insects and People Entomology 101 The Ugly Duckling Syndrome Reproduction and Metamorphosis Reproductive System Perpetuation of the species is the ultimate function of the insect 1 Terms a dioecious males and females eggs and sperm sexual reproduction b parthenogenetic female able to produce viable eggs without fertilization by sperm asexual reproduction 2 Male Reproductive System paired testes produce sperm gt vas deferens tube gt seminal vesicles storage gt accessory glands gt ejaculatory duct gt aedeagus penis gt external claspers 3 Female Reproductive System ovaries tube like ovarioles produce eggs gt calyx gt oviduct tube gt accessory glands gt spermatheca sperm storage gt vagina gt ovipositor egg laying Metamorphosis change in form 1 Terms a stage successive steps egg nymph larva pupa adult b instar growth steps of immatures produced through molts number of molts generally between 3 8 group dependent c molt shedding of exoskeleton Once an insect reaches the adult stage it discontinues molting 2 Types of Metamorphosis a ametabola no metamorphosis growth without change primitive insects that are wingless as adults immatures called young b paurometabolous gradual or incomplete immature looks similar to adult but lacks certain structures wings develop externally as buds immature called a nymph c holometabolous complete or complex immature looks nothing like the adult wings develop internally immature called a larva larvae plural maggot grub caterpillar etc passes through an intermediate stage called a pupa cocoon ca 75 80 of all insects are holometabolous 3 Hormones Control of Metamorphosis metamorphosis is controlled by a complex series of hormonally mediated changes brain hormone from brain corpus cardiacum storage of BH prothoracic gland molting hormone ecdysone epidermis molting uid cells epidermal cells secrete new cuticle hop96 Insects and People Entomology 101 What39s in a Name Etymology in Entomology quotWhat sort of insects do you rejoice in where you come fromquot the Gnat inquired quotI don39t rejoice in insects at allquot Alice explained quotbecause I39m rather afraid of them A at least the large kinds Butl can tell you the names of some of themquot quotOf course they answer to their namesquot the Gnat remarked carelessly quotI never knew them to do it quot quotWhat39s the use of having names quot the Gnat said llif they won39t answer to themquot quotNo use to themquot said Alice llbut its useful to the people that name them I suppose If not why do things have names at allquot Lewis Carroll Through the Looking Glass What does a classification system allow What does a classification system re ect A classification based on quotcommon namesquot 1 In the local vernacular 2 Provide a useful system of communication 3 Often based on necessity 4 Not useful over large geographic areas A Classification based on quotscientific namesquot 1 Greek or Latinized in derivation 2 Provide a useful system of communication 3 Useful throughout the world Our primary hierarchical system of classification Human house y crab louse Kingdom Animalia Animalia Animalia Phylum Vertebrata Arthropoda Arthropoda Class Mammalia Hexapoda Hexapoda Order Primata Diptera Phthiraptera Family Homidae Muscidae Pthiridae Genus Homo Musca Pthirus species sapiens domestica pubis The scientific name or species name consists of the genus and species usually followed by the name of the author the person that named and described the species in question humans Homo sapiens house fly Musca domestica Linnaeus crab louse Pthirus pubis Linnaeus NB No two species can have the same name What is a species The Biological Species Concept 1 Organisms with a similar morphology However variation or differences among individuals within the species is always present 2 Capable of breeding and producing fertile offspring 3 Reproductively isolated from all other such groups of organisms species An Ecological Concept Niche Nomenclature Nomenclator The act or a system of naming The system or set of names used in a specific branch of learning Common Names a system of nomenclature developed as soon as humans realized that there were differences in plants and animals the knowledge of which could prove useful scientific societies have tried to quotstandardizequot their use List of Approved Common Names published by the Entomological Society of America and other national entomological societies The development of a system of quotscientificquot nomenclature Theophrastus Greek ca 287 BC Carl Linne Swedish born 1707 developed the system of binomial nomenclature 1736 the first edition of Systema Naturae Binomial Nomenclature the generic and specific name are combined to form the scientific name the names are derived from Latin or Greek or are Latinized the generic name is always capitalized the specific name is not the name is normally italicized or underlined The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Who names insects taxonomy the science of naming and describing organisms systematics the science of classification Carolus Linnaeus he Latinized his name named just over 2000 insects Francis Walker a British entomologists named over 20000 insect species What do the names mean anything you like but you must bear the consequences Musca domestica Linnaeus D0naceus azhari Zack amp Sites Pison eu Menke Lalapa lusa Pate Dicr0tendipes thanatogralus Anaxjunius Drury the common green darner dragon y state insect of Washington quotMonarch of J unequot Insects and People Entomology 101 The Life That Lives on Man quotClean Body Clean Mindquot a relatively modern axiom the debauchery of the public bath laws that limit the number of baths one can take Parasite An organism usually smaller than its host that attains needed nourishment from its host to complete its life cycle May feed on one or several hosts during its lifetime Obligate and Facultative Parasites Obligate adapted to a specific host must complete life cycle on that host with no or few interruptions Facultative capable of completing the life cycle on any one of a number of host species host may or may not have to be closely related 1 Lice sucking lice feed primarily on mammals chewing lice feed primarily on birds a Human body louse note singular form of lice worldwide in distribution feed on blood but often found off of the host in clothing bedding etc eggs laid in clothing or bedding need to feed every several days may leave host after feeding capable of transmitting several important diseases epidemic typhus trench fever relapsing fever but not a disease problem in US causes severe skin irritations swelling may develop allergies wash infested garments and bedding with hot water dry hot use insecticidal soaps pediculicidal soaps for personal use b Head louse a subspecies of body louse found only on the scalp hair combs from 100 BC with lice eggs and remains do not transmit disease however great social stigma eggs nits quotnit pickerquot glued to shafts of hairs delouse individuals with insecticidal shampoos try to remove eggs from individual delouseclothing bedding combs brushes reintroduced into a population quickly through sharing of combs hair brushes hats etc c crab louse pubic louse quotpediculosis pubisquot confined to pubic area rarely eyebrows underarms do not transmit disease but causes severe itching and may lead to secondary infections obtained through sexual contact and sometimes toilet seats delouse individuals with insecticidal products wash clothing and bedding 2 Bed Bugs Hemiptera human bed bugs feed primarily on humans but may take other hosts closely related to bat bug do not appear to transmit disease nocturnal feeders severe itching and in ammation associated with bites spend diurnal and non feeding periods in seams of mattresses under baseboards under pealing wallpaper etc can survive long periods of time without feeding treat infested area with insecticides treat bites with antibacterial lotions and creams 3 Fleas Siphonaptera complete metamorphosis adults are blood feeders while immatures feed on detritus food particles dead skin cells feathers dried blood from wounds or defecated by adult eas etc Eggs are usually laid in bedding of host among the most important disease vectoring organisms eg plague for most fleas are a source of insidious attack causing irritation blood loss and severe discomfort a human curse most of the more common fleas are not host specific can survive long periods without feeding cat and dog fleas oriental rat flea vectors causative agent of plague human flea not specific to humans chigoe flea mostly tropical and subtropical burrows into skin causes sever itching and inflammation Treatments chigoe fleas can be removed surgically antihistamines may relieve itching and corticosteroids can aid in healing lesions remove infestation insecticidal treatments in and around home clean pets clean animal bedding thoroughly and often 4 Follicle mites live exclusively in hair follicles and sebaceous glands no apparent detrimental affects almost all people have them 5 Chigger mites very common in south and humid areas of midwest larvae may burrow into the skin causing swellings sever itching and irritation do not suck blood inject saliva that dissolves host cellular tissue mites ingest a mixture of dissolved body tissue and stray blood cells 6 House Dust mites two primary species found worldwide associated with mattresses sofas reclining chairs debris in carpet thought to feed on shed skin cells can cause allergies which may become severe vacuum frequently avoid carpets hard floors better keep bedding very clean 8 Myiasis Myiasis is an invasion of living tissue by fly maggots Human bot fly obligatory human parasite very unusual method of attaining host feed subdermally for 5 10 weeks feed on head arms back abdomen buttocks thighs surgically remove do not crush primary screwworm fly facultative human parasite can be devastating to cattle and other domestic and wild animals Sterile Insect Technique flies deposit eggs in wounds larvae tunnel through and feed on living flesh Insects and People Entomology 101 Is That You Insect Camouflage The Problem Insects are the most diverse and abundant in terms of biomass organisms on earth Insects are at the base of many food chains and next to plants may provide more food biomass than any other group of organisms The Solutions Defense exoskeleton ight large numbers quothidequot quotadvertisequot defensive mechanisms Crypsis Camou age blend in with ones surroundings not only morphological similarities which are easiest to quantify but also sound scent and behavioral contour disruptive patterns lateral aps orientation reduction in shadow Aposematic Coloration quotI am Dangerousquot Warning coloration aunt yourself a combination of red and black yellow and black or other vivid coloration insects do not perceive reds but most mammals and birds do obvious sound production large conspicuous congregations Mimicry quotI am Someone Elsequot The resemblance of one organism the mimic usually in color pattern or behavior to another organism the model The model should be quotdangerousquot The population of models usually outnumbers the population of mimics Batesian Mimicry Bates 1862 in the Amazon a palatable species evolves to resemble an unpalatable species the Monarch and the Viceroy butter y bees and ies wasps and various other insects Mullerian Mimicry Muller 1879 in Brazil unpalatable species resemble each other easier for potential predators to recognize less sacrifice Passive and Systemic Chemical Defenses quotI am not Tastyquot Remember allomones interspecific chemical signals that benefit the sender quotborrowquot a toxin from a host plant the Monarch butter y quotproduce your own toxins in combination with aposematic coloration Urticating hairs hollow hairs that contain irritating chemicals tarantula many Lepidopteran caterpillars Re ex Bleeding toxic quotbloodquot haemolymph often secreted at joints Enteric Discharges regurgitation quottobacco juicequot of grasshoppers and pee of hissing cockroaches Startle quotI am Not What You Thoughtquot Flash Coloration Eye Spots eye spots to de ect danger Attack Turning the Tables A good defense stings as in many Hymenoptera Osmeterium of butter y larvae Bombardier beetle ants spraying formic acid group defense Insects and People Entomology 101 Kin Folk Inlaws and Outlaws Insect Relatives Read Field Guide to Insects pp 48 55 Phylum Arthropoda The arthropods surpass all other organisms in terms of diversity of ecological distribution and in numbers of species and individuals Approximately 80 of all described animal species are arthropods Subphylum Trilobita the trilobites extinct known from fossils only 600mybp trilobites were marine in distribution somewhat elongate attened with three rather distinct body divisions most trilobites were between one and five inches in length although some were as long as 25 feet most trilobites appear to have been bottom feeders Subphylum Chelicerata the chelicerates body divided into two sections a cephalothorax and an abdomen first pair of appendages are feeding structures called chelicerae no antennae Class Arachnida the arachnids the largest class of chelicerates over 10000 species Order Scorpiones the scorpions fairly common in the southwest and west at least two species in Washington not seriously toxic first pair of leg like structures called pedipalps feed primarily on other arthropods including insects Order Araneae the spiders occur in a variety of terrestrial and semi aquatic habitats nearly all spiders have venom glands body divided into cephalothorax and abdomen four pair of walking legs eggs laid in silken sacs usually hidden sometimes carried by female for the most part all spiders are predators feeding primarily on other arthropods including insects many construct silken webs quotballooningquot Order Opiliones the harvestmen or daddy longlegs small bodied arthropods with the cephalothorax and abdomen broadly joined giving them the appearance of having a single body segment predators or feed on decaying carrion and vegetation Order Acari the mites and ticks mites occur in a great variety of ecological habitats including soil fresh and marine waters soil organic debris etc mites can be phy r r J chiggers ectoparasites on vertebrates phytophagous mites can be very destructive because of their debilitating effects ticks are very specialized blood feeders ticks may vector numerous diseases including Lyme diseases Rocky Mountain Spotted fever relapsing fever and Texas cattle fever tick paralysis I Order P I piuucs the r pious look like small sting less scorpions Subphylum Crustacea the crabs shrimp crayfish lobsters sowbugs barnacles etc Order Isopoda the sow and pillbugs very common under rocks wood in cracks and crevices of buildings basements scavengers and omnivores Subphylum Atelocerata millipedes centipedes and insects Class Diplopoda the millipedes elongate worm like usually with 30 or more pairs of legs two pairs of legs per body segment found in a variety of damp places with high amounts of organic matter most feed on decaying organic matter some millipedes capable of producing foul smelling secretions Class Chilopoda the centipedes elongate flattened usually with 15 or more pairs of legs one pair of legs per body segment centipedes are predators on other arthropods including insects most centipedes have poison glands with which they subdue prey some centipedes can have painful bites but the toxin does not have long term effects Class Hexopoda the insects and others Insects and People Entomology 101 Aesop39s Fables and The Nez Perce quotKnow Thyself an inscription on the temple of Apollo at Delphi quotThe unaxamined life is not worth a man39s living quot Socrates Aesop Esop was a famous fabulist teller of fables who may have lived in the sixth century BC or almost 2600 years before present BF We have good reason to think that there actually was an Aesop as writers of consequence such as Herodotus Plato and Aristotle mention him Although no manuscripts of Aesop have survived ancient writers such as Babrius Phaedrus and Avianus gathered and recorded fables they attributed to him Originally compiled in Greek and Latin early colonists took the fables with them and spread them throughout much of Europe Throughout the Middle Ages the fables were told in many languages with much variation The first English edition of the fables was published in 1484 Today Aesop s fables are read more for pleasure than the value of the lessons that they present However the lessons are universal and are at home in any age for they are based upon life itself and the practical wisdom one needs to survive Aesop is thought to have been a Greek slave hunched back and deaf He found favor however with the gods but was eventually killed by those who could not understand his counsels The Entomological Fables of Aesop Amelia and the spider The envious glow worm The ant and the chrysalis The gnat and the bee The ant and the fly Jupiter and the bee The ant and the grasshopper The lion and the gnat The Ape and the bee The locusts and the grasshopper The bear and the bee hives The man and the gnat The bee and the cuckoo The ox and the fly The bee and the fly The proud lady and the The silkworm and the spider caterpillar The bee and the spider The toad and the may y The bees the drones and the wasp The dove and the ant NB various sources will list these differently or may include others or exclude some Selected References The Nez Perce Hines D M 1984 Tales of the Nez Perce Ye Galleon Press Fairfield Washington J osephy A M 1965 The Nez Perce Indians and the opening of the Northwest Yale University Press New Haven CT McWhorter L V 1952 Hear Me My Chiefs Nez Perce history and legend Caxton Printers Caldwell Idaho McWhorter L V ed 1940 Yellow Wolf His own story The Caxton Printers Ltd Caldwell Idaho Aesop Keller J E and L C Keating 1993 Aesop s Fables with a life of Aesop Translated from the Spanish University Press of Kentucky Lexington Kentucky Anthropomorphism To ascribe human characteristics to non human species Insects to which human traits are often ascribed include Honey Bees Ants Crickets Insects and People Entomology 101 Honey Coated and Silky Smooth Insect Products Honey Bee Products Apis mellifera and other species around the world Domesticated for almost 3000 years H Honey plant nectar regurgitated gut contents mixed with enzymes and fanned to evaporate water less than 18 composed of simple sugars and water 38 fructose 32 glucose 12 other simple sugars less than 02 protein mead honey wine N Beeswax produced from wax glands in the abdomen clean burning used as a protective sealant or coating 9 Propolis bee glue plant resin 4 Royal Jelly mandibular gland secretion 34 simple sugars nutritive feed to workers and developing queens for different periods of time 01 Bee Venom a mixture of proteins and peptides used to desensitize individuals allergic to stings and as a treatment for arthritis Sericulture silk production a fiber collected from silk moth cocoons 1 A 6000 year old industry of Chinese origin indoor rearing began ca 1200 BC 2 The moth is completely domesticated adults no longer fly caterpillars eat mulberry leaves 3 One cocoon yields over 1000 yards of filament 3000 cocoons yield ca 1 pound of filament filaments are twisted together to make silk yarn 4 Properties will stretch 20 of length before breaking absorbs moisture but does not become damp wicks moisture absorbs dyes resists mildew used where light weight and durability are required today nylon and rayon are substituted 5 Production mainly in China Japan sections of the old Soviet Union Brazil S Korea Thailand Dyes red dyes Kermes and Cochineal from the dried and powdered bodies of scale insects 1 Kermes old world scale feeding on oak used as a prized royal dye by Greeks and Romans 2 Cochineal new world cactus scale produces a carmine pigment used by Aztecs as a pigment 70 000 scales to produce 1 pound of powdered dye Used as a cosmetic pigment lab stain now largely replaced by aniline dyes but still used in many cosmetics 3 Shellac A scale that feeds on fig and banan tree branches native to India and Burma production of stick lac heavily infested branches dried lac is dissolved in methyl hydrate to produce shellac 150000 scales needed to yield one pound of dry shellac used as a wood protectantsealant replaced mainly by polyurethane Optic Crosshairs from spider silk a highly unusual protein secreted from spinnerets very smooth exact diameter tensile strength is like nylon but will stretch twice as far as nylon before it breaks used for crosshairs on optical instruments e g bombsights during WWII Foods many insects are raised commercially and preserved or used live as baits in sports fishing used as pet foods crickets wireworms fly maggots Insects and People Entomology 101 The Conflicts the Players and the Solutions Economic Entomology A Short History of the Human Species and Agriculture a huntergatherer ancestry for most of our 200000 years Agriculture quotthe most important event in the cultural evolution of the human speciesquot H Curtis 1983 Agriculture dates back to ca 12000 18000 years before present ybp Middle East implements and storage containers wheat lentils chickpeas dates an agricultural based economy 1 cereals that could be stored wheat in temperate Asia c0rn maize in New World Tropics rice in Southeast Asia s0rghum in drier areas of Africa 2 herbivorous herd animals for domestication How did Agricultural Development Affect Human Society 1 HunterGathers m0bile low fertility active involvement 2 Agricultural sedentary increased fertility fewer individuals involved Recent Advancements in Agriculture increased mechanization impr0ved crop plants increased energy inputs What About Insets Insects are direct competitors for resources Insects destroy 20 30 of food and fiber we produce Are Insects Inherently Pests Appr0ximately 1000 key pests worldwide 200 key pests in the United States perhaps 30000 or so secondary pests worldwide Rating the pests 1 subeconomic pests 2 occasional pests 3 key perennial or severe pests Economic Injury Level EIL Why do Insects Become Pests 1 2 3 Ecosystem modification and Insect Population Numbers r and K selected species Transportation quotanthropogenicquot Human attitudes What is a Pest Economic Entomology Managing Pest Populations 1 2 LN 5 U Ch Appeal to a higher power Pesticides Insecticides Homer 1000 BC quotpest averting sulfurquot Cato 200 BC mixture of bitumen mineral pitch or asphalt Dioscorides 40 90 AD toxic nature of arsenic Chinese 900 AD arsenic to control garden pests 1690 mixtures including tobacco nicotine used in orchards botanicals plant based materials 186039s formulations of inorganic materials being used antimony arsenic mercury selenium Insecticides the modern era late 193039s WWII forced an exploration for synthetic materials The story of DDT DDT dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane first synthesized in 1873 by Othmar Zeidler insecticidal properties discovered in 1939 by Paul Muller a broad spectrum residual insecticide low mammalian toxicity Naples Italy 1944 used to stop an outbreak of typhus 13 million people treated saved thousands many thousands of lives 1948 Paul Muller awarded Nobel Prize The demise of DDT accumulated in fat cells not excreted quotBioaccumulationquot in the environment quotBiomagnificationquot in living organisms 1962 Rachel Carson and the publication of Silent Spring DDT quotbannedquot in the late 196039s 1970 the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency EPA A pesticide is designed to kill Some terminology concerning pesticides Broad spectrum vs narrow spectrum residual vs nonresidual LDSO and LCSO Economic Entomology Methods of Managing Pest Populations 1 Chemical Control Active Ingredients AI and Inert Ingredients Mode of action Types of chemical pesticides Inorganic Organic Natural Oils Botanicals Synthetic organic pesticides mammalian toxicity varies most common today Advantages of chemical pesticides 1 can treat a problem while it is in progress 2 action is rapid Chemical pesticides are generally economical Pesticides are easy to use Disadvantages of chemical pesticides 1 Development of resistance in pests Pest resurgence and possible pest replacement Effects on non target organisms and the environment Risks to the user Aw AWN 2 Chemical Modifiers of Development and Behavior began primarily in the 196039s based on an understanding of hormonal activities in the insect disrupt normal development in the pest individual Insect Growth Regulators IGR39s juvenile hormone mimics molting hormone mimics 3 Chemicals that Modify Behavioral Patterns Pheromones Allomones Kairomones disrupt intra and interspecific activities eg sex pheromones and mating disruption used primarily to monitor pest populations 4 Sterile Insect Technique SIT Began in the 193039s best when pest populations are geographically isolated very costly usually used on a large scale with governmental and governmentalprivate support sterile individuals are released into the environment in tremendously high numbers eg screwworm S Microbial control insect pathology study of insect diseases use of bacteria viruses fungi Bacillus thuringiensis Bt is the most commonly used microbial especially effective on lepidopteran caterpillars and beetle grubs often used for large scale spray programs very low to no mammalian toxicity 6 Genetically engineered Plants Animals incorporate the genetic material for pest control from one species into a second species that does not have the trait transgenic plants eg corn the toxin producing genetic material from TB has been incorporated into corn how will the public you perceive genetically engineered food 8 Biological control insects are extremely important in controlling insects predators larger than prey feed on many prey parasites parasitoids smaller than prey feed on one prey may involve naturally occurring predators and parasitoids may involve introduced predators and parasitoids establishment of a quotnaturalquot situation What does the future hold Environmental concerns Health concerns Public perception Antenna 39 ABDOMEN quotquot k Mesmhurax l 39 Splracls eonopore Metathcrax GenRal Opening Foreleg Genenliztd Insect Circulatory System Centralized 1m Raprodnctive Systems FEMALE Gunnlhd Inset Nervous Sy un Apndm a new alum mu Chewinglapping maulhpms Sponging mouthpms siphoning muumpuns Piemingsuckmg r quothugquot W W W Picrcmgsuckmg mosqqu W quotmumv Dumm um nm mam any 1mm lmhuw n lurwonl Insects and People Entomology 101 External Morphology Segmentation a series of primitive similar segments that constitute the body Tagmosis grouping of segments into distinct functional body regions called tagmata tagma singular a head b thorax c abdomen Exoskeleton an external support system an external skeleton the integument a advantages b disadvantages c structure epicuticle exocuticle and endocuticle chitin reslin hypodermis epidermis living layer d exibility sclerites and sutures e cuticular appendages setae and spines Body Regions Tagmata a Head 1 compound eyes ommatidia 2 ocelli 3 antennae antenna singular 4 mouthparts chewing grasshoppers caterpillars sucking piercing sucking plant bugs mosquitoes spon gin g house y siphoning adult butter y adult moth chewing lapping bees b Thorax prothorax mesothorax metathorax appendages of the thorax include wings and legs legs natatorial saltatorial raptorial wings ight is a tremendous advantage cuticular layers types membranous tegmina grasshoppers cockroaches hemelytron true bugs elytron beetles scales modified membrane butterflies c abdomen ovipositor egg laying sting modified ovipositor cerci sensory in function
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