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[B] Introductory Biology Cell Biology and Genetics

by: Marge Schiller

[B] Introductory Biology Cell Biology and Genetics Biol 107

Marketplace > Washington State University > Biology > Biol 107 > B Introductory Biology Cell Biology and Genetics
Marge Schiller
GPA 3.72

Norah McCabe

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Norah McCabe
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marge Schiller on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 107 at Washington State University taught by Norah McCabe in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/205995/biol-107-washington-state-university in Biology at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 09/17/15
Greg Kearby pg 1 Biology 107 Notes from Text Chapter 3 0 Overview 0 Water is the only substance to exist in the natural environment in all three of its physical states of matter 0 Cells are 7090 water 0 32 7 Polarity of water molecules results in hydrogen bonding o It is a polar molecule Held together by hydrogen bonds Cohesion 7 hydrogen bonds holding a substance together Adhesion 7 clinging of one substance to another Surface tension 7 measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid 0 Hydrophilic 7 any substance that has an affinity for water 0 Hydrophobic 7 substances that are nonionic and nonpolar that repel water 0 O O 0 Chapter 4 Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life 0 Carbon 0 enters the food chain with plants and their ability to pull C02 out of the air 0 Unparalleled in its ability to form large molecules 0 41 0 Organic chemistry 7 branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carbon compounds 0 Vitalism 7 belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical and chemical laws Disproved in 1953 by Stanley Miller who made HCN and CH2O in an experiment 0 42 Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules o 39 39 7 large 39 39 such as cai39 39 J J proteins and nucleic acids 0 51 o Polymer 7 long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds 0 Monomers 7 repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polymer and are much smaller 0 are J by a reaction or dehydration reaction Reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other through loss of a water molecule Dehydration process is facilitated by enzymes One molecule provides a hydrogen H while the other contributes a hydroxyl group OH 0 Polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis 7 breaks down by the addition of water molecules An example of hydrolysis working is digestion 1 Greg Kearby pg 2 0 Polymers are very diverse and are constructed from only 4050 common monomers Four Major Classes of Large Biological Molecules o 52 7 Carbohydrates o Carbohydrates 7 include both sugars and polymers of sugars o Monosaccharides 7 simple sugar I Generally have molecular formulas that are some multiple of the unit H20 I Glucose is the most common monosaccharide I Diversity among monosaccharides is based on 0 Location of the carbonyl group 0 Size of the carbon skeleton 0 Spatial arrangement of their parts around asymmetric carbons Disaccharide 7 consists of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction I Sucrose lactose Polysaccharides 7 macromolecules polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages I Storage polysaccharides 0 Starch 7 polymer of glucose monomers stored in plants 0 Sugar can later be withdrawn from this carbohydrate by hydrolysis Molecule is mostly helical in shape 0 Glycogen 7 a polymer of glucose that is stored in animals Stored mainly in the liver and muscle cells I Structural polysaccharides o Cellulose 7 major component of the tough walls in plant cells Polymer of glucose in the beta configuration making every other glucose monomer upside down with respect to its neighbors Molecule is never branched o Chitin 7 carbohydrate used by arthropods to build their exoskeletons o Glycemic index 7 measure of how quickly blood sugar level is raised after eating I Low G1 7 carbohydrates need to be broken down I High G1 7 simple sugars do not need to be broken down 0 53 7 Lipids do not include true polymers are not macromolecules and do not miX well with water 0 Fats I Constructed from o Glycerol 7 alcohol with three carbons each bearing a hydroxyl group 0 Fatty acid 7 has a long carbon skeleton usually 16 or 18 carbon atoms in length with a carboxyl group at the end Triacylglycerol 7 consists of three fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule Saturated fatty acid 7 structure is saturated with hydrogen Unsaturated fatty acid 7 has one or more double bonds formed by the removal of hydrogen atoms from the carbon skeleton O O Greg Kearby pg 3 Saturated fat 7 formed from saturated fatty acids usually found in animals solid at room temperature 0 No double bonds usually from animals Unsaturated fat 7 built from unsaturated fatty acids usually liquid at room temperature 0 One or more double bonds 9 causes kink in acid so they don t pack together 9 liquid at room temperature Trans fats 7 contains both saturated and unsaturated fats Has hydrogen not on the same side as each other Functions 0 Fats are energy storage store twice as much energy as starch o Stored in adipose cells which swell and shrink as fat is deposited and withdrawn 0 Cushions Vital organs 0 Insulates the body 0 Phospholipids 7 essential for cells because they make up the cell membranes Structure 0 Classic example of how form fits function at the molecular level 0 Similar to a fat molecule but with only two fatty acids attached to glycerol rather than three 0 Two ends of phospholipids are 0 Hydrocarbon tail is hydrophobic and are excluded from water 0 Phosphate head forms a hydrophilic head that has an affinity for water 0 When added to water they selfform into a bilayer structure 0 Steroids 7 lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings 0 54 7 Proteins Cholesterol 7 molecule from which other steroids including sex hormones are synthesized o Enzymes 7 most are proteins Catalyst enzymes speed up digestion o Polypeptides 7 polymers constructed from the same set of 20 amino acids Amino acid monomers 0 Amino acids 7 organic molecules possessing both carboxyl and amino groups connected by a carbon 0 The R group part of an amino acid is the part that makes the amino acid different The carboxyl and amino group stay the same Grouped according to the properties of their side chains Terms acidic and basic in this context refer only to groups in the side chains Amino acid polymers 0 Amino acids are joined by a dehydration reaction when the carboxyl group of one amino acid lines up with the amino group 0 Resulting covalent bond is called a peptide bond Greg Kearby pg 4 0 Repeated over and over results in a polypeptide 0 Protein structure and function I Protein s structure depends on how it works I Example is the exact match of shape between an antibody and that of a particular foreign substance like a virus I Four levels of protein structure 0 Primary 7 unique sequence of amino acids 0 Secondary 7 coils and folds of chains of amino acids that are formed by hydrogen bonds between the repeating constituents of the polypeptide backbone 0 Includes the alpha helix and beta pleated sheet Tertiary 7 overall shape of a polypeptide resulting from the interaction between the side chains R groups of the various amino acids Quaternary 7 overall protein structure that results from the aggregation of these polypeptide units Sickle cell disease 7 a change in the primary structure of one amino acid valine for the normal one glutamic acid Denaturation 7 when a protein unravels and loses its native shape and thus loses its ability to function 0 Can occur when they are transferred from an aqueous environment to an organic solvent such as ether or chloroform 0 Can result from excessive heat Chaperonins 7 protein molecules that assist in the proper folding of other proteins 0 Misfolding of proteins leads to Alzheimer s or Parkinson s XRay Crystallography 7 method that is used to determine 3D structures of proteins 0 55 7 Nucleic Acids 7 class of compounds that includes polymers that make up DNA and that even further make genes to build proteins 0 Roles ofnucleic acids I DNA 9 RNA 9 Protein I DNA 7 genetic material that organism inherit from their parents 0 Provides direction not only to make proteins but also to replicate itself unique among molecules 0 Structure of nucleic acids I Nucleic acids are macromolecules that exist as polymers of polynucleotides Nucleoside 7 made up of a base and a sugar Nucleotide 7 monomer that makes up polynucleotides o Consists of a nitrogenous base a fivecarbon sugar pentose and a phosphate group 0 Nucleotide Monomers o Nitrogenous bases I Pyrimindines 7 six memberd ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms The members are C T and U Greg Kearby pg 5 I Purines 7 larger with a six membered ring fusing to a five membered ring The members are A and G I T is only found in DNA while U is only found in RNA 0 Sugar I Ribose RNA I Deoxyribose DNA 0 Phosphate 0 Nucleotide Polymers o Adjacent nucleotides are joined by a phosphodiester linkage consisting of a phosphate group 0 DNA Double Helix I RNA has a single polynucleotide chain I DNA has a double polynucleotide chain that spiral around an imaginary axis I Base pairs in the double helix 0 A T o G C 0 Hybrid groups 0 Glycoproteins 7 sugars bonded to a protein Protein gt sugar Proteoglycan 7 protein and sugar Protein gt sugar Peptidoglycans 7 protein and sugar Found in prokaryotes Glycolipids 7 sugar and lipid Lipopolysaccharides 7 lipids and sugar Only found in prokaryotes Chapter 6 7 Tour of a Cell 0 61 7 Microscopes 0 Light microscope 7 visible light passes through the specimen and then through glass lenses I Can only resolve detail finer than about 2 micrometers or 200 nanometers I Advantage 7 studying living cells I Disadvantage 7 can t see very close 0 Electron microscope 7 focuses a bean of electrons through a specimen or onto its surface I Scanning electron microscope 7 surface of a specimen I Transmission electron microscope 7 internal ultrastructure of cells I Advantage 7 can see really close up I Disadvantage 7 can t studying living cells 0 Cell Fraction 7 takes cells apart and separates the major organelles and other subcellular structures from one another I Uses a centrifuge to mix up and separate parts of cells to be studied 0 62 7 Overview of cells 0 All cells have I Plasma membrane 7 selective barrier o Allows the sufficient passage of oxygen nutrients and wastes to service the cell 0 O O O Greg Kearby pg 6 I Cytosol 7 semi uid jellylike substance I Chromosomes 7 carry genes in the form of DNA I Ribosomes 7 tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes I Cytoplasm 7 interior of the cell 0 Differences between a eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell I Eukaryote o Nucleus o Bounded by a double membrane 0 Houses DNA 0 Organelles 7 protected by their own membrane 0 Large 10100 micrometers in diameter I Prokaryote o Nucleoid 7 houses DNA 0 Smaller 15 micrometers in diameter 0 Nucleus and the making of proteins 0 Nucleus 7 contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell some genes are located in mitochondria and chloroplast 0 Nuclear envelope 7 encloses the nucleus I Double membrane each a lipid bilayer I Pore complex 7 protein structure that regulates the entry and exit of proteins RNAs and macromolecules 0 Nuclear lamina 7 het like array of protein laments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope Nuclear matrix 7 framework of bers extending through the nuclear interior 0 Chromosomes 7 structures that carry the genetic information I Chromatin 7 complex of proteins and DNA that make up chromosomes I Typical human cell has 46 chromosomes and sex cells have 23 o Nucleolus 7 mass of densely strained granules and fibers adjoining part of the chromatin I Ribosomal RNA rRNA 7 is synthesized there 0 Messenger RNA mRNA leaves the nucleus via nuclear pores and into the cytoplasm where ribosomes translate the design into proteins 0 Ribosomes 7 complexes made of rRNA and protein carry out protein synthesis 0 Free ribosomes 7 suspended in the cytosol I Proteins made here function within the cytosol such as enzymes 0 Bound ribosomes 7 attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum ER or nuclear envelope I Proteins made here are generally destined for insertion into membranes 0 64 7 Endomembrane system 7 carries out a variety of tasks within the cell I Synthesis of proteins and their transport into membranes and organelles I Metabolism and movement of lipids I Detoxification of poisons I Includes most ofthe organelles in a cell 0 Vesicles 7 sacs made of membrane used to transport stuff in between the endomembrane system 0 Greg Kearby pg 7 0 Nuclear envelope 0 Endoplasmic reticulum 7 accounts for more than half the total membrane in many eukaryotic cells I ER membrane is continuous with the nuclear envelope Cistemae 7 network of membranous tubules and sacs in Latin meaning a reservoir of liquid I Smooth ER 7 outer surface lacks ribosomes 0 Functions 0 Synthesis of lipids I Enzymes help make oils phospholipids and steroids 0 Metabolism of carbohydrates 0 Detoxi cation of drugs and poisons I Enzymes help detoxify drugs and poisons especially in liver cells That is why the more you drink over time the more smooth ER there is in a cell 0 Stores calcium ions Calcium ion release and stimulation can trigger muscle contraction in muscle cells and other functions in different types of cells Rough ER 7 has ribosomes on the outer surface 0 Makes secretory proteins 0 Glycoproteins 7 proteins secreted from the ribosomes that have carbohydrates covalently bonded to them 0 Transport vesicles 7 carry secretory proteins from the cytosol in the rough ER to a different part of the cell 0 Membrane factory for the cell 0 Golgi apparatus 7 center of manufacturing warehousing sorting and shipping of the endomembrane system Many transport vesicles from the ER come here I Consist of attened membranous sacs called cistemae I Has distinct structural polarity Cis 7 receiving end of the Golgi apparatus usually located near the the ER Vesicles buds from the ER add its membrane and contents to this side Trans 7 shipping end of the Golgi apparatus Gives rise to vesicles which pinch off and travel to other sites I Products of the ER are usually modified in the Golgi o Carbohydrates 0 Proteins I Makes macromolecules too I Does its work in stages and in a dynamic method 0 Lysosomes 7 membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that an animal cell uses to digest macromolecules I Acidic environment 7 enzymes work best in this environment Phagocytosis 7 eat by engulfing smaller organisms or other food particles 0 Macrophages a type of white blood cell does the same thing Greg Kearby pg 8 I Digestive products simple sugars amino acids other monomers pass into the cytosol and become nutrients for the cell I Autophagy 7 process of recycling the cell s own organic material if it is damaged or foreign Dismantle the enclosed material and through this the cell continually renews itself 0 Vacuoles 7 membrane bound vesicles whose functions vary from cell to cell I Food vacuole 7 formed by Phagocytosis I Contractile vacuole 7 pump excess water out of a cell I Central vacuole 7 found only in plant cells 0 Storage cell in seeds repository of inorganic ions disposal site pigmentation that colors the cell contain poisonous compounds and enlarge when absorb with water 0 65 7 Mitochondria and Chloroplasts change energy from one form to another 0 Mitochondria 7 site of cellular respiration that generates ATP by extracting energy from sugars fats and other fuels with the help of oxygen I 2 membranes 7 each a phopholipid bilayer 0 Inner membrane is convoluted with infoldings called crisae 0 Has large surface area enhancing the production of cellular respiration I Mitochondrial matrix 7 contains many different enzymes mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes I Enzymes 0 Cellular respiration 0 Make ATP I Made by free ribosomes and ribosomes inside themselves as well I Move around in the cell change shape and fuse or divide o Chloroplasts 7 found in plants and algae the site of photosynthesis I 3 membranes I Thylakoids 7 membranous system in the form of attened and interconnected sacs o Granum 7 what each stack of thylakoids are called I Stroma 7 uid outside the thylakoids I Contain small amount of DNA I Made by free ribosomes and ribosomes inside themselves as well I Green pigment o Peroxisomes 7 contain enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substances to oxygen 02 producing hydrogen peroxide H202 and hydrogen peroxide to water I Functions 0 Use oxygen to break down fatty acids into smaller molecules 0 Detoxify harmful compounds by transferring hydrogen from the poisons to oxygen I Enzymes that produce and dispose of H202 are sequestered o Glyoxysomes 7 specialized peroxisomes found in fat storing tissues of plant seeds 0 Similarities of mitochondria and chloroplasts I Make energy for the cell Greg Kearby pg 9 I Have more than one membrane I Move around the cell and change shape I Contain DNA and can replicatefuse o 66 7 Cytoskeleton 7 network of bers extending throughout the cytoplasm o Roles of the cytoskeleton I Mechanical support to the cell and maintain its shape especially important in animal cells 0 Need to nish Chapter 6 review Chapter 7 7 Life at the Edge 0 Phospholipids are the most abundant lipid in the plasma membrane exhibits selective permeability Proteins can drift within the bilayer Reduce body temperature membrane has a tendency to become more viscous gel 0 To x this 9 more unsaturated phospholipids more cholesterol Increase body temperature membranes become more uid 6 major functions of membrane proteins 0 Transport I Passive transport 7 diffusion across a membrane with no energy used I Facilitation diffusion 7 no energy required Facilitated by a transport protein integral protein to speed the movement across a membrane 0 Channel proteins 7 hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or atomic ions use as a tunnel through the membrane 0 Aquaporins 7 channel protein that allows the passage of water through a membrane 3 billion per second 0 Carrier proteins 7 changes its shape to move the molecules across 0 Enzymatic activity 0 Signal transduction o Cellcell recognition 0 Intercellular joining 0 Attachment to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix ECM o Tonicity 7 ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water 0 Isotonic 7 no net movement of water across a plasma membrane 0 Hypertonic 7 more nonpenetrating solutes 9 loses water 0 Hypotonic 7 less 9 water will enter the cell faster than it leaves cell swells and bursts o Osmoregulation 7 control of water balance in cells without rigid outer cell walls 0 Bulk transport 0 Exocytosis 7 transport vesicles migrate to the plasma membrane fuse with it and releases its contents 0 Endocytosis 7 brings stuff in I Phagocytosis 7 cell eating I Pinocytosis 7 cell drinking Exam 1 Taken


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