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Special Topics in Entomology

by: Victor Schaefer Sr.

Special Topics in Entomology Entom 490

Marketplace > Washington State University > Entomology > Entom 490 > Special Topics in Entomology
Victor Schaefer Sr.
GPA 3.75


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Class Notes
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This 43 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victor Schaefer Sr. on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Entom 490 at Washington State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see /class/205992/entom-490-washington-state-university in Entomology at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 09/17/15
ENTOMOL 490 Grape Pest Management Lecture 3 Registration Risk Assessment Toxicity of Commonly Use Grape Pesticides Mode of Action 39 Determination of the potential hazards of a substance and the probability that it will cause harm to the environment andor human health when used in the manner for which it is intended 39 Hazardpotential harm conditional Risk Probability of Harm Can never be zero Risk Assessment Testing the Probability of Harm i iaaatre liqaiiemi w i ea m e a t nmmetm rge Risk Characterization Product chemistry Residue chemistry Environmental fate Hazards to humans amp domestic animals Field reentry protection studies Pesticide spray drift evaluation Hazards to nontarget organisms Product performance Risk Assessment Toxicology Environmental Chemistry 1 No Observable Exposure Adverse Effect Level Assessment Risk Characterization By law industry required to submit studies for human and ecological hazards EPA conducts the risk characterization EPA does not use journalpublished data for risk characterization Most academic studies are mechanistic Industry studies geared toward finding doses not causing effects Published literature used to further insights into a chemical s properties and hazards LDLC5O dose or concentration causing 50 mortality or other effect in a test population A measure of acute toxicity occurs after single or short term exposure acute exposure Often the measured effect is death NOAELNOEC level dose or concentration not causing an adverse reaction Usually refers to chronic exposures Typically 90 days to 2 years for mammalian rodent testing Effects often called chronic effects Examples cancer fertility impairment birth defects l H1m 50 Respgnse Numbers Responding Measuring amp Expressing v Toxicity Dose mgkg w W Ciiifu 1 00 Population Response Cumulative 50 Measuring amp Expressing Toxicity 0 zip v in 393 r 27 r7 1 3 is fl Mcs Hr 3191quot 7 J gi Concentration pgL Route of exposure Oral Most hazardous Dermal exposure routes Inhalational Age Gender Stress Disease HUlli fiit leilltlh LD50 is irrelevant for risk characterization However it is used to inform workers of the general toxicity classification ie more relevance for risk communication EPA classifies chemicals by the magnitude of their oral dermal and inhalational LD50 Eye and skin effects are also denoted Classification in category I will place pesticide in a restricted use category EPA Toxicity Classification Human Health Category amp Oral LD50 D5621 I Inhilgtslgnal Signal Word mgkg mgkg mgL T x 50 200 02 Danger T H ox 50 200 200 2000 02 2 Warning Tox Ill 2 000 500 5000 2 20 Caution 20000 T IV ox gt5000 gt20000 gt20 Cauhon EPA Toxicity Classification Human Eye amp Skin Narrative Category amp Eye Effects Skin Effects Signal Word Tox I Corrosive corneai I Corrosive D opaCIty not reversnble In anger 7 days Tox Comequot Opac39ty Severe irritation w reversnble In 7 days at 72 hours ammg irritation persists 7 days No corneal opacity Moderate Tox l C t irritation reversnble in 7 irritation at 72 aquot 390quot days hours TOX W No irritation Slight irritation at Caution 72 hours H iilli39ij flit leilltlll EPA looking for the most sensitive toxicological endpoint The toxicological endpoint is a measured physiological effect caused by some dose The most sensitive tox endpoint is the physiological effect observed at the lowest dose tested EPA defines the NOAEL No Observable Adverse Effect Level for the most sensitive endpoint Based on subchronic 90d and chronic up to 2 yr exposures Always an observed endpoint Units are mgkgday 451 min v 7 a 7 quotI 3 Mir 1 51mm h 1 w r 1 rd Reference Dose RfD mgkgday A dose with reasonable certainty of no harm after single exposure or lifetime exposure Acute RfD Chronic RfD NOAEL Reference Dose RfD 100 El 21quot 73 D If LU Hg vi quot1 L quotI 9 L A r 39j 39i l 7 T 539 I j 7 5 l ll l W l ll Lll ll if E 1 quot ai ll ll3 i l J l When there is a concern about a greater sensitivity of infantschildren than adults to a toxicant EPA can impose extra safety factors For example under the FQPA mandate EPA can impose up to a further 10X extra safety factor Adjustment of the RfD by another factor of 10 5 Population Adjusted Dose PAD f Ht ll El t Hesflliltil it ll Risk Cup Metaphor FQPA Risk Cup W FQPA Risk Cup Child RfD Endocrine Home amp Lawn Cancer Hazard PAD Water Home amp Lawn Water Exposures must not exceed either the RfD represented by the cup on the left or the PAD cup on the right ie exposure lt100 of the RfD or PAD are below EPA s levels of concern The tolerance for a pesticide residue on a crop is the maximum amount allowed as codified by the EPA Published in the Code of Federal Regulations Updated in the Federal Register Usually based on field studies to establish the range of expected residues Sum of all tolerances translated as mgkgday dose units should not exceed the RfD or the PAD However tolerance is not a safety standard therefore residue on a crop exceeding the tolerance is not a hazard but a violation of law Acute Toxicity Short term terrestrial and aquatic organism exposures LD5O or LC5O Chronic Toxicity Exposure during reproductive and developmental periods of the lifecycle Length of exposure if variable depending on the species EPA looking for the most sensitive organism EPA uses a risk quotient RQ to characterize risk On the basis of the magnitude of the RQ EPA can fine tune their risk characterization to encompass protection of endangered species EPA also can use the magnitude of the RQ to classify a compound as general use or restricted use quot RQ r all gll linolel llll39 Estimated Expected Environmental Concentration Toxicity Enpoint LC50LD50 or NOECNOEL EECLC50 EECLC50 01 10 EECLC50 005 20 EECNOAEC 1 1 RQ must be S stated level of concern othenNise it falls into the indicated risk category Toxicity Category Descriptors for Fish and Aquatic Invertebrate Toxicity Very highly toxic Highly toxic Moderately toxic Slightly toxic Practically nontoxic Toxicity Parameters for Selected Herbicides Registered on Grapes llD 5 3 a i ii tel gt5000 gt10000 gt2000 012 1400 283 gt2000 00045 1200 gt5000 gt3100 0005 1100 Note The data in this table and the following tables was compiled mainly from registration documents available through the EPA s websites and Federal Register documents Some of this material can be accessed by a search on the active ingredient name in GOOGLE Toxicity Parameters for Selected Insecticides Registered on Grapes Toxicity Parameters for Selected Fungicides Registered on Grapes 3912 15 quotaffuiii iiiii m iL ii39enzlriiiiquot iquoti39 ii 036 1600 gt2000 0025 11000 gt5000 gt2000 None naturally gt5 x 106 occurring gt5000 gt2000 005 25 7 397 ii 7 1 139 in 39 if iiwtiiii a r How Pesticides Work on pests Delivery application efficiency Target retention Dose Transfer Toxicokinetics Mechanism of toxicity I ll ii ll39liii The usefulness of one pesticide over another is dependent on environmental behavior biochemical properties management system goals 7 91ij u Uhr wrl 17 J5 775 7 jquot 315 139 39 f 39 J 3 n gt Q J JJ J J J JJ J Jgiig i s Q Physicochemical properties Interactions with soil and leaf surfaces Temperature and Moisture Degradation amp Transport v quot Iv j quoti ii i i Litih iiijiii Absorption Distribution MetabolismTransformation Excretion Target Site Interactions In In In I x I x III III I III III II Weather 80 gt Environmental Behavior Moisture Temperature Target NonTarget Wasted Biochemical Behavior Control No Effect Volatilization Biodegradation Leaching Residues of Phosdrin in Pea PlantsSoi Influence 239 Sand 08 CM 8 15 Lt39jam 36 OM 39 Muck 54 OM Uptake of soilapplied pesticides ppm will be influenced by soil properties 05 O I I O 20 4O 60 80 100 Hours After Soil Drench Getzin amp Chapman 1959 volatilization photodegradation penetration washoff Malathion Residue Lost ms plate beanleaves O 6 12 18 Days Systemic Pesticides Leaves J lt xylem Leaf tip Leaf base V Pimxymm 1250 m wit 7 Am ya ro Tri anystrbin 1250 ll l 7 i39wquot 7 Ktcsmimtmhyl quot a 39 t 1172509quot 1 I Contact Activity L Molecular Redistribution l by Air Systemic Activity i Copied from Bartlett et al 2002 Pest Mgt Sci 58649 Strobilurin Fungicides Systematicity High Low szv xyStrrobtmji 39 I gt Radipactivitypencentration quotxylem moveme yrjtbnly F V H Etco39xystrob39 rlxylem movement andmolecuIar reqtstnbutlon by aIr KiEsoximr ghyl V I I 39 39 I 39 t quot I hquot gtI 397 V 3quot molecular redistrlbutlon by air only Triftoxystrqbtn gt 39 39 r u quot 39 Irmot egular fedtstijbutqnt by airquot pyraclbsttosg gASSQOF 7 7 3 little rhov men no meleeglar r ed ivsti rjbuti0nfbyquotair 391 Copied from Bartlett et al 2002 Pest Mgt Sci 58649 DoseTransfer Overcoming Barriers 1 Absorption from Leaf or soil 2 Absorption through exoskeleton 3 Absorption from gut if oral contact 7 7 171 itiiuii ii ii Surface Contact Dietary Contact i Gut Absorption Thrcygh Cuticle Excretion Dissolved in Hemolympyh Cutlcular Wax Insect Bood Q Fat Body Insect Liver Target Sites ll Biochemical mechanism of causing toxicity Usually due to interaction with Enzyme usually inhibition of vital biochemical pathway Cytochromes proteins important in respiratory energy metabolism Receptors for hormones or chemical neurotransmitters inhibition or stimulation Why important to know Development of resistance management plans Also need to know how pesticide is metabolized ie what enzyme systems are involved Resistance is an Ecological Problem pesticide spray selection pressure x Q genetically susceptible Q genetically tolerant V a V r r 39 r r x 3 Hi 7 7 7 39 1 r g i i i ii i i quot9ii ii i 5 7 Li g ltd i 7 fquot I x 397 Pest resistance management avoidance Conservation of natural enemies Conservation of beneficials Pollinators bees Soil microorganisms amp detritivores important for soil fertility Conservation can be achieved by using selective pesticides Abamectin L050 Fisher1993 citrus rust mite 002 ppm two spotted spider mite 003 ppm Colorado potato beetle 003 ppm pea aphid 040 ppm cabbage looper 100 ppm armyworm 600 ppm Necessary to carry out similar experiments by testing natural enemies and beneficial organisms


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