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Introduction to Personality

by: Lazaro Feest

Introduction to Personality Psych 321

Marketplace > Washington State University > Psychlogy > Psych 321 > Introduction to Personality
Lazaro Feest
GPA 3.63

Lloyd Smith

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Lloyd Smith
Class Notes
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lazaro Feest on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 321 at Washington State University taught by Lloyd Smith in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 387 views. For similar materials see /class/206008/psych-321-washington-state-university in Psychlogy at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 09/17/15
Which approach has probably generated the least empirical research in psychology a trait 1 b biological c behavioralsocial learning V d humanistic feed back Correct See page 322 According to the rules of disclosure reciprocity persons Who disclose personal information in get acquainted conversations tend to a talk to themselves spontaneously 2 V b match each other39s level of intimacy c talk about others more than themselves d make judgments about the other person39s selfesteem feed back Correct See page 324 If you had to say you learned something about conversations in this chapter which of the following would it be a Familiar terms are not used very often among good friends 3 N b Noticeable signs of intimacy are lacking in conversations with strangers There is more confusion over when to speak in conversations with good friends than in c conversations with strangers There is little difference between the amount of selfdisclosure with friends and with d strangers feed back Correct See page 326 Research has shown that men and women are more likely to be accepted When they disclose according to appropriate gender roles in society For men this means a never revealing anything about one39s self 4 V b withholding information for the most part c none of these choices d disclosing information that is misleading or simply false feedback Correct See page 327 There are many more lonely people than we tend to think Some psychologists believe that people39s feelings of loneliness reflect a deeper concern about existential questions of a the existence of a supreme being 5 b alienation V c both alienation and the search for meaning in one39s life d the search for meaning in one39s life status correct 10 correct 0 your answer C feed back Correct See page 332 Correlational research conducted on lonely people has revealed that these individuals V a tend to have difficulty making newfriends 6 b all of these choices c tend to have difficulty adjusting to new experiences d feel comfortable only when others open up to them feed back Correct See page 335 Although low selfesteem people have good or bad feelings about themselves compared to others they V a lack a basic confidence in themselves b always appreciate Who they are c rarely focus on negative feedback from others d prefer solitude feed back Correct See page 339 Personality researchers have found that people with low selfesteem have a typical reaction to failure They often react by a making negative assessments of others 8 V b losing their motivation c blaming others for their faults d seeking psychotherapy feed back Correct See page 340 Suppose you have a stressful appointment for which you have not fully prepared because you want to please the people with whom you will meet Your selfdoubt comes from your constant behavior to always put your selfworth on the line Personality psychologists would call this personality a passiveaggressive b depressed V c low selfesteem stability d low need for Achievement feed back Correct See page 343 One method researchers use in order to measure selfesteem stability is a asking people to highly selfdisclose 10 V b asking people to regularly report their feelings of selfworth c looking at how people respond to positive and negative feedback d all of these choices feed back Correct See page 352 The behavioral approach to personality postulates that personality is a the result of inherited predispositions to behave in certain ways V b the consistent patterns of behavior we engage in c the 39 39 of 39 39 and 39 impulses d a function of howwe feel about conditions in the environment feed back Correct See page 358 Which of the following is the term in the scientific community that refers to the process Pavlov used in his famous demonstrations of learning a operant conditioning 2 b behaviorism c instrumental conditioning V d classical conditioning feedback Correct See page 363 From his observations of cats escaping from a quotpuzzle boxquot to obtain a piece of fish Thorndike developed a theory that is known as a the law of consequences 3 b the law of operant conditioning c the law of association V d the law of effect feedback Correct See page 364 A tennis coach works with players to improve the accuracy of their backhand stroke with successive attempts to produce more hits on target each week of the season The coach is using a form 0 conditioning known as a discrimination b punishment c stimulus generalization V d shaping feed back Correct See page 367 According to Rotter all of the following are psychological variables that must be considered to account for behavior except one Which one V a personality disorders 5 b estimations of likelihoods c beliefs d perceptions feedback Correct See page 368 6 Bandura argued there are internal determinants as well as external causes of behavior Which of the following is not an internal influence a expectancies V b experiences c beliefs d thoughts feed back Correct See page 372 The conditioned stimulus CS and unconditioned stimulus UCS in Watson and Rayner39s experiment with a baby known as Little Albert were respectively39 a a white rat and a slap on the wrist 7 V b a white rat and a loud noise c a loud noise and crying d fear responses and a loud noise feed back Correct See page 376 Which of the following treatments for problem behaviors would be an application of operant conditioning V a biofeedback b systematic desensitization c aversion therapy d all of these choices feed back Correct See page 380 According to selfefficacy theory the extent of people39s beliefs that they can bring about outcomes is referred to as a outcome expectation 9 b performance accomplishments V c efficacy expectation d reinforcement value feed back Correct See page 380 The selfmonitoring method may have problems due to the fact that V a the client may be dishonest about their behavior 10 b it cannot be used to assess the progress of treatment c the client is not a trained psychotherapist d it may be contaminated by selfreport measures feed back Correct See page 384 The life instinct to which Freud attributed most of our behaviors is called a a neurotic impulse b thelibido c the structural model d the id feed back Correct See page 47 Which of the following is true about hypnosis V a Freud grew disillusioned by hypnosis as a treatment and turned to free association 2 b Hypnosis is not a real phenomenon because hypnotized people are faking it c After using hypnosis for a time Freud began using it exclusively d Freud always made hypnosis a large part of therapy feedback Correct See page 42 The id ego and superego are three parts of the model of personality a iceberg 3 b libido V c structural d topographic feedback Correct See page 45 Freud used which principle to characterize the actions of the ego a ethical principle 4 b morality principle V c reality principle d pleasure principle feedback Correct See page 46 If you see your own unwanted thoughts and undesirable impulses in other people then you are using the defense mechanism called a displacement b reaction formation c intellectualization V d projection feed back Correct See page 50 Repression is an effort by the ego to push out threatening material from awareness a organic 6 b occasional c irrational V d active feedback Correct See page 48 Which of the following is the best way to think of fixation a all of these choices ln development it occurs when children leave behind some psychic energy tied up in 7 V b resolving a crisis It occurs when we use defense mechanisms to deal with unconscious sexual and aggressive c impulses d In our development the rewards in the environment take control of our behaviors feedback Correcty answered See page 52 In Freud39s view of castration anxiety what would be a healthy result for males a repression of sexual desires for opposite sex people 8 b a powerful superego V c identification with the samesex parent d strong moral anxiety feed back Correct See page 54 The use of requires an individual to respond to ambiguous stimuli a dream analysis 9 b hypnosis c free association V d projective tests feedback Correct See page 56 Sandy is given a set of cards by her therapist on which ambiguous pictures of people are displayed To understand and treat her psychological problems Sandy39s therapist is using the a Rorschach inkblot test 10 b Human Figure Drawing Test c free association test V d Thematic Apperception Test feedback Correct See page 62 If your friend the therapist agrees with Freud the person would say that the content of our dreams reveals V a unconscious conflicts and desires b anxieties we were born with c much useless information d unacceptable ideas that are really acceptable feedback Correct See page 73 When people have dreams about falling or being chased that they have dreamed before we call these dreams a paradoxical 2 V b recurrent c conscious d sleep apnea feedback Correct See page 76 Suppose you had to go all night without sleep in order to study for a final exam If you suffer fro you will receive more REM sleep the next night a the paradox of sleep 3 b recurrent dream phenomenon l c the rebound effect d extreme relaxation associated with having the final exam finished feedback Correct See page 77 According to recent research findings REM sleep appears to be necessary to a all of these choices 4 b maintain one39s mental health V c prepare us for dealing with anxietyarousing events d guard against serious psychological disturbances feedback Correct See page 78 Each person relies more on some defense mechanisms and less on others when the ego is threatened Psychologists refer to this contrast as differences in V a defensive style 5 b preferred id impulses c ego strength d mental health feedback Correct See page 82 Which of the following defense mechanisms is said to protect the individual by attributing unacceptable thoughts to someone else 6 a sublimation V b projection c denial d reaction formation feedback Correct See page 81 Which of the following is false about sexual jokes a Freud suggested we laugh at sexual jokes to reduce tension 7 V b Most sexually oriented jokes contain a great deal of humor c Freud argued that the humor content of a sexual joke rarely justifies the laughter d Jokes are often tolerated when open discussions of sex are inappropriate feedback Correct See page 84 From Freud39s view of tension reduction one can conclude that a joke will be funnier when a tension increases rapidly 8 b less tension is experienced before the punch line V c more tension is experienced before the punch line d it is sexual than when it is hostile feedback Correct See page 87 The viewthat deeply hypnotized people experience a division of their consciousness is known V a neodissociation theory b sociocognitive theory c trance theory d neonatal theory feedback Correct Yes this is the correct name See page 91 In which of the following circumstances are people more responsive to hypnosis a When the participant has not been responsive to hypnosis in the past 10 V b When the cooperation and trust of the participant is established Both when the situation is not defined as hypnosis and when the participant has not c been responsive to hypnosis in the past d When the situation is not defined as hypnosis feedback Correct See page 94 Which of the following is not a key limitation to Freud39s theory a The idea that the adult personality is formed by the time a child is five or six V b The idea that the ego defends against anxiety c Freud39s concentration on the negative parts of personality d Freud39s emphasis on instinctual influences on personality feedback Correct See page 100 2 Who was the first neoFreudian theorist to break with Freud a Carl Jung b Karen Horney s c Alfred Adler d Erik Erikson feedback Correct See page 101 Which of the following is made up of primordial images archetypes according to Jung a superego 3 b the id V c collective unconscious d adult personality feedback Correct See page 106 Evidence for the collective unconscious given by Carl Jung included a data from laboratory experiments and case studies 4 b interpretation of Freud39s central writings V c folklore art mythology and psychosis d an indepth examination of the concept of ego feedback Correct See page 107 Erikson proposed eight stages of personality development through the life span many more than Freud proposed In terms of stages Freud39s anal stage of development takes place roughly the same time of life as which of Erikson39s stages V a autonomy vs shame and doubt b industry vs inferiority c initiative vs guilt d trust vs mistrust feedback Correct See page 112 According to Erikson39s theory a person in middle adulthood is most likely to be dealing with which of the following issues V a Whether or not to take an active role in the lives of young people 6 b Whether or not to commit to a romantic relationship c Whether or not to feel satisfaction with choices made in life d Whether or not to feel guilty about facing challenges feedback Correct See page 114 Karen Horney made several important early contributions to understanding personality One significant idea was her view that neurotics are a insecure about their relationships 7 b no less adjusted to the challenges of life than normal people V c trapped in a selfdefeating way of interacting with others d people who suffer from quotwomb envyquot feedback Correct See page 118 Freud introduced the idea of quotpenis envyquot to explain the personality development of young girls By introducing the concept of quotwomb envyquot Karen Horney was suggesting that V a each gender has attributes that the other admires 8 b men are conflicted as children over wanting a womb like mother has c women are ultimately superior to men because they can bear children d men are as dissatisfied with themselves as women feedback Correct See page 120 The neoFreudian theorist who stimulated the most discussion about religion was V a Carl Jung 9 b Karen Horney c Alfred Adler d Erich Fromm feedback Correct See page 121 Researchers turn life stories into data by Which of the following methods a Judging pictures of significant life events 10 b All of these choices c Computing scores on an inventory V d Judging transcripts of interview recordings feedback Correct See page 123 For people who are depressed a psychologist following the behavioralsocial learning approach to personality would probably examine V a the environment surrounding the depressed person 6 O b the best predictors of emotional level 0 c the genetic susceptibility to depression 0 d what depressed persons say about themselves feedback Correct See page 10 Although Sally is well behaved and polite at home she can be really mean to the other children at school Psychologists who adhere to the trait approach to personality would say Sally39s behavior I a can be identified along a continuum of personality characteristics 2 O b is a reaction to changing feelings of selfacceptance O c is the result of unconscious mental activity 0 d results from conditioning and expectations feedback Correct See page 5 A personality psychologist who focuses on the stable patterns of aggressive behavior in schoolchildren that may be related to genetic predispositions follows the a humanistic approach 3 O b psychoanalytic approach i c biological approach 0 d behavioralsocial learning approach feedback Correct See page 7 Which of the following approaches has focused on the way people learn from watching role models a behavioralsocial learning approach 4 O b psychoanalytic approach 0 c humanistic approach 0 d biological approach feedback Correct See page 7 Which of the following approaches to personality explains depression by how situations are perceived and interpreted O a behavioralsocial learning approach 5 O b trait approach 0 c psychoanalytic approach d cognitive approach feedback Correct See page 10 If you meet someone new at a party that cannot understand what you mean by quotselfesteemquot it is likely your new friend comes from O a a large family 7 b a collectivist culture 0 c a nonindustrial culture 0 d an individualistic culture feedback Correct See page 11 Which of the four components necessary for the study of personality is characterized by inventories direct observations and tests a theory 8 V b assessment c research 0 d application feedback Correct See page 12 9 Of the following approaches which ignores inherited genetic influences the most a trait O b biological O c psychoanalytic V d cognitive feedback Correct See page 13 Consider the issue in psychology of free will versus determinism as discussed in your textbook Which approach to personality represents an extreme position on this issue a humanistic approach 10 O b psychoanalytic approach 0 c cognitive approach 0 d trait approach feedback Correct See page 14 Personality researchers take steps to discover the nature of personality in which order a speculate collect data generate hypotheses O b collect data evaluate data speculate O c generate hypotheses evaluate data speculate V d generate hypotheses collect data evaluate data feedback Correct See page 20 A good theory is parsimonious meaning that it is characteristically feedback Correct See page 20 You are studying the immediate effects of alcohol on people39s feelings of wellbeing Which of the following could be the dependent variable in this study Either amount of alcohol consumed within one hour prior to test or level of alcohol in the 3 O a blood I b Score on a measure of wellbeing O c Amount of alcohol consumed within one hour prior to test 0 d Level of alcohol in the blood feedback Correct See page 23 Some researcher try to understand personality with indepth evaluations of individuals or groups of people This approach is better known as O a the correlation coefficient 4 b the experimental approach 0 c the hypothesistesting method d the case study method feedback Correct See page 27 If the difference in a measured behavior is so small between experimental groups that it could be caused by a chance fluctuation then we say V a the result failed to reach statistical significance 5 O b the result was reliable between groups 0 c the result reached statistical significance 0 d the result established a causeandeffect relationship feedback Correct See page 31 6Which of the following describes the relationship between your credit card balance each month and the amount of interest you are paying not interest rate 0 a a weak negative correlation V b a strong positive correlation O c no correlation d a perfect negative correlation feedback Correct See page 32 Which of the following is the correlation coefficient indicating the strongest relationship a 089 7 O b 062 O c 000 Q d 005 feedback Correct See page 32 Which of the following is a problem of test validity 1 a When test responses do not reflect the hypothetical constructs being measured 8 O b When similar test responses cannot be obtained in a second testing 0 c When test responses are dependent on recent events 0 d When test questions are vague feedback Correct See page 36 Jessica is conducting a study of the personality of eighthgraders with high achievement motivation She discovers from statistical analysis that her test39s items are measuring more than one concept You might tell Jessica that she has a problem with 90 a reliability 0 b statistical significance 0 c predictive validity V d internal consistency feedback Correct See page 35 When scores from a test correlate with other measures of the same construct researchers can determine the test39s a congruent validity 10 O b construct validity O c discriminant validity 0 d face validity feedback Correct See page 37


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