[M] Historical Development of Psychology
[M] Historical Development of Psychology Psych 401
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lazaro Feest on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 401 at Washington State University taught by Lisa Fournier in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see /class/206006/psych-401-washington-state-university in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Applied Psych Or What people did With psychology degrees besides teach and theorize Applied Psychology Applied practical and usable psych Apply psychology to situations outside the labs spurred by growth in American Pysch 0 Many new Ph Us 0 Many new Labs 0 Less opportunity for newcomers Spurred by Economic pressure 0 University and Public school enrollments growing quickly 0 3A of all psychologist working in education already 0 Gov t wanted more ef cient use of resources G Stanley Hall 18441924 American student of Wundt First psych lab in US Founder of APA Mentor to many of the American Psychologists 39 Wanted to apply Psych to Education Gave many addresses to NBA 39 In uenced the development of psychology without contributing theoretically James Cattell 18601944 39 o A practical test oriented and somewhat hands on study of mental processes American studied under Hall Wundt then Galton o Quantification 0 Even though he couldn t do math well taught rst stats course for analyzing results Bolstered scienti c cred o Promoted psych as a business 0 Not economically successful initially James Cattell 39 Mental testing Wanted to find correlation between tests and academic achievement 0 Primarily sensory two point skin sensitivity threshold movement rate JND in weight etc 0 Not the intelligence of Cognitive tasks of later on Not successful in predicting achievement 0 Led to further testing of mental function Greatest contribution to psych 0 Mental tests to predict attributes o Ledto The Psych Testing Movement l 0 Alfred Binet 18571911 French wealthy and Innovative Didn t believe Cattell s approach sensorimotor measure would work 0 Wanted to measure attention memory comprehension etc to assess intelligence 0 His kids did as well as he did on sensorimotor tasks but not as well on cognitive ability tasks Alfred Binet 39 French gov t wanted to study the learning ability of children having difficulty in school Constructed an intelligence test consisting of 30 problems focusing on judgment comprehension and reasoning o Introduced mental age 0 Age at which children of average ability could perform a given task 0 Later Intelligence Quotient created 0 Ratio between mental age and chronological age WWI 39 Harvard Group wanted to help war effort without Titchner s help he disliked applying psych to practical problems Army needed a quick easy and convenient measure of intelligence 0 Army Alpha and Beta 0 Alpha for literate Beta for illiterate Enhanced Psych s stature as a science Led to increased public acceptance 0 IQ soon became important criterion for placement Mental Testing Unfortunately many mistakes were made 39 Race and Intelligence testing 0 Only northern European immigrants scored well 0 Used to restrict immigration of those assumed to be inferior in intelligence 0 Should low IQ people be allowed to vote Horace Bond 19041972 0 Northern Blacks scored higher than Southern Whites Sir Francis Galton o Eugenics Measuring intelligence 0 Thomas Edison Edison s Mental Test 150 questions long 39 What is a cast iron pig 39 What place is the greatest distance below sea level 39 Who wrote the song home sweet home 39 Who was Pizarro What city leads the US in making laundry machines 39 Only 30 out of 500 scored in the top two grade levels I scored a 53 and do not qualify to work with his great genius Women and the Testing movement Many women worked in the applied area Positions in Academia were not given to women Not as well paid or respected o Academics viewed applied psych as inferior so women were accepted 0 Women made up 13 to 12 of psychologists 39 Contributed to the development of new tests e g non verbal intelligence tests Did much of the work received little of the credit Couldn t publish under their name had to put rst initial so that people would buy the book Clinical Psychology 0 Lightner Witmer 18671956 Student of Wundt and Cattell Opened rst Clinic Wanted to apply psych to abnormal behavior 0 Chance came when a boy could not read very well 0 Witmer thought psych should be able to help people 0 Spurred him to try to treat children with various problems 0 Led to opening of many clinics try to help a variety of people 39 T Industrial Organizational Psych I 0 Walter Scott 18691955 Another of Wundt s students 0 First to apply Psych to personnel selection advertising and management 0 Tests tried to measure intelligence and how it was used 0 Worked with the army to choose how people were selected won a medal Advertising 0 Thought consumers were not rational 0 Give direct commands 0 Buy this Soapll Employee selection 0 Devised rating scales to measure those already successful in a given eld 0 Compared applicants to those already successful IO 0 Hawthorne Studies Started as a study of how temp and light levels effect work efficiency 0 Found that social and psych were just as or more important than physical conditions in productivity 0 Being observed singled out working hours group pressure etc IO 0 Hugo Munsterberg 18631916 Another of Wundt s students People need to t the organization not the other way around 0 Do this with proper psych testing 0 New equipment could be designed to be more easily used by workers Managers need to be concerned with questions like fatigue monotony interest learning work satisfaction and rewards o Consulted for a price with many major companies for a variety of reasons money 0 Alcohol Forensic Psych 0 He didn t believe eyewitness testimony was accurate 0 Experiments minutes after a scene partic s couldn t get the facts correct I Applied Psych 0 Why do we talk about it in this class Very important to the development of psych 0 Is applied psych still popular today I Yes This is one of the best funded and most lucrative elds in psych for psychologists
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